Summary: Native Americans
Regions of U.S.A:
1. East—West of the Appalachian mountains as
Indian country (1763).
2. South—Trail of Tears or Trail Where They
Cried—journey from Georgia to Oklahoma
(1830s). Scores of Cherokee Indians died.
Cherokee Rose as a symbol in Georgia.
3. Rocky Mountain—Battle of Little Bighorn—
Montana (1860s). . General Custer’s soldiers were
defeated by Sioux leader, Crazy Horse --Indian
victory. P. 174-175
4. Midwest—A. Wounded Knee village (Pine Ridge
Reservation) South Dakota (1607-1890). Scores of
Indians died. Sociological implication: ethnic
stratification (cleansing). Ghost dance as a ritual,
i.e., religion. Dancers arrested by Anglos; and
Indians considered the act as ending their traditional
way of life.
B. Ghost Dance—social scientists call a millenarian
C. Massacre of Dakota Indians in Mankato,
Minnesota (1860s). D. Plains wars—“Horse-Buffalo
5. West—Alcatraz Island, California (1969-1971),
“Indians of all tribes” seized the island. Wanted to
preserve it as a cultural center. Failed but
demonstrated Indian self-determination.
6. Alaska—federal government refused to
recognize Alaskan Indians as having official tribal
1. Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831). Ruling:
Chief Justice, Marshall argued that Indian tribes
are sovereign nations (Independent) but placed
limits on their sovereignty.
2. Worcester v. Georgia (1832). Ruling: the
Cherokee nation though not independent country
was not under the control of the state of Georgia.
Indian victory in this case.
3. The Indian Removal Act of 1830: despite the
victory in the Worcester case, President Andrew
Jackson (1829-1837) ordered General Scott to
move Indians west of Mississippi.
4. In 1824, the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was
created to administer funds for the “civilization”
of Indians. Boarding schools built, e.g., Carlisle
School, to Americanize Indians.
5. Appropriations Act of 1871 ended the Treaty-
making with the Indians.
6. Dawes Act of 1887(Henry L. Dawes, Senator,
Massachusetts). Provisions of Act: 1st, give land to
Indians, the General Allotment tried to eliminate
tribal land bases and make individual Indians on
Reservations into land owning farmers and
ranchers. 2nd, Introduce Anglo conformity—
7. Congress passed the Indian Citizenship Act in
1924—made Indians as U.S. citizens.
8. Meriam Report: famous report that documented
that few Indians became self-sufficient farmers, as
a result, of Dawes Act, therefore it failed.
9. Indian Reorganization Act or Wheeler-Howard
Act of 1934 (Senator, Burton K. Wheeler,
Montana) replaced Dawes Act of 1887.
Provisions: 1st, Indians are best governed by
themselves; and 2nd, introduce Cultural Pluralism,
i.e., replace Anglo conformity.
10. The Termination Policy (1953-1961):
Provisions: 1st, government to get “out of the
Indian business.” A. President Eisenhower
Termination policy took land from the Indians
which was needed for their independence. B.
President Lyndon B. Johnson passed the Indian
Civil Rights in 1968. C. President Nixon attacked
the idea that the federal government had the right
to terminate unilaterally its special relationship
with Indians. D. Sociological implication of
termination policy: the federal government
rejected the Anglo conformity policy and allow
Social Movements: Indians
1. Pan-Indian Responses: uniting the different
Indian tribes to fight for their rights is Pan-
2. Society for American Indians (SAI): Purpose:
1st, to promote Indian advancement and 2nd, to
abolish the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).
3. National Congress of American Indians formed
in 1944. Purpose: to help all Indians especially the
4. the New tribalism, Tribal nationalism, or Red
power movement began in the 1960s among
Indian university students. Purpose: to promote
tribal land claims, e.g., water rights, religious
5. American Indian Movement (AIM) is one of the
most militant Indian organizations. Purpose: 1st, to
protest violations of the Sioux Treaty of 1868, and
2nd seized Wounded Knee village for 70 days.
6. Games of chance: Indians turned to gaming as a
source of income. Gaming business is called “new
7. Immigrant or colonized minority? 1st, Indians
entered the American society as a conquered
group like the Mexican Americans. The struggles
of Indians is the reverse of nearly all other
American ethnic groups, i.e., started sovereign
nation, and ended as conquered; and 2nd, BIA in
1952 relocation program encouraged Indians to
move to cities—urbanization. The relocation of
some Indians from the reservations to urban areas
weakened their ties to the cultures of the