76–77 Anthony Pidgeon/Lonely Planet Images
The wall surrounding the
old city of Jerusalem
2000 B.C. 1300 B.C. 600 B.C. A.D. 100
c. 1800 B.C. c. 1290 B.C. 722 B.C. A.D. 66
Israelites Moses leads Assyrians Jews revolt
settle in Israelites conquer against
Canaan from Egypt Israel Romans
Chapter Preview Chapter Overview Visit
jat.glencoe.com for a preview
Like the Sumerians, the ancient Israelites developed a society of Chapter 3.
based on ideas of justice and strict laws. The Israelites believed
that there was only one God.
View the Chapter 3 video in the World History: Journey
Across Time Video Program.
The First Israelites
Abraham founded the 12 tribes of Israel in the land of
Canaan. The Israelites believed in one God.
The Kingdom of Israel
Under David and Solomon, the people of Israel built a
powerful kingdom with a new capital in Jerusalem.
The Growth of Judaism
The Jews continued to keep their religion even though
other people ruled them. They settled in many places in
Asia and Europe.
Summarizing Information Make this foldable and use it to organize note cards
with information about the Israelites.
Step 1 Fold a horizontal Step 2 Fold the bottom edge up two inches and Reading and Writing
sheet of paper (11”x17”) crease well. Glue the outer edges of the tab to As you read the chapter,
into thirds. create three pockets. summarize key facts on
note cards or on quarter
sheets of paper about
here. Israel and the growth
and spread of Judaism.
Glue Organize your notes
by placing them in
your pocket foldable
inside the appropriate
Step 3 Label the pockets
as shown. Use these
pockets to hold notes taken
on index cards or quarter First Judaism
sheets of paper. Israelites Israel’s Spreads
Finding the Main Idea
Main ideas are the most important ideas in a paragraph,
section, or chapter. Supporting details are facts or examples
that explain the main idea. Read the following paragraph from
Section 1 and notice how the author explains the main idea.
The main idea is identified for you. The supporting details are
highlighted in color.
Main idea Through trade, the
Phoenicians spread ideas
and goods. One of their
most important ideas was
an alphabet, or a group of
letters that stood for details
sounds. The letters could
be used to spell out the
words in their language.
Ofte n, the fi will con
- —from page 85
in a pa ragraph
a main i
tain ails will
suppor ting det en-
com e in foll ain
te nces. Ho so appear
ideas ca r at the
in the middle o h.
en d of a p
Create a Graphic Read to Write
Choose one of the
Organizer listed on
page 93. Use it as a
Read the following paragraph. Draw a graphic organ- topic sentence, and add
izer like the one shown below. Write the main ideas in a supporting details to
box and supporting details in circles around the box. create a full paragraph.
While in Babylon, small groups of
Jews met on the Sabbath. This was
their weekly day of worship and rest.
The Jews would pray and discuss
their religion and history. These
meetings took place at synagogues,
or Jewish houses of worship. The
synagogue meetings gave the people
—from page 94
Supporting Main Idea Supporting
As you read Chapter 3, create your
own graphic organizer to show the
main idea and supporting details
from at least one paragraph. 79
What’s the Connection? Meeting People
You have read how the Egyptians Abraham
built a great civilization. At about Jacob
the same time, another nation was Moses
forming. The Egyptians called the Deborah
people of this nation habiru, or
Phoenician (fih • NEE • shuhn)
foreigners. The people called
themselves Israelites or the Children
Building Your Vocabulary
(MAH • nuh • thee • IH • zuhm)
Focusing on the tribe
• The Israelites believed in one God
who set down moral laws for his Torah (TOHR • UH)
people. They recorded their history covenant (KUHV • nuhnt)
in the Bible. (page 81) alphabet
• The Israelites had to fight the
Canaanites to return to their Reading Strategy
promised land. (page 84) Sequencing Information Create
a sequence chart to help trace the
movement of the Israelites.
Canaan (KAY • nuhn)
Mount Sinai (SY • NY)
1400 B.C. 1200 B.C. 1000 B.C.
c. 1290 B.C. c. 1125 B.C. c. 1000 B.C.
Moses leads Deborah defeats Israelites settle
Israelites from Canaanites in Canaan
80 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
The Early Israelites
The Israelites believed in one God who
set down moral laws for his people. They recorded
their history in the Bible.
Reading Focus Where do your ideas about right
and wrong come from? Read on to find out how the
Israelites developed their ideas about right and wrong.
About 1200 B.C., great changes took
place around the Mediterranean Sea.
Empires fell and new people entered the
region. Many set up small kingdoms.
Around 1000 B.C., a people called Israelites
(IHZ • ruh • LYTS) built a kingdom in Canaan
This painting shows Abraham leading the
(KAY • nuhn). Canaan lies along the Israelites from Mesopotamia to Canaan. Why
Mediterranean Sea in southwest Asia. did the Israelites eventually leave Canaan?
Who Were the Israelites? Although the The Israelites believed they were
Israelite population was small, the religion descended from a man named Abraham. In
they practiced would one day affect most the Bible, it says that God told Abraham
of the world. Most people at this time and his followers to leave Mesopotamia
worshiped many gods and goddesses. The and go to Canaan. There, they were to
Israelite religion focused on only one God. worship the one true God. In return, God
The belief in one god is called monotheism promised that the land of Canaan would
(MAH • nuh • thee • IH • zuhm). belong to Abraham and his descendants.
The Israelite faith became the religion According to the Bible, this is the reason
known today as Judaism (JOO • dee • IH • that the Israelites settled in Canaan.
zuhm). The followers of Judaism were even- Abraham had a grandson named Jacob.
tually known as Jews. Judaism influenced Jacob was also called Israel, which means
Christianity and Islam, and also helped “one who struggles with God.” Later this
shape the beliefs and practices of societies name was given to Jacob’s descendants.
in Europe and America. According to the Bible, Jacob raised 12
The Israelites spoke a language called sons in Canaan. His family was divided
Hebrew. They wrote down much of their into tribes, or separate family groups.
history and many of their religious beliefs These groups later became known as the 12
in what later became the Hebrew Bible. tribes of Israel. The Israelites lived in Canaan
Through this book, Jewish values and reli- for about 100 years. Then a long drought
gion later spread to Europe. began. Crops withered and livestock died.
