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					   Feb 2005                                                doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks
(WPANs)
Submission Title: [Merged UWB proposal for IEEE 802.15.4a Alt-PHY]
Date Submitted: [22 Feb 2005]
Source: [Francois Chin, et.al.]
Company: [Institute for Infocomm Research, Singapore]
Address: [21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace, Singapore 119613]
Voice: [65-68745687] FAX: [65-67744990]     E-Mail: [chinfrancois@i2r.a-star.edu.sg]

Re: [Response to the call for proposal of IEEE 802.15.4a, Doc Number: 15-04-0380-02-004a ]
Abstract: [Merged Proposal to IEEE 802.15.4a Task Group]
Purpose: [For presentation and consideration by the IEEE802.15.4a committee]
Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis for
discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this
document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s)
the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein.
Release: The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of
IEEE and may be made publicly available by P802.15.



   Submission                                    Slide 1                         Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                           doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

       This contribution is a technical merger between*:
   Institute for Infocomm Research [05/032]
   General Atomics [05/016]
   Thales & Cellonics [05/008]
   KERI & SSU & KWU [05/033]
   Create-Net & China UWB Forum [05/019]
   Staccato Communications [04/0704]
   Wisair [05/09]
   Tennessee Technological University [05/03]




      * For a complete list of authors, please see page 3.
Submission                               Slide 2                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                     doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

                              Authors
   Institute for Infocomm Research:
                       Francois Chin, Xiaoming Peng, Sam Kwok, Zhongding
                       Lei, Kannan, Yong-Huat Chew, Chin-Choy Chai, Rahim,
                       Manjeet, T.T. Tjhung, Hongyi Fu, Tung-Chong Wong
   General Atomics:
                       Naiel Askar, Susan Lin
   Thales & Cellonics:
                       Serge Hethuin, Isabelle Bucaille, Arnaud Tonnerre,
                       Fabrice Legrand, Joe Jurianto
   KERI & SSU & KWU:
                       Kwan-Ho Kim, Sungsoo Choi, Youngjin Park, Hui-
                       Myoung Oh, Yoan Shin, Won cheol Lee, and Ho-In Jeon
   Create-Net & China UWB Forum:
                       Zheng Zhou, Frank Zheng, Honggang Zhang, Xiaofei
                       Zhou, Iacopo Carreras, Sandro Pera, Imrich Chlamtac
   Staccato Communications:
                       Roberto Aiello, Torbjorn Larsson
   Wisair:
                       Gadi Shor, Sorin Goldenberg
   Tennessee Technological University:
                       Robert Qiu, Nan Guo
Submission                         Slide 3                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a




         Multiband Ternary Orthogonal Keying
                       (M-TOK)
        for IEEE 802.15.4a UWB based Alt-PHY




Submission              Slide 4                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                   doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



                            Goals
 •   Good use of UWB unlicensed spectrum
 •   Good system design
 •   Path to low complexity CMOS design
 •   Path to low power consumption
 •   Scalable to future standards
 •   Graceful co-existence with other services
 •   Graceful co-existence with other UWB systems
 •   Support different classes of nodes, with different reliability
     requirements (and $), with single common transmit
     signaling


Submission                       Slide 5                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                               doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



                 Main Features
 Proposal main features:
 • Impulse-radio based (pulse-shape independent)
 • Common preamble signaling for different classes of
   nodes / type of receivers (coherent / differential /
   noncoherent)
 •   Band Plan based on multiple 500 MHz bands
 •   Robustness against SOP interference
 •   Robustness against other in-band interference
 •   Scalability to trade-off complexity/performance


Submission                   Slide 6                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                            doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

