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									                                                                Global Climate Change: What Does
                                                                It Mean for the Mid-Atlantic States?
                                                                A report on the February 26, 1998 EPA Regional Conference sponsored by the
                                                                EPA Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation, Office of Economy and Environment




                                                   MID-ATLANTIC CHALLENGED




                                                                                                                                          v
                CONFERENCE
                                                                                                                                          EPA Regional Administrator
                CO-SPONSORS                        BY A CHANGING CLIMATE                                                                  W. Michael McCabe responds to
                                                                                                                                          questions posed by an NBC
                                                                                                                                          reporter.
                                                   The mid-Atlantic region, home to vital natural
                Academy of Natural
                     Sciences                      resources such as the Chesapeake Bay, is highly
                                                   susceptible to the potential impacts of climate
                      BP America                   change.“I’m concerned because the mid-Atlantic
                                                   region contains sensitive ecosystems that could be
                 City of Philadelphia
                                                   devastated by the effects of global warming,” said W.




                                                                                                                                  v
                 Crown Cork & Seal
                                                   Michael McCabe, regional administrator of the U.S.
                                                                                                             Conference participants
                     Company                       Environmental Protection Agency’s Region 3.              chat beside a display for
                                                                                                               EPA’s State and Local
              Delaware Department of               McCabe kicked off a public conference on climate        Climate Change program.
               Natural Resources and               change convened by EPA in Philadelphia on
               Environmental Control
                                                   February 26, 1998. The conference emphasized
              The George Washington                solutions. For example, the 491 companies that have
             University, School of Public          joined the voluntary Green Lights program in the
             Health and Health Services
                                                   mid-Atlantic region are saving 512 million kilowatt-    Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and
                Institute for Business
                                                   hours per year through efficient lighting and are       the District of Columbia.
                  and Home Safety                  reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 818 million
                                                   pounds of carbon dioxide.                               Following McCabe’s welcoming remarks, EPA
                          PECO                                                                             Assistant Administrator David Gardiner compared
                                                   As concerns for environmental safety increase,          the treaty recently forged in Kyoto, Japan, to “buying
                 Pennsylvania State                technological innovation has risen to the challenge.    an insurance policy against the risk of future climate
                    University
                                                   “Who would have foreseen 10 to 15 years ago that        change.” Gardiner added that the Kyoto Protocol
                    Pennsylvania
                                                   there would be widespread curbside recycling and        provides for a “cushioning transition” that will allow
                   Power and Light                 a market for yesterday’s newspaper?” McCabe             countries and industry to meet their obligations
                                                   asked.“I sincerely hope that there will be soon a       through flexible mechanisms.
                Physicians for Social              second wave of pollution prevention directed
                   Responsibility                                                                          Joseph J. Romm, of the U.S. Department of Energy,
                                                   toward our use of energy, and we all need to be
                                                   riding that wave.”                                      gave the keynote address in which he outlined U.S.
                Solar Ex Renewables
                                                                                                           strategies for developing new technologies that will
                   U.S. Department                 Representatives from six news organizations             hasten a cleaner and safer environment.“There are
                      of Energy                    attended the meeting. Articles appeared in The          very large opportunities,” he said, in technological
                                                   Philadelphia Inquirer; Philadelphia Daily News;         advances such as fuel cells and advanced turbine
                                                   Richmond Times Dispatch of Richmond, Virginia;          systems.
                                                   The Courier-Post of Camden City, New Jersey; and
             INSIDE                                The News Journal of Wilmington, Delaware. The           Other speakers included representatives from the
                                                   local NBC affiliate and Warner Brothers channel         insurance, steel, auto, and energy industries. Two
             Rising Insurance Rates ... 2
                                                   also covered the conference.                            afternoon sessions focused on strategies that both
             Point and…
               Counterpoint .............. 3
                                                                                                           state and local governments and the private
             Solar Becoming                        The meeting was co-sponsored by 13 organizations        sector could take to mitigate the effects of climate
               Profitable .................... 6   and attended by representatives from a wide range       change on public health, natural resources, and
             Clean, Efficient, and                 of businesses; environmental and civic organizations;   other critical areas.
               Fun Cars ..................... 7    federal, state, and municipal agencies; electric and
             And more…                             gas utilities; and academic institutions.               Immediately after the conference, three roundtables
                                                                                                           were held for business leaders, state and local
WNV.98-029




                                                   Sponsors and participants represented the five          government officials, and public health officials to
                                                   states of EPA’s mid-Atlantic region: Delaware,          share ideas, concerns, and strategies. x
Page                    2 NO TIME TO WAIT