The earliest Israelites were herders and To survive, the Israelites went to Egypt.
traders. According to the Bible, they came
from Mesopotamia and settled in Canaan. From Slavery to Freedom Life was not
Today, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan occupy good in Egypt. The Egyptian pharaoh
the land that was once Canaan. needed men to build his pyramids, so he
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 81
Tom Lovell/National Geographic Society Image Collection
Moses and the Ten Commandments
In this painting, Moses watches as the Red Sea closes in on the
Egyptian soldiers who were pursuing the Israelites. What is the
Israelites’ escape from Egypt called?
enslaved the Israelites. To prevent a rebel- how God “passed over” their homes with
lion he ordered all baby boys born to the tenth plague and then delivered them
Israelites thrown into the Nile River. from Egypt.
The Bible says that one desperate As Israelites headed east out of Egypt,
mother put her baby in a basket and hid it the pharaoh changed his mind and sent
on the riverbank. The pharaoh’s daughter his army after the Israelites. According
found the baby and named him Moses. to the Bible, God parted the Red Sea to
When Moses grew up, he tended sheep let his people pass. When the Egyptians
outside Egypt. Around 1290 B.C., he saw a followed, the water flowed back and
burning bush and heard a voice. He drowned the soldiers. The Israelite escape
believed that God was telling him to lead from Egypt is known as the Exodus.
the Israelites out of Egypt to freedom.
What Are the Ten Commandments? On
To get the pharaoh to let the Israelites their way back to Canaan, the Israelites had
go, the Bible says that God sent 10 plagues to travel through the Sinai desert. The Bible
to trouble Egypt. A plague is sometimes a says that during this journey, Moses went to
disease, but it can also mean something that the top of Mount Sinai (SY • NY). There, he
causes problems for a lot of people. The last received laws from God. These laws were
plague God sent killed all first-born chil- known as the Torah (TOHR • uh). They later
dren, except for those of Israelites who became the first part of the Hebrew Bible.
marked their doorway with lamb’s blood. The Torah described a covenant (KUHV •
This plague convinced the pharaoh to let nuhnt), or agreement, with God. In the agree-
the Israelites leave. Jews today celebrate a ment, God promised to return the Israelites
holiday called Passover to remember to Canaan if they followed his laws.
82 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
(l)North Wind Picture Archives, (r)Leland Bobbe/Getty Images
According to the Bible, Moses received the
Ten Commandments and other laws from
God on Mount Sinai. Moses and the
Israelites promised to follow these laws.
1. Do not worship any god except me.
2. Do not . . . bow down and worship idols.
3. Do not misuse my name.
4. Remember that the Sabbath Day belongs
5. Respect your father and your mother.
The Ark of the Covenant was a box, 6. Do not murder.
which, according to Jewish beliefs, 7. Be faithful in marriage.
held the Ten Commandments. 8. Do not steal.
How did the Ten Commandments 9. Do not tell lies about others.
help shape the basic moral laws
of many European nations? 10. Do not want anything that
belongs to someone else.
The Torah explained what
God considered to be right and
wrong. The most important part of Moses with the
the Torah is the Ten Commandments.
They are summarized in the feature to
the right. The Ten Commandments
told the Israelites to be loyal only to
God, whose name was never to be
spoken. They must never worship any
other gods or images. The belief that there
should be only one god became the founda-
tion for both Christianity and Islam.
The Ten Commandments helped shape
the basic moral laws of many nations. The
Ten Commandments told people not to
steal, murder, or tell lies about others. They
told people to avoid jealousy and to honor 1. How many of the commandments
their parents. The Ten Commandments also tell people how to interact with other
helped develop a belief in the “rule of law.” people?
This is the idea that laws should apply to 2. How many tell them how to worship
everyone equally. and show respect for God?
Explain What covenant was
described in the Torah?
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 83
(t)The Israel Museum, Jerusalem, (c)Stock Montage/SuperStock, (b)Laura Zito/Photo Researchers
The Promised Land the walls of Jericho crumbled, and the
Israelites overran the city.
The Israelites had to fight the Canaanites Joshua led the Israelites in three more
to return to their promised land. wars. The land they seized was divided
Reading Focus What qualities do you think a good among the 12 tribes.
leader should have? Read on to find out about the lead-
ers of the Israelites. Who Were the Fighting Judges? After
Joshua died, the Israelites looked to judges
It probably took the Israelites about for leadership. A judge was usually a military
40 years to reach Canaan. Moses never leader. Generally, he or she commanded
lived to see the Promised Land. After Moses 1 or 2 tribes, but seldom all 12. The Bible tells
died, a leader named Joshua took over and about Barak, Gideon, Samuel, Eli, Samson,
brought the Israelites into Canaan. When and others, including a woman judge. Her
they arrived, however, they found other name was Deborah.
people living there. Most were Canaanites Deborah told Barak to attack the army
(KAY • nuh • NYTS). The Israelites believed it of the Canaanite king Jabin. She went along
was God’s will that they conquer the to the battlefield as an adviser. With
Canaanites, so Joshua led them into battle. Deborah’s help, Barak and 10,000 Israelites
The story of the campaign is told in the destroyed King Jabin and his army in about
Bible. Joshua led the Israelites to the city of 1125 B.C.
Jericho and told them to march around the Over time, the Israelites won control
city’s walls. For six days, they marched of the hilly region in central Canaan. The
while seven priests blew their trumpets. On Canaanites kept the flat, coastal areas. To
the seventh day, the trumpets sounded one protect themselves, the Israelites built
last time, and Joshua told the Israelites to walled towns. They also created an alphabet
raise a great shout. According to the story, and a calendar based on Canaanite ideas.
The Phoenician Alphabet One group of
Canaanites, the Phoenicians (fih • NEE •
shuhns), lived in cities along the Mediterranean
According to the Bible story, the walls of
Jericho came down as the trumpets of the
Israelites sounded. Who led the Israelites
in their return to Canaan? The town of Jericho today
84 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
(l)Mary Evans Picture Library, (r)Charles & Josette Lenars/CORBIS
Sea. The Phoenicians were skilled Alphabets
sailors and traders. Their ships
Modern Ancient Ancient Ancient Early
carried goods across the Characters Phoenician Hebrew Greek Roman
Mediterranean to Greece, Spain, A
and even western Africa.
Through trade, the Phoenicians
spread ideas and goods. One of G
their most important ideas was D
an alphabet, or a group of letters
that stood for sounds. The letters
could be used to spell out the F
words in their language. Z
The alphabet made writing TH
simpler and helped people keep
records. The Phoenicians brought
the idea of an alphabet to the
Greeks. They, in turn, passed it on to the The Phoenician idea of an alphabet was
passed on to the Greeks and then the Romans.