              Proposed System Parameters
  Chip rate                          24 Mcps
  # Pulse / Chip Period              1
  Pulse Rep. Freq.                   24 MHz
  # Chip / symbol (Code length)      32
  Symbol Rate                        24/32 MHz = 0.75 MSps
  info. bit / sym (Mandatory Mode)   4 bit / symbol
  Mandatory bit rate                 4 bit/sym x 0.75 MSps = 3 Mbps
  #Code Sequences/ piconet           16 (4 bit/symbol)
                                     Code position modulation (CPM)
  Lower bit rate scalability         Symbol Repetition
  Modulation                         {+1,-1} bipolar and {+1,-1, 0} ternary pulse train
  Total # simultaneous piconets      6 per FDM band
  supported
  Multple access for piconets        Fixed sequence & FDM band for each piconet




Submission                                Slide 7                     Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                               doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a


              System Description
• Each piconet uses one set of code sequences
  for different classes of nodes / type of receivers
  (coherent / differential / non-coherent receivers)
• 16 Orthogonal Sequences of code length 32 to
  represent a 4-bit symbol
• PRF (chip rate): 24 MHz
     – Low enough to avoid significant interchip interference
       (ICI) with all 802.15.4a multipath models
     – High enough to ensure low pulse peak power
• FEC: optional (or low complexity type)
Submission                   Slide 8                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                      doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



                             Band Plan
     BAND_ID   Lower frequency        Center frequency         Upper frequency


        1        3168 MHz                  3432 MHz              3696 MHz
        2        3696 MHz                  3960 MHz              4224 MHz
        3        4224 MHz                  4488 MHz              4752 MHz
        4        4752 MHz                  5016 MHz              5280 MHz
        5        5280 MHz                  5544 MHz              5808 MHz
        6        5808 MHz                  6072 MHz              6336 MHz
        7        6336 MHz                  6600 MHz              6864 MHz
        8        6864 MHz                  7128 MHz              7392 MHz
        9        7392 MHz                  7656 MHz              7920 MHz
        10       7920 MHz                  8184 MHz              8448 MHz
        11       8448 MHz                  8712 MHz              8976 MHz
        12       8976 MHz                  9240 MHz              9504 MHz
        13       9504 MHz                  9768 MHz              10032 MHz
        14       10032 MHz                 10296 MHz             10560 MHz



Submission                       Slide 9                      Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
 Feb 2005                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



               Multiple access

Multiple access within piconet: TDMA+CSMA/CA
 same as 15.4

Multiple access across piconets: CDM + FDM
 Different Piconet uses different Base Sequence &
 different 500 MHz band




 Submission            Slide 10                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a


     Types of Receivers Supported
• Coherent Detection: The phase of the received
  carrier waveform is known, and utilized for
  demodulation
• Differential Chip Detection: The carrier phase of
  the previous signaling interval is used as phase
  reference for demodulation
• Non-coherent Detection: The carrier phase
  information (e.g.pulse polarity) is unknown at
  the receiver


Submission             Slide 11                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                   doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

        Criteria of Code Sequence Design
1. The sequence Set should have orthogonal (or near orthogonal)
   cross correlation properties to minimise symbol decision error for
   all the below receivers
   a. For coherent receiver
   b. For differential chip receiver
   c. For non-coherent symbol detection receiver
   d. Energy detection receiver
2. Each sequence should have good auto-correlation properties




Submission                      Slide 12                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
 Feb 2005                                   doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

         Criteria of Code Sequence Design
2. To minimise impact of DC noise effect on energy collector based
   non-coherent receiver
• For OOK signaling, the transmitter transmits {+1,-1,0} ternary
   sequences
• Conventional receive unipolar code sequence – follows transmit
   sequence
   • After the energy capture in the receiver, the noise has positive
       DC components in each chip; error occurs in thresholding,
       especially at lower SNR
   • This will accumulate noise unevenly in symbol decision
• An ideal receive despreading chip sequence should then have
   bipolar chip values, preferrably with equal number of ‘+1 and ‘-1’
   chips
   • This, to certain extent, will nullify DC noise energy in symbol
       decision
   • This, will also nullify energy components from other interfering
       piconets
 Submission                      Slide 13                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
 Feb 2005                                   doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