                                                                                                                                     v
                              “The Kyoto Protocol is an historic step
                                                                                                                                     EPA Assistant
                              forward to address a global problem,” said                                                             Administrator David
                              EPA Assistant Administrator David Gardiner,                                                            Gardiner compared the
                              in his remarks to the conference. Gardiner                                                             Kyoto Protocol to
                                                                                                                                     “buying an insurance
                              emphasized that if we do nothing and                                                                   policy against the risk of
                              continue business as usual, greenhouse gas                                                             future climate change.”
                              emissions are expected to rise to levels
Global Climate Change         higher than they’ve been at any time in
reports the results of a      recorded history.
conference sponsored by       Greenhouse gases remain in the
the U.S. Environmental        atmosphere, in some cases, for up to 25,000 years.                be needed to get those nations on board.Talks
Protection Agency             “If we don’t begin to do something today,” Gardiner               already are underway in preparation for those
entitled, “Global Climate     said,“our children and grandchildren will be stuck                negotiations, which are scheduled to take place in
Change: What Does It          with the problem. We in the administration feel that              November when parties to the United Nations
Mean for the Mid-Atlantic     is unacceptable.”                                                 climate convention meet in Buenos Aires, Argentina.
States?” The conference
took place on February        Gardiner maintained that the agreement gives the                  The Clean Development Mechanism advanced by
26, 1998 in Philadelphia,     United States 10 years to plan and 5 more years to                Brazil will increase participation by developing
Pennsylvania.                 average out emissions. This flexibility, which was                countries through joint implementation of new
                              one of the goals of the administration, allows public             energy technologies.“There is a significant
Global Climate Change         and private sectors time to adjust.                               opportunity to do things differently in developing
articles may be reprinted                                                                       countries,” Gardiner said. He added that all
without permission;           Gardiner added that the agreement embodies                        developing countries are not the same so that a
however, please include       another objective of the administration: a market-                one-size-fits-all approach is not good policy.
an acknowledgment and         based emissions trading program that will enable
send a copy of the            nations that achieve their targets for reducing                   The Kyoto Protocol will help American businesses
published material to:        greenhouse gas emissions to sell emissions permits                compete more effectively in the global economy by
Norah Davis                   to countries that fall short.                                     becoming more energy efficient.“It is a cost-
Waste Policy Institute                                                                          effective, commonsense approach to solving a
                              Stressing that the protocol is “a work in progress,”              serious problem,” Gardiner concluded.“The protocol
2111 Wilson Boulevard,
                              Gardiner noted that another round of negotiations                 is a only a first step, but an important one.” x
Suite 600
                              and individual work with developing countries will
Arlington, VA 22201.

For more information
about the conference, visit
                              UTILITIES ON THE MARCH
the U.S. Environmental                                             What impact will the Kyoto Protocol have on the utility industry, which is
Protection Agency’s                                                responsible for one-third of U.S. emissions? This question was posed by David
global warming                                                     Cesareo, director of environmental affairs at PECO, an energy utility that
conference website at:                                             provides electric service to an area that contains approximately 3.6 million
www.eis.wpi.org/                                                   Pennsylvania residents. Cesareo said that the protocol will require his industry
epaworkshops/.                                                     to reduce emissions by 30 percent by 2010.

In addition, EPA publishes                                         During a six-year period, PECO’s Limerick and Peach Bottom nuclear plants in
                              v   David Cesareo,
a number of fact sheets           environmental affairs            York County avoided approximately 174 million tons of CO2 emissions relative to
                                  director of PECO’s legal         a coal-fired plant. Nuclear power plants produce electricity without generating
about global warming              department, noted that
and energy efficiency.            “we don’t look like your         CO2. Referring to PECO’s efforts to seek and implement creative environmental
Call EPA’s Fax-On-                traditional electric utility.”   solutions, Cesareo said,“We don’t look like your traditional electric utility.” x
Demand Service
(202-260-2860)                RISING INSURANCE RATES
or access EPA’s global
                              “The insurance industry is experiencing larger and larger losses,” said Eugene
warming website at:
                              L. Lecomte, president emeritus of the Institute for Business and Home Safety.
www.epa.gov/
                              Insured losses from Hurricane Andrew alone were $15.5 billion.
globalwarming.
                              To remain solvent in the face of a problem of this size, insurance companies are
                              raising premiums, increasing deductibles, and, where permitted, withdrawing
                              from doing business in high-risk regions.“These are all areas they have to pursue
                              if they’re going to remain in business,” said Lecomte,“if we continue to have
                              losses of the magnitude we’ve had during the past eight years.”                               v President Emeritus of the
                                                                                                                               Institute for Business and
                              Lecomte concluded by emphasizing that the scientific uncertainties related to                    Home Safety, Eugene Lecomte
                                                                                                                               talked about the effect of
                              global warming pose a quandary for the insurance industry, which needs to be                     increasingly severe weather on
                              able to forecast future risks in order to decide on premiums. x                                  insurance premiums.
AN UNMISTAKABLE WARMING TREND                                                                                                           Page                 3
                                                                                unmistakable. He pointed out that 50 percent