Romans. Most Western alphabets are based It is the basis for the English alphabet today.
on the Roman alphabet. Which modern letter most closely resembles
Identify Who led the its Phoenician character?
Israelites into Canaan, and what city did they
conquer under his leadership?
Study CentralTM Need help with the
material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com
What Did You Learn?
Reading Summary 1. Why was the religion of Israel
unique in the ancient world?
4. Analyze What was the
importance of the Phoenician
2. What is the Torah, and how did alphabet?
• Led by Abraham, the Israelites the Israelites obtain it? 5. Summarize What problems
settled in Canaan. They later
did the Israelites face when
moved to Egypt and were Critical Thinking
they returned to Canaan?
enslaved, but then escaped. 3. Summarizing Information
The Israelites used the Ten Use a web diagram like the one 6. Expository Writing Which
Commandments as rules to below to list the parts of one of the Ten Commandments
live by. Jewish religion that are still do you think is most important
important in our society. today? Write a short essay to
explain your selection.
• Joshua and the judges, including
Deborah, won back territory in 7. Main Idea Write
central Canaan for the Israelites. a paragraph by adding support-
Jewish Ideas ing details to this main idea:
The Phoenician alphabet
had an impact on many
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 85
What’s the Connection? Meeting People
In Section 1, you read about Philistine (FIH • luh • STEEN)
the constant fighting between the Saul (SAWL)
Israelites and the Canaanites. The David
tribes of Israel longed for peace. Solomon (SAHL • uh • muhn)
Many thought the way to peace
was to unite as one nation. (NEH • byuh • kuhd • NEH • zuhr)
Focusing on the Building Your Vocabulary
• The Israelites chose a king to unite prophet (PRAH • fuht)
them against their enemies. (page 87) empire (EHM • PYR)
• King David built an Israelite empire tribute (TRIH • byoot)
and made Jerusalem his capital city. proverb (PRAH • VUHRB)
• The Israelites were conquered and Reading Strategy
forced to leave Israel and Judah. Categorizing Information Complete
(page 90) a chart like the one below identifying
characteristics of Israel and Judah.
Locating Places Location
Jerusalem (juh • ROO • suh • luhm) Capital City
Judah (JOO • duh)
1000 B.C. 750 B.C. 500 B.C.
c. 1000 B.C. 722 B.C. 597 B.C.
David Assyrians Nebuchadnezzar
becomes king conquer Israel captures Jerusalem
86 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
The Israelites Choose a King
Mary Evans Picture Library
The Rule of King Saul In 1020 B.C. the
Israelites asked Samuel to choose a king.
The Israelites chose a king to unite Samuel was a judge and a prophet (PRAH •
them against their enemies. fuht). A prophet is a person who claims to
Reading Focus What does “united we stand, divided be instructed by God to share God’s words.
we fall” mean to you? Read on to find out what it meant Samuel warned that a king would tax
to the 12 tribes of Israel. the Israelites and make them slaves. The
Israelites still demanded a king, so they
Around 1000 B.C., the strongest people
chose a warrior-farmer named Saul (SAWL).
living in Canaan were not the Israelites,
Samuel anointed Saul as king. In other
but the Philistines (FIH • luh • STEENS). The
words, he blessed him with oil to show that
Philistines had strong cities, and they knew
God had chosen him. Saul was tall and
how to make iron tools and weapons. Fearing
handsome and had won many battles.
the power of the Philistines, many Israelites
Saul defeated the Israelites’ enemies in
copied their ways and worshiped their gods.
battle after battle. However, according to
In the past, the 12 tribes often quarreled.
the Bible, the king displeased God by dis-
If they were going to save their religion and
obeying some of his commands. God then
way of life, they would have to learn how to
chose another king and instructed Samuel
work together. They needed a king to unite
to anoint him in secret. The new king was a
them against the Philistines.
young shepherd named David.
Explain Why did the
Israelites want a king?
Web Activity Visit jat.glencoe.com and click
on Chapter 3—Student Web Activity to learn
According to the Bible, David had to be called in
more about the ancient Israelites. from the fields where he was tending his sheep
when Samuel arrived to anoint him. Why did
God have Samuel anoint David?
(t)Bettmann/CORBIS, (b)Private Collection/Bridgeman Art Library
ed c. B.C.
eral books of the
The story of David’s life is told in sev
II and Psalms. During
Old Testament, including Samuel I and
King Saul’s court. While
his youth, David worked as an aide in
with the king’s son,
at court, he formed a close friendship
against the Philistines as
Jonathan. David fought courageously
the Philistine giant,
a soldier in Saul’s army. He also killed
nes. The first book of
Goliath, with only a slingshot and sto
pleased King Saul.
Samuel tells how David’s harp playing
friendship with Jonathan
But the king grew jealous of David’s King David
and of David’s gro wing popularity as a brave soldier.
To save his own life, David fled into the “The sweet psalmist
outlaws. David and
this time, David led a group of other
his band protected people from raid
ers and returned of Israel”
the time David
possessions that had been stolen. By —David, 2 Samuel 23:1
returned to Jerusalem, he was well-kn
the land. id
became the second king of Israel. Dav
After the death of King Saul, David and made it
Israel. He then conquered Jerusalem
successfully united all the tribes of n, David built Israel
the kingdom’s capital. During his reig
into an empire and dominated neighb
David was not only a brave warrior
Many of the hymns
leader, he was also a talented poet.
have been credited
in the Old Testament’s book of Psalms
begins “The Lord is
to David, including Psalm 23, which
kes me lie down
my shepherd, I shall not want; he ma
still waters; he
in green pastures. He leads me beside
hs of righteousness
restores my soul. He leads me in pat
for his name’s sake.”
In David’s time, kings were expected
in battle. Conduct research to find at
three U.S. presidents who built their
reputations in the military.
David versus Goliath
David and Solomon Proverbs
King David built an Israelite empire and Solomon’s proverbs are recorded in the
made Jerusalem his capital city. Bible. Read these three, then answer
Reading Focus What person do you think was most the question.
important in the history of the United States? Read to “What you gain by
learn why King David is so important to the history of doing evil won’t help
the Jewish people. you at all, but being
good can save you
David’s fame as a warrior spread. The from death.