 Base Sequence Set

   Seq 1      0+--000+-0+++0+0-0000+00-0-+00--
   Seq 2      0-0+--000+0+0+-0+0000+-00+00+---
   Seq 3      0-+0++---0+000-00-0+0++0000-+-00
   Seq 4      00+0+--0--000-+-++00++0-00+0000-
   Seq 5      0+-+-00-00++0000+0--0-0+000--+0+
   Seq 6      000-+-0000++0+0-00-000+0---++0+-

• 31-chip Ternary Sequence set are chosen
• Only one sequence and one fixed band (no hopping) will be used
  by all devices in a piconet
• Logical channels for support of multiple piconets
    •6 sequences = 6 logical channels (e.g. overlapping piconets) for
    each FDM Band
• The same base sequence will be used to construct the symbol-to-
  chip mapping table
 Submission                      Slide 14                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
  Feb 2005                                                 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a
                Symbol-to-Chip Mapping:
       Gray coded 16-ary Ternary Orthogonal Keying
Symbol         Cyclic shift                                32-Chip value
               to right by n   To obtain 32-chip per symbol, cyclic shift the Base
               chips, n=         Sequence first, then append a ‘0’-chip in front
0000           0               0+--000+-0+++0+0-0000+00-0-+00--
0001           2               0--+--000+-0+++0+0-0000+00-0-+00
0011           4               000--+--000+-0+++0+0-0000+00-0-+
0010           6               0-+00--+--000+-0+++0+0-0000+00-0
0110           8               0–0-+00--+--000+-0+++0+0-0000+00
0111           10              000–0-+00--+--000+-0+++0+0-0000+
0101           12              00+00–0-+00--+--000+-0+++0+0-000
0100           14              0000+00–0-+00--+--000+-0+++0+0–0
1100           15              00000+00–0-+00--+--000+-0+++0+0–
1101           17              00–0000+00–0-+00--+--000+-0+++0+
1111           19              00+0–0000+00–0-+00--+--000+-0+++
1110           21              0++0+0–0000+00–0-+00--+--000+-0+
1010           23              00+++0+0–0000+00–0-+00--+--000+-
1011           25              0+-0+++0+0–0000+00–0-+00--+--000
1001           27              000+-0+++0+0–0000+00–0-+00--+--0
1000           29              0-000+-0+++0+0–0000+00–0-+00--+-
  Submission                                    Slide 15                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                   doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

             Good Properties of the Mapping
                      Sequence
1. Cyclic nature, leads to simple implementation
2. Zero DC for each sequence
3. No need for carrier phase tracking (i.e. coherent receiver)




Submission                      Slide 16                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                       doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

Synchronisation Preamble
                 Correlator output for synchronisation




• Code sequences has good autocorrelation properties
• Preamble is constructed by repeating ‘0000’ symbols
• Long preamble is constructed by further symbol repetition


Submission                          Slide 17                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                                doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a


                          Frame Format

                          Octets:         2         1         0/4/8          n                   2

                          MAC            Frame                             Data
                                               Seq. # Address              Payload            CRC
                          Sublayer       Cont.
                                                    MHR                   MSDU               MFR


     Octets:      4?       1         1                  Data: 32 (n=23)   For ACK: 5 (n=0)

     PHY       Preamble   SFD Frame                              MPDU
     Layer                    Length
                    SHR         PHR                              PSDU


                                               PPDU



Submission                               Slide 18                           Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                      doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



                  Transmission Mode
 Mo       Data     Bit /   Sym.     TX                  Receiver type
 de       Rate    symbo    Rep.    Sign-
         (Mbps)     l              aling

 1a      3        4        1      Ternary - Short Preamble for all receivers
                                          - High Data Rate Mode (for
                                          Energy Collection receivers)
 1b      0.75     4        4      Ternary - Long Preamble for all receivers
                                          - Low Data Rate Mode (for Energy
                                          Collection receivers)
 2a      3        4        1      Binary      - High Data Rate Mode (for
                                              Coherent / Differential Chip
                                              Receiver)
 2b      0.75     4        4      Binary      - Low Data Rate Mode (for
                                              Coherent / Differential Chip
                                              Receiver)
Submission                         Slide 19                    Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                      doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