                                               v
                                               Penn State Professor Brent       of the mass of mountain glaciers has wasted
                                               Yarnal told the audience that
                                               the greatest potential impacts
                                                                                away globally, and the permafrost in polar
                                               to the mid-Atlantic region are   regions is melting. These changes have
                                               increased precipitation and      occurred over the past century under a
                                               sea-level rise.
                                                                                temperature gain of only 1 degree Fahrenheit.
                                                                                Another expected effect of climate change is
                                 Citing the evidence                            greater precipitation due to increased evaporation
                                 of rising tempera-                             as temperatures rise. In fact, the United States has
                                 tures at the earth’s                           seen a significant increase in rainfall over the last            “As an
                                 surface, Dr. Brent                             100 years. Case in point: 1996, one of the warmest        environmentalist, I
Yarnal, associate professor at Pennsylvania State                               years on record globally, was the wettest year in         don’t often hear the
University, said that an overall warming trend is                               Pennsylvania’s history. x                               other part of the story–
                                                                                                                                         businesses doing their
                                                                                                                                         part. Even though we
POINT AND...                                                                                                                             have a different point
                                                                                                                                         of view, we can’t turn
                                                                                If the United States signs the Kyoto treaty, we              each other into
                                                                                will face extraordinary changes in the way we                 the enemy.”
                                        v




                                                                                use energy in this country, according to Mary
                                        The ratification of the Kyoto treaty
                                        will lead to an “extraordinary          Novak, senior vice president of the WEFA                      Connie Fenty
                                        economic cost,” predicted Mary          Group, an economic and industry consulting               Environmental Educator
                                        Novak, of the WEFA Group.                                                                         Rejuvenation Creation
                                                                                firm. Novak represented the position of several
                                                                                interest groups that are opposed to the Kyoto
                                                                                agreement for economic reasons.                         “We would like to see
                                                                                According to Novak, the gross domestic product              a program that
                                                                                by 2010 will be 1.5 percent ($227 billion)                 recognizes clean
                                                                                                                                         energy contributions
                                  v




                                                                                below where it would have been without the
             Charlie Baxter, regional
                                                                                cuts in energy use. Her economic studies                    introduced by
  director at the U.S. Department of
        Energy, moderated a session                                             indicate that 1.8 million jobs will be lost,            companies like PECO
           on the economic impacts                                              especially in energy-exporting states.                  Energy and provides a
                  of climate change.
                                                                                                                                        level competitive and
                                                                                “It will take every man, woman, and child using             environmental
                                                                                half of the energy they use today,” Novak                   playing field.”
                                                                                concluded. x
                                                                                                                                          Thomas A. Sylvester
                                                                                                                                        Environmental Consultant
…COUNTERPOINT                                                                                                                            PECO Energy Company
Duncan Austin, an associate at the World Resources                              Austin concluded by questioning the view that a
Institute, reviewed 162 economic forecasts and                                  rise in energy prices will have a negative effect
concluded that models such as the study done by Mary                            on economic growth. He argued that the impact
Novak’s organization are imprecise. Austin                                      will amount to no more than postponing the
emphasized that almost all of the differences in the                            attainment of the gross domestic product that
conclusions of different models are the result of                               we would have reached in the first quarter of
underlying assumptions. One model, for example,                                 2020 to the second or third quarter of 2021. x
assumes that economic responses are slow and that
it takes time for people to adapt to change. This type
                                                                                                        v




of model leads to very different results from one that
                                                                                Economic models, for all
assumes that the economy’s responses are almost                                  their sophistication and
instantaneous.                                                                            complexity, are
                                                                                 dependent on a number
Similarly, the models make differing assumptions                                    of assumptions, said
                                                                                   Duncan Austin, of the
about the availability of alternative fuels, air pollution                              World Resources
damages averted, incentives to shift to less energy-                                             Institute.
intensive products, and the presence or absence of a
joint implementation approach.