Bible shows his fame by telling this story. At harvest season
Just before a battle against the Philistines, a it’s smart to work
giant Philistine named Goliath called out hard, but [unwise]
in a loud voice. He dared any Israelite to to sleep.
fight him one-on-one. David stepped for- You will be safe,
ward with his shepherd’s staff, a slingshot, if you always do
and five smooth stones. right, but you will
“Am I a dog that you come against me get caught, if you
with a staff?” Goliath roared. He rushed are dishonest.”
forward with a heavy spear, but David was —Proverbs 10: 2, 5, 9
too quick for him. He hurled one stone King Solomon
straight at the giant’s forehead, and Goliath
dropped dead on the spot.
Saul put David in charge of the army. As How would the third proverb above
his victories grew, Israelite women sang his convince people to tell the truth?
praises. “Saul has slain his thousands, and
David his ten thousands.” Saul grew envi-
ous and plotted to kill David.
David hid out in enemy territory until sacred religious objects cherished by the
Saul and his three sons were killed in battle. Israelites would finally have a permanent
The bitter rivalry was over. David was able home. David died before he built the temple,
to take the throne in about 1000 B.C. but for centuries, the Israelites remembered
Once in power, David drove the him as their greatest king.
Philistines from the area. He conquered
other neighboring nations and created an The Rule of King Solomon When David
empire (EHM • PYR). An empire is a nation that died, his son Solomon (SAHL • uh • muhn)
rules several other nations. Conquered peo- became king. It was Solomon who built a
ples in the area had to pay David and the splendid stone temple in Jerusalem. It
Israelites tribute (TRIH • byoot). Tribute is became the symbol and center of the Jewish
money or slaves given to a stronger ruler. religion.
David made the Israelites pay heavy In the Bible, Solomon was known for his
taxes. He needed money to expand his new wise sayings, or proverbs (PRAH • VUHRBS), but
capital of Jerusalem (juh • ROO • suh • luhm). many Israelites hated his rule. Solomon taxed
He wanted a fine temple there so that the people to pay for his great buildings.
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 89
The Israelites in the north were espe-
cially unhappy with Solomon. To get more
A Troubled Time
money, Solomon had made many of their The Israelites were conquered and
young men work in the mines of a neigh- forced to leave Israel and Judah.
boring country. Reading Focus Have you ever moved and left a home
When Solomon died, the northerners you loved? Read to find out why many Israelites were
rebelled and fighting broke out. Ten of the forced to leave their home.
12 tribes set up their own nation in the north.
It was called the kingdom of Israel, and its While the Israelites were dividing their
capital was Samaria. In the south, the other kingdom, the Assyrians and Chaldeans
two tribes founded the smaller kingdom of (kal • DEE • uhns) were building empires in
Judah (JOO • duh). Its capital was Jerusalem, southwest Asia. These peoples wanted to
and its people were called Jews. control the trade routes that ran through the
Explain Why did Solomon Israelite kingdoms. Small and weak, the
tax the people so heavily? kingdoms of Israel and Judah felt threat-
ened by their powerful neighbors.
The temple built by Solomon was thought
to be about 180 feet long. It contained
Cyprus large quantities of imported cedar wood
and fine stone. Why did the Israelites
become unhappy with Solomon?
Jo r d a n R .
Jerusalem Kingdom of Israel
Dead Kingdom of Judah
0 100 mi. Sea
0 100 km
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area
After the death of Solomon, the
Mt. Israelites split into two kingdoms—
Israel and Judah.
1. Which kingdom lost access to
2. Which kingdom shares a border
Find NGS online map resources @
Major Hebrew Prophets
Name Time Period Teachings
Elijah 874–840 B.C. Only God should be worshiped—not idols
or false gods.
Amos 780–740 B.C. The kingdom of King David will be restored
and will prosper.
Hosea 750–722 B.C. God is loving and forgiving.
Isaiah 738–700 B.C. God wants us to help others and promote justice.
Micah 735–700 B.C. Both rich and poor have to do what is right
and follow God.
Jeremiah 626–586 B.C. God is just and kind—he rewards as well as
Ezekiel 597–571 B.C. Someone who has done wrong can choose
The Israelites believed that God shared his
Who Were the Prophets? During this word with them through a series of prophets.
troubled time, many Israelites forgot their 1. Which prophet taught that both the rich and
the poor needed to obey God’s word?
religion. The rich mistreated the poor, and
2. Compare What do the teachings of Isaiah,
government officials stole money. Micah, and Ezekiel have in common?
The prophets wanted to bring Israelites
back to God’s laws. Their special message
was that being faithful meant more than
going to a temple to worship. It meant
forced to move lost their religion and way
working for a just society. The prophet
of life. They are often called the “lost tribes
Amos said that justice should “roll down
like waters and righteousness as a mighty
The Assyrians settled the area around
stream.” The goal of a just society became
Samaria and became known as Samaritans.
an important part of Christianity and Islam.
The Assyrian settlers were afraid that
What Caused the Fall of Israel? The war- Israel’s God might punish them for taking
like Assyrians were feared everywhere in the Israelites’ land, so they offered sacrifices
the region. When they conquered a nation, to Israel’s God. They also read the Torah
the Assyrians destroyed its main buildings and followed the Israelites’ religious laws.
and scattered the population. Assyrians After many years, the Samaritans wor-
then settled in the territory. shiped only the God of Israel.
In 722 B.C. the Assyrians conquered The people of Judah looked down on
Israel and scattered the 10 tribes across their the Samaritans. They believed that God
empire. Over time, the Israelites who were accepted only the sacrifices from the temple
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 91
at Jerusalem. They did not believe that Nebuchadnezzar (NEH • byuh • kuhd • NEH •
other people were God’s people too. zuhr) of the Chaldeans captured Jerusalem.
He punished the Jews severely. He made
Why Did Judah Fall? Now, only the small 10,000 Jews leave the city and live in
kingdom of Judah was left of the once
Babylon, the Chaldean capital. Then he
proud empire of David. It did not last long,
appointed a new Jewish king.
because the Egyptians conquered it about
Soon the new king of Judah was plan-
620 B.C. The Jews were able to keep their
ning a revolt against the Chaldeans. A
king but paid tribute to Egypt.
prophet named Jeremiah warned him that
However, Egyptian rule was cut short
another revolt was dangerous, but the king
when the Chaldeans conquered Egypt in
did not listen. In 586 B.C. he revolted. This
605 B.C. The Chaldeans became the new
time, the Chaldean ruler crushed Jerusalem.
rulers of Judah. At first, the Chaldeans
He destroyed the temple, bound the king in
treated the Israelites like the Egyptians had
chains, and took him and thousands of Jews
before. They allowed the Jews to keep their
to Babylon. In Jewish history, this time
king as long as they paid tribute.
became known as the Babylonian Captivity.