          Modulation & Coding (Mode 1)
 Binary
  data       Bit-to-   Symbol-         Symbol          Pulse
 From        Symbol    to-Chip        Repetition      Generator
 PPDU
                         {0,1,-1} Ternary
                         Sequence
 Bit to symbol mapping:
   group every 4 bits into a symbol
 Symbol-to-chip mapping:
   Each 4-bit symbol is mapped to one of 16 32-chip
   sequence, according to 16-ary Ternary Orthogonal
   Keying
 Symbol Repetition:
   for data rate and range scalability
 Pulse Genarator:
 • Transmit Ternary pulses at PRF = 24MHz

Submission                         Slide 20                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                      doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

          Modulation & Coding (Mode 2)
 Binary
  data       Bit-to-   Symbol-         Symbol         Ternary-             Pulse
 From        Symbol    to-Chip        Repetition       Binary             Generator
 PPDU
                         {0,1,-1} Ternary                 {1,-1} Binary
                         Sequence                         Sequence

 Bit to symbol mapping:
    group every 4 bits into a symbol
 Symbol-to-chip mapping:
    Each 4-bit symbol is mapped to one of 16 32-chip sequence,
    according to 16-ary Ternary Orthogonal Keying
 Symbol Repetition:
    for data rate and range scalability
 Ternary to Binary conversion:
     (-1/+1 → 1,0 → -1)
 Pulse Genarator:
 • Transmit bipolar pulses at PRF = 24MHz


Submission                         Slide 21                      Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

      Auto Correlation Properties for Non-
      Coherent Symbol Detection Receiver




Submission            Slide 22                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                        doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

      Cross Correlation Properties for Non-
      Coherent Symbol Detection Receiver


   TxSeqSet * RxSeqSet' (Mode 1) =              TxSeqSet * RxSeqSet' (Mode 2) =




Submission                           Slide 23                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                                                 doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



   Differential Multipath Combining

              *
                           
 Re x1,n 1  x1,n  Re x2,n 1  x2,n  Re x3,n 1  x3,n
                                   *
                                                     *
                                                                     



            x 2,n                              x
   x 1, n                                x1,n 1 2,n 1
                    x 3,n                                 x 3,n 1




Submission                                            Slide 24                           Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                        doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

 Auto Correlation Properties for Differential
         Chip Detection Receiver




Submission           Slide 25                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
    Feb 2005                                         doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

              Cross Correlation Properties for
            Differential Chip Detection Receiver

      DifferentialChip(TxSeqSet) *                        DifferentialChip(TxSeqSet) *
DifferentialChip(RxSeqSet)’ (Mode 1) =              DifferentialChip(RxSeqSet)’ (Mode 2) =




    Submission                           Slide 26                    Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                             doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

      Non-Coherent Receiver Architectures
                  (Mode 1)
             BPF   ( )2      LPF /          ADC           Soft
                           integrator                   Despread

                                     Sample Rate 1/Tc


 • Energy detection technique rather than
   coherent receiver, for low cost, low
   complexity
 • Soft chip values gives best results
 • Oversampling & sequence correlation is used
   to recovery chip timing recovery
 • Synchronization fully re-acquired for each
   new packet received (=> no very accurate
   timebase needed)
Submission                Slide 27                      Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a


      Auto Correlation Properties for Energy
          Detection Receiver (Mode 1)




Submission             Slide 28                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                             doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a


     Cross Correlation Properties for Energy
          Detection Receiver (Mode 1)


                  TxSeqSet * RxSeqSet ' =




Submission                Slide 29                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                       doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

             AWGN Performance




Submission          Slide 30                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                      doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