 UPCOMING CONFERENCE: The next regional conference sponsored by the U.S. EPA, “Climate Change: What Does It Mean for the Southwest?”
 will be held September 24, 1998, in Phoenix, AZ. For more information, contact Monica Duda, Waste Policy Institute, 703-247-2410.
Page                 4 RENEWABLE INGENUITY
                          In a keynote address that affirmed the strength and       efficiency. The City of Philadelphia saved more than
                          diversity of renewable technologies, Joseph Romm,         $500,000 by installing energy-efficient lights as part of
                          principal deputy assistant secretary of the U.S.          the ENERGY STAR® and Rebuild America programs.
                          Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency
                          and Renewable Energy, told the conference,“We             Working with manufacturers to create energy-
                          have an opportunity to make a transition to a clean       efficient products also can reduce emissions
                          energy future.” With the help of “technology              significantly. The ENERGY STAR® program
                          roadmaps” and effective policy, climate change can        encouraged computer manufacturers to improve
                          be mitigated to ensure a safer future.                    their products and lowered computer energy usage
      “By using the                                                                 by 50 percent. Romm envisions a future in which
appropriate approach      Romm outlined President Clinton’s three-stage             consumers can easily find energy-efficient products
   to the problem of      approach for the United States to meet its Kyoto          by looking for special labels. This simple step could
    global warming        targets without raising energy bills. During the          yield substantial benefits. As Romm pointed out,
 technology—we can        first phase, we can                                                                   “Appliances such as




                                                                                        v
 resolve the artificial   ”prime the pump“                                                                      televisions and other
                          through voluntary                                              “We have an            electronics in homes consume
 debate between the                                                                      opportunity to make a
   economy and the        actions and                                                    transition to a clean  the equivalent of 10 to 12
                          research and                                                   energy future,” said   large coal-fired power plants
     environment.”                                                                       Joseph J. Romm, of the
                          development of                                                 U.S. Department of     every day just producing the
      Jim Florio          new technologies                                               Energy.                electricity that these products
   Former Governor        to reduce                                                                             use when they’re in the
    of New Jersey         emissions. During                                                                     standby mode.”
                          the next phase, we                                                               To reduce greenhouse gas
                          can review and                                                                              emissions further, the
                          evaluate our progress. Then
                                                                      v


                                                                                                                      Department of Energy
                          from 2008 to 2012, we can       Representatives                                             is working on fuel
                          make adjustments to ensure          from British
                                                                 Petroleum                                            cells that will provide
                          that we meet the target. In           talk with a                                           power in houses and
                          other words, the Kyoto               conference
                                                                                                                      other buildings. A fuel
                                                              participant.
                          Protocol allows for a 10-year                                                               cell runs on hydrogen,
                          transition period, during which the United                                                 typically from natural
                          States can make gradual reductions.                                                        gas, and generates
                          In addition to this flexibility in the timeframe,                                          electricity and hot
                          the United States is not obligated to achieve all of      water while producing no air pollution. Fuel cells are
                          its reductions domestically. An emissions trading         80 to 95 percent efficient, and they will appear on the
                          program, clean development mechanism with                 market within two or three years.
                          developing countries, and reforestation could             Such solutions will greatly improve U.S. electricity
                          provide important emission offsets.                       generation. Currently, the average power plant
                                                                                    fueled by fossil fuels throws away two units of
                          Recognizing the importance of technology, the
                                                                                    energy as waste heat for every unit of electricity
                          administration has ear marked a total of $6.3 billion
                                                                                    generated. In addition, Romm’s office has developed
                          for the development of energy-efficient
                                                                                    an advanced turbine system that converts natural
                          technologies in the building, industry, transportation,
                                                                                    gas to electricity and steam, and can reduce CO2
                          and utility sectors. Romm provided a number of
                                                                                    emissions by a factor of three.
                          examples of technological innovations and common
                          sense solutions that reduce emissions.                    Technology Roadmaps
                                                                                    Romm’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable
                          Engineering Efficiency                                    Energy works with six industries that are responsible
                          First, he maintained that there is hardly a building      for 80 percent of U.S. industrial energy use and CO2
                          in the country that the U.S. Department of Energy         emissions. His office is developing “technology
                          and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can’t            roadmaps” and innovative advanced technologies
                          help to make more efficient. Romm added,“We               that ultimately will help these industries become
                          have demonstrated every single day that we can            more productive, energy-efficient, and low-polluting.
                          walk into any lower-income building in the                Currently, DuPont has promised to reduce 18 million
                          country and reduce its energy use by about 30             metric tons of CO2 equivalents by the year 2000.
                          percent with a very rapid payback. We can design          Chrysler is working to improve its paint systems,
                          a house that uses half the energy of a traditional        which will save 40 million BTU’s of energy and
                          home with no increase in first cost.”                     minimize CO2 emissions.
                          Something as straightforward as improved lighting         “This country has not really focused on energy
                          can drastically increase a building’s energy              for the last 10 or 15 years,” Romm concluded,
                                                                                                                              Page                         5
“and, frankly, there is a lot of fat in the system that          technologies could turn renewable energy into a
can be gotten rid of quite cost-effectively.”                    $300-billion-a-year industry. It would become one
                                                                 of the largest industries in the world, producing 40
Turning to the transportation sector, Romm noted
                                                                 to 50 percent of the global energy supply in 40 or
that the average car is only about 15 to 20 percent
                                                                 50 years. That means it would generate a lot of jobs
efficient at converting gasoline into usable driving
                                                                 in the United States.“America has traditionally been
energy. To improve automobile efficiency, the
                                                                 the world’s leader in technology, job creation, and
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
                                                                 environmental performance, and we can continue
is working with the Department of Commerce and
automobile manufacturers to design improved
                                                                 to do so,” Romm said.                                       Like Father, Like Son
                                                                 He added that his office has demonstrated that the          The Philadelphia
                                                                 United States can achieve the Kyoto targets without         conference may be the
                                                                 raising the nation’s energy bill and, in some cases,        first time that a father and
                                                                 lowering it. In addition, we will achieve ancillary         son attended a meeting on
                                                                 benefits such as reducing oil imports by two                global warming together.
                                          v