Several years later, the Jews united with
the Egyptians to rebel against the Chaldeans. Explain Why did the
Judah held out against the Chaldean Assyrians and Chaldeans want to control the land
invasion until 597 B.C. That year, King belonging to the Israelites?
Study CentralTM Need help with the
material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com
What Did You Learn?
Reading Summary 1. Why was David anointed king
while Saul was still in charge
4. Summarize What happened
to the Israelites after the death
Review the of the Israelites? of Solomon?
• Saul was the first king of the
Israelites. He united the 12 tribes 2. Who were the prophets, and 5. Describe Who were the
into one kingdom. why were they important to Samaritans, and what did the
the Israelites? people of Judah think of them?
• King David built an Israelite Critical Thinking 6. Infer Why do you think
empire and made Jerusalem
3. Compare Draw a chart like the Assyrians, and later the
his capital. Solomon built a
the one below. Use it to com- Chaldeans, moved Jews
great temple at Jerusalem, but
pare the accomplishments of away from Israel and Judah
after he died, the Israelites
King David and King Solomon. after those areas were
split into two kingdoms—Israel
and Judah. King David King Solomon
• The Assyrians and then the 7. Main Idea
Choose one paragraph from the
Chaldeans conquered Israel and
Biography on page 88. Create
Judah, and forced many Israelites
a graphic organizer to show
to leave their homeland.
the main idea and supporting
details in that paragraph.
92 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
What’s the Connection? Meeting People
In Section 2, you learned that the Judas Maccabeus
Chaldeans forced thousands of Jews (JOO • duhs MAK • uh • BEE • uhs)
to go to Babylon. Life in Babylon was Herod (HEHR • uhd)
very difficult. Many of Judah’s people Zealot (ZEH • luht)
looked to their religion for hope and Johanan ben Zakkai
strength. (YOH • kah • nahn behn • zah • KY)
Focusing on the Building Your Vocabulary
• The Jews continued their religion exile (EHG • ZYL)
during their exile in Babylon. (page 94)
Sabbath (SA • buhth)
• Jews spread their beliefs to the Greek synagogue (SIH • nuh • GAHG)
world and regained control of Judah. Diaspora (dy • AS • pruh)
messiah (muh • SY • uh)
• Religion shaped the Jewish way of rabbi (RA • BY)
life. (page 97)
• Under Roman rule, the Jews were Reading Strategy
divided and rebellious. In response, Summarizing Information Use a
the Romans destroyed the temple diagram like the one below to describe
and exiled the Jews. (page 100) the Maccabees.
Locating Places Maccabees
Babylon (BA • buh • luhn)
600 B.C. 250 B.C. A.D. 100
538 B.C. 168 B.C. A.D. 66
Cyrus allows Jews Judas Maccabeus Jews revolt
to return to Judah rebels against Antiochus against Romans
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 93
Exile and Return Why Did Jews Return to Judah? During
the 500s B.C., a group of people called
The Jews continued their religion during Persians swept across southwest Asia. The
their exile in Babylon. Persians defeated the Chaldeans and took
Reading Focus Have you ever learned something over Babylon. In 538 B.C. the Persian king
important by experiencing a hardship? Read on to find Cyrus permitted Jews to return to Judah.
out what lessons the Jews learned from hard times. Some Jews stayed in Babylon, but many
went home. They rebuilt Jerusalem and the
The Jews called their time in Babylon an temple. Cyrus appointed officials to rule the
exile (EHG • ZYL). This means they were country and collected taxes from the peo-
forced to live in a foreign land. During their ple. Because Persians controlled their gov-
exile, the Israelite religion became what we ernment, the Jews looked to their religion
call Judaism. for leadership.
While in Babylon (BA • buh • luhn), small The leaders of the Jews became the tem-
groups of Jews met on the Sabbath (SA • ple priests and scribes, or religious scholars
buhth). This was their weekly day of worship and writers. Under a scribe named Ezra, the
and rest. The Jews would pray and discuss Jews wrote the five books of the Torah on
their religion and history. These meetings pieces of parchment. They sewed the pieces
took place at synagogues (SIH • nuh • GAHGS), together to make long scrolls. The Torah
or Jewish houses of worship. The syna- and writings that were added later made
gogue meetings gave the people hope. up the Hebrew Bible.
Torah scrolls are carried in decorated cases
such as this one from the main synagogue
in Jerusalem. What larger text is made up
of the Torah and other important writing?
A rabbi reads
from the Torah.
(l)Richard T. Nowitz/CORBIS, (c)Bill Aron/PhotoEdit, (r)SuperStock
The Jews and the Greeks
Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, Merseyside, UK, National Museums Liverpool/Bridgeman Art Library
What Is in the Hebrew Bible? The Hebrew
Bible is really a series of books collected
together. It includes the five books of the Jews spread their beliefs to the Greek
Torah and 34 other books. These books world and regained control of Judah.
describe events in Jewish history. The Jews Reading Focus How do you show loyalty to friends
believed that God had a special role for them and family? In the following paragraphs, you’ll learn
in history and that events had meaning. how Jews showed loyalty to their religion and country.
For example Genesis, the first book of
the Torah, tells how God punished the In 334 B.C. a king named Alexander the
world for its bad behavior. In Genesis, God Great began taking over kingdoms around
tells Noah to build an ark, or large boat. the Mediterranean. In 331 B.C. his armies
Noah, his family, and two of every animal defeated the Persians, so Judah came under
on Earth boarded the ark. Then a great his control. Fortunately, Alexander allowed
flood covered the land, and only those on the Jews to stay in Judah. However,
the ark escaped drowning. After the flood, Alexander, who loved all things Greek,
God created a rainbow as a symbol of his introduced the Greek language and Greek
promise to never again destroy the world ways to Judah.
with a flood. What Was the Diaspora? At the time,
Genesis also explains why the world Jews were also living in other parts of
has languages. It tells how the people of Alexander’s empire. Many still lived in
Babel tried to build a tower to heaven. God Babylon. Some lived in Egypt and other
disapproved and made the people speak in lands around the Mediterranean Sea. The
different languages, then scattered them Jews outside of Judah became known as the
across the earth.
The Jews Look to the Future Parts of the According to the Bible, Daniel is thrown into
a lion’s den for refusing to worship the
Bible described God’s plan for a peaceful Babylonian gods. God, however, kept Daniel safe
future. The book of Daniel addressed this from the lions. What lesson did this story
issue. Daniel lived in Babylon and was a present to the Jews?
trusted adviser of the king.