                      AWGN Performance
AWGN performance @ 1% PER

             @ 3 Mbps    Non-coherent     Differential     Energy
                         symbol           chip detection   detection
                         detection
             Mode 1      8.5 dB           13 dB            13.5 dB
             Mode 2      7.5 dB           11.5 dB          -




Submission                         Slide 31                    Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                                       doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

              Basic Data Rate Throughput
                   (Low Rate Modes)
                    Data Frame (38 bytes)                          ACK



                                                       t ACK                 LIFS

                                            Tframe
                             (Time Slot for Multiple Piconet)


    • Useful data rate calculation for 32 byte PSDU (Xo = 0.75 Mbps)
    • Symbol Period = 1.33us
         – Data frame time : 38 x 8 / 0.75= 405.3 µsec
         – ACK frame time : 11 x 8 / 0.75 = 117.3 µsec
         – tACK (considering 15.4 spec) : 192 µsec
         – LIFS (considering 15.4 spec) : 640 µsec
         – Tframe = 1355 µsec
    – Useful Basic Data Rate = 189.0 kbps
Submission                                  Slide 32                                Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                                       doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

             Basic Data Rate Throughput
                 (High Rate Modes)
                    Data Frame (38 bytes)                          ACK



                                                       t ACK                 LIFS

                                            Tframe
                             (Time Slot for Multiple Piconet)


    • Useful data rate calculation for 32 byte PSDU (Xo = 3 Mbps)
    • Symbol Period = 1.33us
         – Data frame time : 38 x 8 / 3 = 101.3 µsec
         – ACK frame time : 11 x 8 / 3 = 29.3 µsec
         – tACK (considering 15.4 spec) : 192 µsec
         – LIFS (considering 15.4 spec) : 640 µsec
         – Tframe = 963 µsec
    – Useful Basic Data Rate = 265.9 kbps
Submission                                  Slide 33                                Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                                       doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

             Basic Data Rate Throughput
                 (High Rate Modes)
                    Data Frame (38 bytes)                          ACK



                                                       t ACK                 LIFS

                                            Tframe
                             (Time Slot for Multiple Piconet)


    • Useful data rate calculation for 127 byte PSDU (Xo = 3 Mbps)
    • Symbol Period = 1.33us
         – Data frame time : 127 x 8 / 3 = 354.7 µsec
         – ACK frame time : 11 x 8 / 3 = 29.3 µsec
         – tACK (considering 15.4 spec) : 192 µsec
         – LIFS (considering 15.4 spec) : 640 µsec
         – Tframe = 1216 µsec
    – Useful Basic Data Rate = 853.5 kbps
Submission                                  Slide 34                                Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                     doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

             Link Budget




Submission        Slide 35                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a




             Ranging and Positioning




Submission             Slide 36                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                                              doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



                Asynchronous Ranging Scheme
• Synchronous ranging
       – One way ranging
       – Simple TOA/TDOA measurement
       – Universal external clock
• Asynchronous ranging                                                                                           Transmitted packets

                                                                                                                 Received packets

       – Two way ranging
                                                                                                  TOF : Time Of Flight
       – TOA/TDOA measurement by RTTs                                                             RTT : Round Trip Time

       – Half-duplex type of signal exchange                                                      SHR : Synchronization Header


          Reference Time

                                             But, High                                   RTT
   A    SHR             Payload             Complexity                                                     TOF
                                                               SHR        Payload                                   SHR     Payload

   B            SHR               Payload
        TOFAB                                                       TOF
                                                                            SHR       Payload            SHR     Payload
   C                                SHR        Payload
                TOFAC                                                         k        Pre-determined
                                                                                         delay time(T)
                    TDOABC
                                                                                    TOF = (RTT-2k-T)/2
              Synchronous Ranging                                                 Asynchronous Ranging
Submission                                               Slide 37                                        Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                                doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



             Proposed Positioning Scheme
  Features
   - Sequential two-way ranging is executed via relay transmissions
     - PAN coordinator manages the overall schedule for positioning
     - Inactive mode processing is required along the positioning
     - PAN coordinator may transfer all sorts of information such as observed
     - TDOAs to a processing unit (PU) for position calculation
                                                            P_FFD3
                     P_FFD2           TOA24
                                                             TOA34