                                                                 million barrels a day, while lowering criteria air          Jay P. Clymer, Jr., takes an
                                          Former New Jersey
                                          Governor Jim Florio    pollutant emissions by one-third.                           active part in streambank
                                          makes a point during                                                               restoration as a member
                                          a discussion with      During a question-and-answer session, Romm
                                          a conference                                                                       of Trout Unlimited and
                                          participant.           allayed concerns that Kyoto will require a dramatic
                                                                                                                             Delco Anglers.
                                                                 response from the transportation sector. We need
                                                                 to take small, modest actions such as gradually             He’s interested in EPA’s
                                                                 stepping up efficiency so that one-third of the new         study on the impacts of
engines. Ford, General Motors, and Daimler-Benz
                                                                 cars on the road in 2010 are two or three times             climate change on trout
plan to have fuel cell vehicles on the road by 2004.
                                                                 more efficient than today’s cars. Another step is to        populations because he
The fuel cells in these cars will generate about half
the CO2 of traditional engines and produce zero air              make a gradual transition to lower-carbon fuels. If         raises trout for restocking
pollution.“The race to develop a green car is                    we were to substitute just 5 percent of gasoline            streams.
probably going to be one of the great                            used with cellulosic ethanol, the United States             He came to the
technological races of the next decade,” he said.                would save 15 million metric tons of carbon—                conference with his son,
                                                                 already 5 percent of the Kyoto goal.                        Jay P. Clymer III, an
Not Your Father’s Photovoltaics                                                                                              associate professor of
Romm also forecast another technology that is primed             “We are not looking for any one silver bullet, but
                                                                 rather several dozen technologies,” Romm                    environmental science at
to take off in the next decade—renewable energy. The                                                                         Marywood University in
cost of wind energy has come down from 40 cents                  concluded. x
                                                                                                                             Scranton, Pennsylvania.
per kilowatt-hour in 1980 to 5 cents today. Wind
                                                                                                                             For five years, the
energy has been growing 20 to 25 percent in capacity
                                                                                                         v



                                                                                                                             professor has taught
annually for more than a decade.                                                                         General Motor’s
                                                                                                         new electric
                                                                                                                             courses that deal in part
Photovoltaics also have changed profoundly.                                                              pickup truck runs   with the issue of global
                                                                                                         on a battery
Displaying a roof shingle that can generate electricity                                                  charge.
                                                                                                                             warming. “Students in my
from the sun, Romm remarked,“This is not your                                                                                classes plant trees,” he
father’s photovoltaics. This is state-of-the-art.”                                                                           says, “and try to be more
                                                                                                                             conscious of the fossil
Concluding on an upbeat note, Romm maintained
                                                                                                                             fuels they burn.” x
that a large international market for new