However, he refused to worship
Babylonian gods. The Chaldeans
threw Daniel into a lion’s den,
but God protected Daniel from
the lions. The story was meant to
remind Jews that God would res-
The Jews believed that evil and
suffering would eventually be
replaced by goodness. Christians
and Muslims share this idea of
good triumphing over evil.
allowed the Jews to return to Judah?
Diaspora (dy • AS • pruh). Diaspora is a Greek (JOO • duhs MAK • uh • BEE • uhs) and his fol-
word that means “scattered.” lowers rebelled. They fled to the hills and
Many Jews of the Diaspora learned the formed an army known as the Maccabees.
Greek language and Greek ways but After many battles, the Maccabees drove
remained loyal to Judaism. A group of them the Greeks out of Judah. They destroyed
copied the Hebrew Bible into Greek. This all traces of Greek gods and goddesses in
Greek version helped people who were not their temple and made it a temple for wor-
Jews to read and understand the Hebrew shiping the God of Israel. Each year Jews
Bible. As a result, Jewish ideas spread recall the cleansing of the temple when they
throughout the Mediterranean world. celebrate Hanukkah (HAH • nuh • kuh).
Priests from Judas Maccabeus’s family
Who Were the Maccabees? In 168 B.C. a became the new rulers of Judah. Under
Greek ruler named Antiochus (an • TY • uh their leadership, Judah took over land that
kuhs) controlled Judah. He decided to make had been part of the kingdom of Israel.
the Jews of Judah worship Greek gods and Analyze How did Alexander
goddesses. A priest named Judas Maccabeus the Great affect the Israelites?
Major Jewish Holidays
Name Time Length Reason for Customs
of Year the Holiday
Passover April 8 days to celebrate God’s passing limited work; some fasts;
(7 in over of the Jews during sell certain foods that
Israel) the final plague in cannot be eaten or
Egypt that enabled the owned during the holiday;
Jews to return to the perform rituals
Rosh September 2 days to celebrate the Jewish plan changes for the new
Hoshana or October New Year year; no work; synagogue
services; a shofar (horn) is
blown in synagogues
Yom Kippur September 25 hours to make amends for no work; synagogue services;
or October sins of the past year pray; fast; apologize for
wrongs during the past year
Hanukkah December 8 days to celebrate the Maccabees’ light candles each night;
victory, and reclaiming of eat fried foods; play a game
the temple in Jerusalem called dreidel; give gifts
The Jewish Way of Life Family Life The Jews placed great impor-
tance on family. Sons were especially val-
Religion shaped the Jewish way of life. ued because they carried on the family
Reading Focus What types of things influence the name. Upon a father’s death, the son
way you live? Read to find out how religion influenced became head of the family.
Jewish life. Education was also important. Jewish
children’s first teachers were their mothers.
Jewish law set out many rules for Jews to When sons grew old enough, fathers taught
follow that affected their daily life. These laws them how to earn a living and to worship
influenced their education, the foods they ate, God. Later, elders took over the religious
and even the clothes they wore. The laws education of boys and taught them the
emphasized self-control and reminded Jews Torah. Because reading the Torah was cen-
of their religion. This became important when tral to Jewish life, religious teachers became
they no longer had their own land and king. important community leaders.
Jews in modern-day head coverings
Under Greek rule, Jewish leaders began
covering their heads to distinguish themselves
from the Greeks and to remind themselves to
think about God. Gradually, all Jewish men
started wearing turbans or skull caps.
Jewish women always kept their heads
covered because a woman’s hair was
considered very private.
Jews still wear head coverings,
but only the most conservative—
Orthodox Jews—wear them at all times.
Most Jewish men wear skull caps called
yarmulkes. Jewish women wear scarves
or skull caps. Why do you think Jews of the
Diaspora are more reluctant to wear head
coverings than Jews in Israel?
Ancient Jewish head covering
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 97
(l)Christie’s Images/Bridgeman Art Library, (r)Nathan Benn/CORBIS
Mothers educated their daughters at
Lawrence Migdale/Getty Images
home. The girls learned to be good wives,
mothers, and housekeepers. This included
learning Jewish laws about food and
clothing. They also learned about the coura-
Education in Ancient Israel and Judah geous women of ancient Israel. One of these
Early Israelites placed a high value on women was named Ruth. Her biography
education. Rabbis—Jewish religious appears on the next page. Her courage and
teachers—taught their followers, “If you devotion to her family provided an exam-
have knowledge, you have everything.” ple for Jewish girls to follow.
Unfortunately, only boys were allowed
to go to school.
The Jewish Diet Under Jewish law, Jews
could eat only certain animals. For exam-
Fathers taught their young sons the ple, they could eat beef and lamb but not
commandments. They also taught them pork. They could eat scaly fish, like salmon,
about the meanings of Jewish traditions but not smooth-skinned fish, like eels. Laws
and holy feasts. At age five, boys went about food were known as kashrut, which
to a school that was connected with means “that which is proper.”
the synagogue. There, the hazan, or Today, food that is prepared according to
minister of the synagogue, taught them Jewish dietary laws is called kosher. Animals
the Torah. Everything the students used for kosher meat must be killed in a
learned—from the alphabet to Jewish special way. The meat must be inspected,
history—they learned from the Torah. salted, and soaked. To be kosher, Jews must
Jewish laws decided the stages of not cook or eat milk products with meat.
students’ education. Different subjects In ancient times, everyday meals were
were introduced at the ages of 5, 10, made up of fish, fruit, vegetables, and bar-
ley bread. Beverages included mainly milk,
and 13. Most Jewish boys finished
water, wine, and beer.
their education at age 13. At that age,
boys became adults. Jewish Clothing Jewish law forbade mixing
some fabrics. So women used flax or wool
to make cloth but did not combine the two.
Jewish men wore tunics made of linen
next to their skin. Some men layered
another tunic on top of the first. In cold
weather, they added wool or sheepskin
cloaks. On their heads, they wore caps or
turbans. On their feet, they wore sandals.
Children studying the Torah today Women draped themselves in long, sim-
ple dresses. They covered their heads with
shawls. Only wealthy women could afford
Connecting to the Past leather shoes. They also wore makeup and
1. Why was education important to the
ancient Israelites? jewelry.
2. What was a father’s role in his son’s Analyze Why were sons
education? especially valued in Jewish society?