                                                           RFD
                                PAN
                              coordinator

                                              TOA14
                        PU
                                                       P_FFD : Positioning Full Function Device
                                                       RFD : Reduced Function Device
     Benefits                 P_FFD1

     - It does not need pre-synchronization among the devices
     - Positioning in mobile environment is partly accomplished
Submission                                  Slide 38                            Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

         Process of Proposed Positioning
                     Scheme




                                           TOA measurement
Submission             Slide 39                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
 Feb 2005                                                  doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



         More Details for obtaining TDOAs
• Distances among the positioning FFDs are calculated from RTT
  measurements and known time interval T
              RTT12 = T + 2T12                   T12 = (RTT12 – T)/2
              RTT23 = T + 2T23                   T23 = (RTT23 – T)/2
              RTT13 = T12 + 2T + T23 + T13        T13 = (RTT13 – T12 – T23 – 2T)

• Using observed RTT measurements and calculated distances,
  TOAs/TDOAs are updated
    RTT34 = T34 + T + T34                           TOA34 = (RTT34 - T)/2

    RTT24 = T23 + T + T34 + T + T24                 TOA24 = (RTT24 - T23 - TOA34 - 2T)

    RTT14 = T12 + T + T23 + T + T34 + T + T14           TOA14 = (RTT14 - T12 - T23 - TOA34 - 3T)

                                  TDOA12 = TOA14 – TOA24

                                  TDOA23 = TOA24 – TOA34

 Submission                                  Slide 40                          Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
    Feb 2005                                                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



            Position Calculation using TDOAs
   • The range difference measurement defines a hyperboloid of
     constant range difference
   • When multiple range difference measurements are obtained,
     producing multiple hyperboloids, the position location of the device
     is at the intersection among the hyperboloids
                                       A



                                               TOATag_A

                                                           TOATag_C
                                                  Tag                       C
                                    TDOAA_B

                                           B   TOATag_B




                                                     TDOAB_C




Ri , j  c  TDOAi , j  c  (TOAi  TOAj )  ( X i  x)2  (Yi  y )2  ( X j  x)2  (Y j  y ) 2
    Submission                                       Slide 41                         Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
  Feb 2005                                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



               Positioning Scenario Overview
 Case 1
                                               • Using static reference nodes in
                      Cluster 1                  relatively large scaled cluster :
                                                    – Power control is required
                                                    – Power consumption increases
                                                    – All devices in cluster must be in
                                                      inactive data transmission mode
                      PAN Coordinator
                      FFD                      • Using static and dynamic nodes
                      RFD
                                                 in overlapped small scaled sub-
 Case 2              Positioning FFD(P_FFD)
                                                 clusters :
                                                    – Sequential positioning is executed
                                                      in each sub-cluster
                                                    – Low power consumption
                                                    – Associated sub-cluster in
                                                      positioning mode should be in
                      Cluster 1
                                                      inactive data transmission mode
  Submission                             Slide 42                    Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
  Feb 2005                                                doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



     Positioning Scenario for Star topology
• Star topology                                                                     FDD                    측위 용
                                                                                                            FFD2


    – PAN coordinator activated mode
                                                                   측위용
       • Positioning all devices                                   FFD1
                                                                                                PAN

       • Re-alignment of positioning FFD’s list is not
                                                                                             coordinator
                                                                                                                      RFD3

                                                                                      RFD1
          required
    – Target device activated mode
       • Positioning is requested from some device                                                            측위 용
                                                                               RFD2                            FFD3

       • Re-alignment of positioning FFD’s list is required
         PAN
      coordinator    P_FFD1        P_FFD2                P_FFD3            RFD
                                                                                             Broadcasting
                                                                                             to all P_FFDs

        S_addr.      S_addr.        S_addr.              S_addr.          S_addr.