SERIOUS ENERGY CUTS IN THE STEEL INDUSTRY
                        v




                            Bruce Stiner, of the American Iron   recognizes the need to make progress on energy
                            and Steel Institute, said that his
                            industry recognizes the need to      efficiency.
                            improve its use of energy.
                                                                 Steel, an energy-intensive industry, has significant
                                                                 accomplishments to date. Since 1975, the industry
                         Pointing out that 20
                                                                 has reduced energy use by 45 percent per ton of
                         percent of the U.S. steel
                                                                 steel produced. This was accomplished by
                         industry is located in the
                                                                 employing measures such as phasing out open
                         mid-Atlantic region, Bruce              furnaces, using materials more effectively, and
                         Stiner, vice president of the           increasing the recycling of scrap metal.
American Iron and Steel Institute, noted that the
steel industry has serious concerns about the Kyoto              “However, the pace of progress is slowing,” said
Protocol. Nevertheless, said Stiner, the industry                Stiner,“making further gains much more difficult.” x
Page                   6 DUPONT: GOAL IS ZERO EMISSIONS
                            “Our corporate goal is zero                                                      Since 1973, the company has
                            injuries, zero waste, and zero                                                   made improvements in energy
                            emissions,” said Edwin L. Mongan                                                 use that have resulted in savings
                            III, manager of pollution                                                        of $2 billion. In 1996 alone,
                            prevention and environmental                                                     DuPont realized a net savings of
                            auditing for DuPont. To date, the                                                $90 million from investments in
                            company has reduced its                                                          energy efficiency.
                            greenhouse gas emissions by 16
                            percent, or 22 million tons of                                                   “This is the real payback to our
                            carbon equivalents. The                                                          company,” said Mongan.“We would
    “I haven’t heard        company, which has 100,000                                                       be a lot less successful if we had not
 anybody say what the       employees and sales of $45                                                       made those reductions.” x
 impact [of policies to     billion, became a partner in EPA




                                                                                                             v
                                                                                                                 Edwin Mongan talked about the savings
reduce greenhouse gas       and the Department of Energy’s                                                       that DuPont has realized from taking
emissions] would be on      Climate Wise program in 1994.                                                        measures to improve its use of energy.
 West Virginia, which
  derives a substantial
portion of its economy      SOLAR BECOMING PROFITABLE
  from the extraction                                                                         Hydro, geothermal, and biomass sources currently
                            “Solar technology is going
        of coal.”           to be a major factor in our                                       supply about 10 percent of the world’s total
Edward L. “Skipp” Kropp     nation’s future energy                                            energy, with smaller contributions from solar and
     Assistant Chief,       supply with or without                                            wind power. But by the year 2050, renewables are
      Enforcement           overt actions dealing with                                        expected to provide 25 to 50 percent of the
West Virginia Division of   climate change,” according                                        world’s energy. Solar and wind need to grow by
Environmental Protection    to Gerald W. Braun, director                                      more than 25 percent per year to achieve those
                            of strategic business                                             contributions—a rate that is currently quite
                            development at Solarex.                                           realistic, Braun said.
                            Headquartered in               v Gerry Braun told the
                            Frederick, Maryland,              conference that photovoltaics   By 2002, with market growth and cost
                                                              are already competitive in      reductions, photovoltaics will be competitive
                            Solarex is a subsidiary of        Japan where energy prices
                            Amoco/Enron Solar.                are higher than they are in     in the United States. “The Million Solar Rooftops
                                                              the United States.              initiative will probably be a success,” Braun
                            In recent years the solar                                         remarked. He concluded with a play on the
                            energy industry grew at a rate of 15 to 20                        words of a popular children’s character, “‘It
                            percent per year and is now hitting 30 percent                    isn’t easy being green,’ but it’s starting to
                            per year.                                                         be profitable.” x


                            ENLIGHTENED OR MARKET SAVVY?
                            BP, the third largest petroleum producer in the                   targets. In partnership with the Environmental
                            world with revenues exceeding $70 billion, began                  Defense Fund, the company is developing a pilot
                            assessing the issue of climate change more than                   emissions trading program modeled after the U.S.
                            two years ago. Initially, the company had adopted a               acid rain program.
                            more skeptical attitude toward global warming. But
                                                                                              “BP is committed to these actions regardless of
                            things changed after BP completed its assessment.
                                                                                              Kyoto,” said Foley.“They make good business sense.
                            “The company decided that it is unwise and
                                                                                              Cutting emissions is a matter of cutting energy
                            potentially dangerous to ignore the mounting
                                                                                              consumption, and energy is cost.” x
                            concern,” said M.Todd Foley, director of regulatory
                            affairs for BP America Inc.“We decided that the
                                                                                                                                v




                            available evidence merits action.”                                                                   M. Todd Foley, of British
                                                                                                                                 Petroleum, told the
                            Foley was asked whether the company is more                                                          conference that the evidence
                            enlightened than other petroleum companies or                                                        on climate change merits our
                                                                                                                                 taking action.
                            just has more market savvy. He replied,“Both.”
                            Over the last decade, BP has increased its energy
                            efficiency by 20 percent. Currently, it is reducing
                            emissions from flares with a goal of eliminating
                            flaring entirely except in emergencies. In addition,
                            BP is measuring emissions from its operations and
                            will develop realistic and independently verified
CLEAN, EFFICIENT, AND FUN CARS                                                                                                                              Page                  7
                                            Michael Paritee, of General   One vehicle, which GM touts as the “next