RUTH AND NAOMI and devotion, Jewish girls learned abo
To show the importance of family love Bible tells about
mi. The Book of Ruth in the Hebrew
relationship between Ruth and Nao , Naomi. Years before, there was so
Ruth’s life and of her dedication to her mother-in-law Moab.
band, and their two sons moved to
little food in Bethlehem that Naomi, her hus her sons
gically, Naomi’s husband and both of
The re, one of their sons married Ruth. Tra in Moab with
hlehem, but she urged Ruth to stay
died. Naomi wanted to return to Bet g
mi by herself. She insisted on travelin
her parents and friends. Ruth refused to leave Nao you
“Wherever you go, I will go; wherever
with her to Bethlehem. Ruth said to Naomi, .”
be my people, and your God my God
lodge; I will lodge; your people shall at the
Naomi and Ruth arrived in Bethlehem
beginning of the barley harvest. Bec
was from Moab, she was considered
e Ruth was
by the Israelites. Furthermore, becaus
she did not
a widow and did not have children,
have any property rights. To survive
Bethlehem, she had to rely upon her
law’s advice and the kindness of a wea
landowner named Boaz.
During the harvest, Ruth worked in
fields, gathering grain left behind on
t began at
by the reapers. It was hard work tha
dawn and ended at dusk, but Ruth nev
complained. She soon earned the resp
admiration of her new people. In tim
married Boaz. They had a son named
In the Hebrew Bible, at the end of the
of Ruth, Obed is named as the grandf
of David, the future king of Israel.
To survive in Bethlehem, Ruth had to
Naomi and Boaz. If a present-day wo
moved to a new city, what resources
she use to help her find work, shelter
Naomi and Ruth
the west in what is today the country of
The Jews and the Romans Italy. When the Romans conquered Judah,
Under Roman rule, the Jews were they renamed it Judaea (joo • DEE • uh). At
divided and rebellious. In response, the Romans first, the Romans allowed Jewish rulers to
destroyed the temple and exiled the Jews. run Judaea.
Reading Focus Do you consider freedom worth
fighting for? Read to find out what happened to the The Rule of King Herod The most famous
Jews after they fought for their freedom. ruler of Judaea during this time was
King Herod (HEHR • uhd). He was known for
In 63 B.C. a people known as the Romans his cruelty and his changes to the Jewish
conquered Judah. Led by powerful gener- temple in Jerusalem. He made the temple
als, the Romans were intent on expanding one of the most awe-inspiring buildings in
their empire. The Roman capital was far to the Roman world. Today he is best known
as the king who ruled Judaea when Jesus
Shortly after Herod died, the Romans
replaced the Jewish king with Roman offi-
cials. The Jews were eager to regain control,
but because they had splintered into different
groups, they did not have as much power.
One group of Jews was known as the
Pharisees (FAR • uh • seez). They taught the
Dead Sea Scrolls Torah and how to apply its laws to daily
In A.D. 1947 shepherd boys in the life. In doing so, they helped make Judaism
Judaean desert near the Dead Sea a religion of the home and family. The
found the first of the Dead Sea Scrolls Pharisees taught in synagogues and were
in a cave. The Dead Sea Scrolls are supported by the common people.
ancient scrolls of leather, papyrus, and The Sadducees (SA • juh • SEEZ) also
copper written between 200 B.C . and accepted the Torah. However, they were
A.D. 68. The documents include the more concerned about how it applied to the
oldest complete copy priests in the Temple. This was
of the book of Isaiah because most of them were
and pieces of many priests and scribes. They did
other books of the not agree with many of the
Hebrew Bible. Most Pharisees’ teachings.
scholars believe that A third group was called
the scrolls were part Essenes (ih • SEENZ). They were
of a library that priests who broke away from
belonged to an early the Temple in Jerusalem.
Jewish community. Many Essenes lived together
in the desert. They spent their
Restoration of the
Dead Sea Scrolls
lives praying and waiting for
God to deliver the Jews from
100 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
Richard T. Nowitz/CORBIS
Today Jews come to the Western Wall, also known as the Wailing Wall,
to pray. What structure is the Western Wall the remains of?
In A.D. 1947 ancient scrolls were found Jerusalem. The Western Wall is all that
in the desert near the Dead Sea. They were remains of it today.
probably written by Essenes and are called The Jews revolted again in A.D. 132.
the Dead Sea Scrolls. The scrolls have Three years later, the Romans put down the
helped historians understand more about revolt. This time, the Romans forbade Jews
Judaism during Roman times. to live in or even visit Jerusalem. They gave
Judah the name of Palestine. This name
Jewish Revolts During the A.D. 60s, Jewish refers to the Philistines, whom the Israelites
hatred of Roman rule was at its peak. Many had conquered centuries before.
Jews were waiting for a messiah (muh • SY •
uh), or deliverer sent by God. Other Jews Jewish Teachers Despite losing their land,
known as Zealots (ZEH • luhts) wanted to the Jews managed to survive. They no
fight the Romans for their freedom. longer had priests. Instead, leaders called
In A.D. 66 the Zealots revolted against rabbis (RA • BYZ) became important. Rabbis
the Romans and drove them out of were teachers of the Torah.
Jerusalem. Four years later, the Romans One of the most famous rabbis was
retook Jerusalem. They killed thousands of Johanan ben Zakkai (YOH • kah • nahn
Jews and forced many others to leave. The behn zah • KY). After the revolt of A.D. 70, he
Romans also destroyed the temple in made sure the study of the Torah continued.
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 101
(t)Dave Bartruff/CORBIS, (c)Gary Cralle/Getty Images, (b)Paul Chesley/Getty Images
He founded a school in northern Palestine The Talmud
that became a center of Torah studies
Part of the Talmud declares that most types
for centuries. Other rabbis founded Torah
of work and business are not allowed on
schools in places as far away as Babylon the Sabbath, or Jewish day of worship. This
and Egypt. passage identifies the only times
The rabbis wanted to it is okay to break those rules.
save and pass on teachings “One is permitted to remove debris on
about the Torah. They com- the Sabbath in order to save a life or
bined the teachings in to act for the benefit of the community;
a book called the Talmud. and we may assemble in the synagogue
on the Sabbath to conduct public
To this day, the Talmud
business [i.e., matters of community
remains an important concern].”
record of Jewish law.
—The Talmud for Today,
For 2,000 years, most
Rabbi Alexander Feinsilver,
Jews lived outside of Jews reading the
trans. and ed.
Palestine. They often faced hatred and
persecution. In A.D. 1948 Palestine was
divided, and a new Jewish nation called
Israel was created. Why do you think these exceptions were
made for the benefit of the community?