        PAN_co.      P_FFD1         P_FFD2               P_FFD3           T_RFD1

        D_addr.      D_addr.        D_addr.              D_addr.

        P_FFD1       P_FFD2         P_FFD3               T_RFD1

        P_addr.      P_addr.        P_addr.              P_addr.

        P_FFD1       P_FFD2
        P_FFD2       P_FFD3
                                    P_FFD3               T_RFD1
                                                                     S_addr. : Source Address
                                    T_RFD1
        P_FFD3       T_RFD1                                          D_addr. : Destination Address
        T_addr.      T_addr.
                                    T_addr.                          P_addr. : Positioning Address
        T_RFD1       T_RFD1
                                    T_RFD1                           T_addr. : Target Address
  Submission                                  Slide 43                                Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
 Feb 2005                                                                    doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

                                        Positioning Scenario for
                                         Cluster-tree Topology
                                                                                                                RFD2
                                                                                                                                            RFD4
                                                                                                                              RFD1

         Cluster-tree topology                                                               RFD0


                                                                                                                       FFD0
                                                                                                                                                          RFD1    RFD3
                                                                                                                                        P_FFD2

                                                                                           P_FFD1                                                                FFD1      RFD4

                                         FFD1                                       RFD3                PAN
                                                                                                                                                                 FFD0
                                                                                                     coordinator


                                                                                                                       FFD1                        RFD6
                                                                                                                                                                            FFD2
                                                                                                                                                                    RFD2
                                                                                                                          P_FFD3
                                        P_addr.                                                          RFD7
                                                                                                                                     RFD5
                     P_FFD3             P_FFD3

          addition          PAN
                         coordinator              P_FFD1    P_FFD2           P_FFD3                                RFD
                                                                                                                                      Broadcasting
                                                                                                                                      to all P_FFDs

N_addr.      N_P_addr.        S_addr.             S_addr.    S_addr.          S_addr.                           S_addr.

 FFD0         P_FFD2          PAN_co.             P_FFD1     P_FFD2           P_FFD3                            T_RFD5
 FFD1         P_FFD1
 RFD6                         D_addr.             D_addr.    D_addr.          D_addr.

                              P_FFD1              P_FFD2     P_FFD3           T_RFD5
                                                                                                     S_addr. : Source Address
                                                                                                     D_addr. : Destination Address
                              P_addr.             P_addr.    P_addr.          T_addr.                P_addr. : Positioning Address
                              P_FFD1              P_FFD2                      T_RFD5
                                                                                                     T_addr. : Target Address
                                                             P_FFD3
                              P_FFD2              P_FFD3                                             N_addr. : Neighbor Address
     re-arragement                                                                                   N_P_addr. : Neighbor Positioning Address
                              P_FFD3                         T_addr.
                                                  T_addr.
                                                             T_RFD5
                              T_addr.             T_RFD5
                              T_RFD5
 Submission                                                       Slide 44                                                    Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                           doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a




             Analog Energy Window Bank




Submission              Slide 45                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



             Ranging Accuracy Improvement
• Technical requirement for positioning
     – “It can be related to precise (tens of centimeters) localization in some
       cases, but is generally limited to about one meter ”
• Parameters for technical requirement
     – Minimum required pulse duration :
                            1[ m]
                                          3.333 [nsec]
                      3  10 8 [m / sec]

     – Minimum required clock speed for the correlator in the conventional
       coherent systems
                             1                              High Cost !
                                      300 [ MHz ]
                        3.333 [nsec]

      ★ Fast ADC clock speed in the conventional coherent receiver
        is required for the digital signal processing
Submission                             Slide 46                    Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
 Feb 2005                                       doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