                                      v
                                            Motors, emphasized his        generation sportscar,” is a hybrid vehicle that runs
                                            company’s commitment to
                                            electric vehicles.            on a diesel engine coupled with electric batteries.
                                                                          The sportscar gets 80 miles per gallon, has a 500
                                                                          mile range, and goes from 0-60 miles per hour in
                             General Motors                               seven seconds. The hybrid vehicles, which will be
                             recently unveiled                            ready for mass production by 2001, generate one-                                     “We came to the
                             prototypes of hybrid                         third to one-half the carbon dioxide emissions of                                 conference to see what
                             cars powered by                              conventional vehicles without sacrificing
                                                                                                                                                              we can do to help
                             electricity and                              performance, safety, or appearance.
                                                                                                                                                             solve the problem of
conventional fuels. Michael S. Paritee, regional
                                                                          Paritee also showed a prototype fuel cell vehicle that                            global warming locally
manager for marketing and infrastructure
development at the Advanced Technology Vehicles                           burns hydrogen extracted from gasoline.The fuel cell                              through education and
division of General Motors, displayed an electric                         generates electricity with water vapor as the                                     outreach at health fairs
pickup truck at the conference and showed a                               byproduct.The vehicle generates near-zero emissions                                    and shows.”
video of the rest of GM’s electric vehicle line.                          and will be ready for mass production by 2004. x                                        Ed Blevins
                                                                                                                                                                 Supervisor of
                                                                                                                                                                Environmental
COOL INITIATIVES                                                                                                                                                Field Services
                                                                                                                                                              Montgomery County
State and local governments are on the move with                          about species migration and longer fire seasons. He                                 Health Department
ideas and strategies that will help ensure a safer                        also mentioned the effects of climate change on
environment despite rising                                                coral ecosystems.When sea temperatures heat up,
temperatures. At a session                                                coral reefs become more susceptible to disease. In
focused on strategies for state
                                                                          v




and local governments to                                                  The possibility of increased
meet the challenges of                                                    transmission of infectious
climate change, John Balbus,                                              diseases is one potential effect
                                                                          of global warming, according
acting chairman of                                                        to John Balbus, of George
environmental and                                                         Washington University.
occupational health at The

                                                                                                                          “Heat islands are a fact,”    v
                                  v




                                                                                                                               said Sharon Ross, of
                                  National Park Service
                                                                                                                          Allegheny Power. “When
                                  Superintendent Mark Koenings
                                                                                                                              you remove trees and
                                  described Assateague Island’s
                                                                                                                                 replace them with
                                  struggle with rising sea levels.
                                                                                                                           concrete, it gets hotter.”
                                                                                                             v




                                                                                                             Mount Rainier Mayor Fred Sissine
                                                                                                             spoke proudly about his city’s
                                                                                                             involvement in the Cities for Climate
                                      v




                                                                                                             Protection Campaign.
        Marilyn Reedy, president of The
             Trees for Frederick Project,                                 addition, an increase in storms has carried dust from
           discussed the challenges and                                   Africa’s Sahara Desert to the U.S.Virgin Islands,
        rewards of planting trees to cool
                            urban areas.                                  where it has negatively affected coral in the region.

George Washington University, said that if we do                          Koenings concluded by describing the impact of
nothing to address climate change, heat mortality                         rising sea levels on a barrier island like Assateague.
could double, water shortages may occur, and                              The National Park Service is trying to restore
vector-borne diseases such as dengue may increase.                        geological integrity to the island without
                                                                          compromising its fragile ecosystem.To preserve our
Balbus also discussed the effects of climate change                       precious national parks and seashores, Koenings told
on the elderly and affirmed the importance of                             the audience,“we need strong regional planning.”
disease surveillance.“From a population vulnerability
standpoint,” he said,“the extremes of age make                            Making it Cool
individuals more susceptible to heat mortality.” It is                    Strategically planted trees can go a long way toward
imperative that we monitor these populations.                             reducing heat and energy use. Sharon Ross, a forester at
                                                                          Allegheny Power, and Marilyn Reedy, president of Trees
Outlook for Flora and Fauna                                               for Frederick, are involved in planting trees to cool the
“As things warm up, flora and fauna are taking a                          streets of Frederick, Maryland. Ross and Reedy have
hike,” said Mark Koenings, superintendent of the                          planned and initiated projects to transform Frederick’s
Assateague Island National Seashore. Koenings                             “heat islands” from uninterrupted swaths of asphalt and
discussed the National Park Service’s concerns                                                               Continued on page 8
 Page                  8   COOL INITIATIVES Continued from page 7