         Analog Energy Window Bank (1)
• Digital signal processing with fast clock can be replaced by
  using analog energy window bank with low clock speed
• Why analog energy window bank?
     – Conventional single energy window may support the energy detection
       for data demodulation in the operation mode
     – However, this cannot guarantee the correct searching of the signal
       position in the timing mode (that also means the ambiguity of ranging
       accuracy)
• Analog energy window bank can sufficiently support timing and
  calibration as well as operation mode
     –   Widow Bank Size : ~4 nsec (smallest pulse duration)
     –   The number of energy windows in a bank : 11
     –   Operation clock speed of each energy window : 24 MHz
     –   Number of the required energy windows depends on the power delay
         profile of the multipath channel (effective multipath components)
 Submission                          Slide 47                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                                                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



           Analog Energy Window Bank (2)
      Integrator Bank                                                                                                       Integrator Bank
       for Timing and                                                                                                     for Operation Mode
      Calibration Mode                                                                                                      (Demodulation)




                    Size of the Integrated Bank (S)
  
  2nsec
          ()2 dt                                                            2nsec
                                                                                      ()2 dt

                    2nsec
                             ()2 dt                                                            
                                                                                                2nsec
                                                                                                        ()2 dt

                                       
                                       2nsec
                                               ()2 dt                                                            
                                                                                                                  2nsec
                                                                                                                          ()2 dt


      Buffer            Buffer             Buffer        Buffer




                    FirstEstimating or
                          Path Estimation                                                                Threshold
                                                                             Bit “1”                                                 Bit “0”
                                                                                                        Comparison
                       and Calibration
                          Averaging


Submission                                                        Slide 48                                                Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                     doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a




             Modifying MAC




Submission        Slide 49                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                                                       doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

                       Modifications of
• Features         MAC Command Frame (1)
    – Frame control field
         • frame type : positioning (new addition using a reserved bit)
    – Command frame identifier field
         • Positioning request/response (new addition)
    – Positioning parameter information field
         • Absolute coordinates of positioning FFDs
         • POS range
         • List of positioning FFDs and target devices
         • Power control
         • Pre-determined processing time (T)
      Octets : 2      1         0/4/8          1                      variable                      2
                                           command
       Frame       Sequence   Addressing                Positioning          Command
                                             frame                                                 FCS
       control      number      fields                  parameter             payload
                                           identifier
                     MHR                                       MAC payload                         MFR


Submission                                         Slide 50                             Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
 Feb 2005                                                                doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a

                           Modifications of
                       MAC Command Frame (2)
• Frame Control
 bits : 0~2        3          4            5          6          7~9           10~11          12~13               14~15

  Frame       Security     Frame         Ack.       Intra-                     Dest.                            Source
                                                              Reserved                       Reserved
   type       enabled     pending      request       PAN                  addressing mode                   addressing mode


Frame type value           Description                                     • Command frame identifier
        000                  Beacon
                                                                             Command frame
                                                                                                        Command frame
        001                   Data                                              identifier

        010              Acknowledgment                                           0x01                Association request

        011               MAC command                                             0x02                Association response

        100                Positioning                                            0x03           Disassociation notification

                                                                                  0x04                   Data request
    101~111                 Reserved
                                                                                  0x05           PAN ID conflict notification

                                                                                  0x06                Orphan notification

                                                                                  0x07                  Beacon request
• Positioning parameter                                                           0x08            Coordinator realignment

                           positioning                                            0x09                    GTS request
                                                   Pre-
                              FFDs                             Power
  Fixed        POS                             determined                         0x0a                Positioning request
                            Address &                          Control
coordinate    range                            processing                                             Positioning response
                          Target devices                                          0x0b
                                                 time(T)
                               lists
                                                                               0x0c~0xff                   Reserved

 Submission                                                  Slide 51                           Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.
Feb 2005                          doc.: IEEE 802.15-05-0113-00-004a



                 Summary
 The proposed system:
 • Impulse-radio based system coupled with a
   Common ternary signaling allows operation
   among different classes of nodes / type of
   receivers, with varying cost / power /
   performance trade-off
 • Has Band Plan based on multiple 500+MHz
   bands
 • Is robust against SOP interference
 • Is robust against other in-band interference

Submission             Slide 52                   Francois Chin (I2R), et. al.

				
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