                                                                                                                                                            v
                           concrete to cooler and greener areas. Despite lack of
                                                                                                                                                            Robert Vatistas, with the
                           funding, a core group of volunteers is continuing to                                                                             Crown Cork & Seal Company,
                           make the effort a success.                                                                                                       moderated an afternoon
                                                                                                                                                            session on how state and local
                           “We’re planning on expanding beyond Frederick,”                                                                                  governments can meet the
                                                                                                                                                            challenge of climate change.
                           said Reedy.“We truly believe that from our humble
                           beginnings come good ideas for our future.”
                           A Tale of Two Cities
“Carbon sequestration      Fred Sissine, mayor of Mount Rainier, Maryland,                                        In Mount Rainier, city officials decided to revitalize
    is one benefit of      made a strong case for the Cities for Climate                                          their downtown.They created a new “green space”
    planting trees to      Protection Campaign, which has done a great deal                                       in the town center—a verdant roundabout that has
     mitigate global       to improve life in his city and nearby Takoma Park.                                    increased pedestrian safety and made driving easier
warming, but there are     Calling his story “A Tale of Two Cities,” Sissine                                      for motorists. They also constructed a hiking and
                           noted that Takoma Park has established a                                               bicycling trail that leads to a mass transit station. A
also ancillary benefits
                           compressed natural gas fueling station and is now                                      new city hall building has numerous energy
such as cleaner water
                           in the process of acquiring a natural gas-fueled                                       improvements over the former building.“We have
   and air, reducing
                           vehicle for the city’s police department.                                              to lead by example,” Sissine concluded. x
  stormwater runoff,
     and increasing
   wildlife habitat.”
                           JOIN EPA’S CLIMATE                                                                     ways to curb global warming while reducing
      Rick Crouse
     Vice President,
                           CHANGE MAILING LIST                                                                    pollution and saving money.
                                                                                                                  Climate Change and Outdoor Recreation
     Development           Receive timely news about global warming via EPA’s                                     (climate-outdoor-L) – For outdoor recreation
    American Forests       climate change mailing list—an Internet listserv that                                  enthusiasts, provides hunters, anglers, campers,
                           provides information on impacts and solutions,                                         hikers, and wildlife watchers with the latest
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                           and relevant conferences and other events.                                             effects on the natural world.
                           Climate Change and Public Health (climate-                                             Climate Change and Coastal Communities
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                           renewable energy technologies.                       Send an e-mail to: listserv@wpi.org. In the body
                           Climate Change and State-Local Governments           of the message type: subscribe the name of
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                           officials, discusses the impacts climate change can  name; for example, subscribe climate-medical-l
                           have on our states and cities, and offers innovative Kimberly Bell. x

T o learn more
about global
                             CONFERENCE SPEAKERS




                                                   W. Michael McCabe, Regional Administrator,                     Joseph J. Romm, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary, Office of Energy
                                                   U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3                 Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy
warming, check out                                 David Gardiner, Assistant Administrator for Policy, Planning   Edwin Mongan, Manager, Pollution Prevention and Environmental
EPA’s website at:                                  and Evaluation, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency           Auditing, DuPont
                                                   Brent Yarnal, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Geography,          Gerry Braun, Director, Strategic Business Development, Solarex
www.epa.gov/                                       Pennsylvania State University                                  M. Todd Foley, Director of Regulatory Affairs, BP America
globalwarming.                                     Charlie Baxter, Regional Director, Mid-Atlantic States,        Michael Paritee, Advanced Technology Vehicles, General Motors
                                                   U.S. Department of Energy
                                                                                                                  Robert G. Vatistas, Vice President of Environmental Health and Safety,
                                                   Mary Novak, Senior Vice President, WEFA Group                  Crown Cork & Seal Company
                                                   Duncan Austin, Associate, Economics and Population             John M. Balbus, Acting Chairman, Environmental and Occupational
                                                   Program, World Resources Institute                             Health, M.D., MPH, The George Washington University
                                                   David Cesareo, Director, Environmental Affairs,                Marc A. Koenings, Superintendent, Assateague Island National Seashore,
                                                   Legal Department, PECO                                         National Park Service
                                                   Gene Lecomte, President Emeritus, Institute for Business       Marilyn Reedy, President, Trees for Frederick
                                                   and Home Safety
                                                                                                                  Sharon Ross, Forester, Allegheny Power
                                                   Bruce Steiner, Vice President, Environment and Energy,
                                                                                                                  Fred Sissine, Mayor, City of Mt. Rainier, Maryland
                                                   American Iron and Steel Institute

								
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