Explain How did the
Roman conquest affect the Jews?
Study CentralTM Need help with the
material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com
What Did You Learn?
Reading Summary 1. What was the Diaspora? 5. Identify Who were the
2. What was education like within Zealots, and why were
a Jewish family? they important?
• During their exile in Babylon, the
Jews developed their religion, 6. Draw Conclusions Do you
which is based upon the stories think that Jewish beliefs and
3. Organizing Information values would have spread so
in the Hebrew Bible. Draw a table to describe the widely if the lands of Israel
• Jews spread their ideas to the differences between these and Judah had not been
Greek world. About 168 B.C ., three Jewish groups. conquered by other peoples?
they fought the Greeks for Explain.
control of Judah. Pharisees Sadducees Essenes
7. Persuasive Writing Imagine
• Religious laws concerning food you are living in Judaea during
and clothing affected everyday
the Roman conquest. Write a
letter to a friend describing how
• In 63 B.C. Judah was taken over you might have felt about the
by the Roman Empire. 4. Summarize How did the Jews Romans and what actions you
practice their religion during would like to see taken to
the exile in Babylon? make Judaea free again.
102 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
Section The First Israelites
Vocabulary Focusing on the
monotheism • The Israelites believed in one God who set
tribe down moral laws for his people. They
Torah recorded their history in the Bible. (page 81)
covenant • The Israelites had to fight the Canaanites
alphabet to return to their promised land. (page 84)
Moses with the
Section The Kingdom of Israel
Vocabulary Focusing on the
prophet • The Israelites chose a king to unite them against their enemies. (page 87)
empire • King David built an Israelite empire and made Jerusalem his capital city.
tribute (page 89)
proverb • The Israelites were conquered and forced to leave Israel and Judah.
Section The Growth of Judaism
Vocabulary Focusing on the
exile • The Jews continued their religion
Sabbath during their exile in Babylon. (page 94)
synagogue • Jews spread their beliefs to the Greek
Diaspora world and regained control of Judah.
messiah (page 95)
rabbi • Religion shaped the Jewish way of life.
• Under Roman rule, the Jews were
divided and rebellious. In response,
the Romans destroyed the temple
and exiled the Jews. (page 100)
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 103
(t)Stock Montage/SuperStock, (b)SuperStock
Review Vocabulary Section 2 • The Kingdom of Israel
Match the definitions in the second column to 11. Why did the Israelites choose a king?
the terms in the first column. 12. What happened when the Israelites were
1. tribe a. Jewish house of conquered?
worship Section 3 • The Growth of Judaism
2. prophet b. claims to be inspired 13. How did Jewish ideas spread throughout
by God the Mediterranean world?
3. synagogue c. family group 14. How did Romans respond to Jewish
4. Sabbath d. holy day of worship rebellions?
5. messiah e. forced absence
15. Contrast How was the Jewish religion
6. monotheism f. belief in one god
different from religions of other ancient
7. covenant g. deliverer sent cultures?
16. Analyze Why do you think the Israelites
8. exile h. agreement felt so strongly about a Promised Land?
17. Compare and Contrast How were Saul
Review Main Ideas and David similar, and how were they
Section 1 • The First Israelites different?
9. Where did the Israelites record their 18. Explain How did the Jewish religion
history and religious beliefs? survive during the exile of the Jews?
10. Why did the Israelites fight the 19. Describe What is celebrated on the
Canaanites? Jewish holiday Hanukkah?
Main Idea Finding the Main Idea
20. Read the paragraph at the right from page 101. Create a graphic organizer that shows
the main idea and supporting details.
In A.D. 1947 ancient scrolls were found in the desert near
the Dead Sea. They were probably written by Essenes and are
called the Dead Sea Scrolls. The scrolls have helped historians
understand more about Judaism during Roman times.
To review this skill, see pages 78–79.
104 CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites
Self-Check Quiz To help you prepare for
Geography Skills the Chapter Test, visit jat.glencoe.com
Study the map below and answer the follow-
21. Location Which kingdom—Israel or Using Technology
Judah—had an advantage when it came 27. Organizing Information Search the
to trade? Why? Internet or your local library for informa-
22. Identify What advantage did Judah have tion about the early Phoenicians and
over Israel? Philistines. Use the computer to create
23. Analyze Why did the Phoenicians focus a chart comparing the two cultures.
on trade rather than farming? Include headings such as Location,
Time Period, Major Contributions, and
Linking Past and Present
Byblos 28. Making Comparisons The Israelites
Mediterranean moved from place to place within the same
region along the Mediterranean. Trace the
Sidon route of one of their journeys on a map
DESERT of ancient times. Then trace the route
Tyre again on a map showing that region as
KEY it is today. Identify the current nations
Samaria Phoenicians and landmarks in that region.
Jo r d a n R
W E Kingdom of Israel
Kingdom of Judah
Sea 0 100 mi.
0 100 km
Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area
projection The following passage describes the
effects of the attack on Judaea. The
passage is written by Josephus, a
Read to Write Jewish historian in the Roman era.
24. Descriptive Writing Imagine you are liv- “Throughout the city people were dying
ing in Jerusalem during the time of King of hunger in large numbers. . . . In every
Solomon. Write a letter to a friend describ- house the merest hint of food sparked
ing the things Solomon is doing as leader. violence, and close relatives fell to blows. . . .
Be sure to mention which of these things No respect was paid even to the dying; the
the people like and which they do not like. ruffians searched them, in case they were
25. Summarize Choose three events in this concealing food somewhere in their clothes.”
chapter that you think were the most —Josephus, “The Siege of Jerusalem”
important to the history of the Israelites.
Write a headline for each that might have
appeared in a newspaper of that time.
29. What does Josephus mean when he
26. Using Your Use the information says “No respect was paid even to
you wrote in your three-pocket foldable the dying”?
to create a fill-in-the-blank quiz for a class- 30. How might this account have been
mate. Write a paragraph about one of the different if it had been written by
sections, leaving blanks for your classmate a Roman soldier?
to fill in. Leave blanks for vocabulary
words or significant places and people.
CHAPTER 3 The Ancient Israelites 105
Compare the civilizations
that you have read about by
reviewing the information Chapter 1
below. Can you see how the Chapter 2
people of these civilizations Chapter 3
helped to build the world we
live in today?
First Ancient Ancient
Civilizations Egypt Israelites
Chap ter 1 Cha p te r 2 C h a p te r 3
Where did these
• Between the Tigris and • Along the banks of the • In an area called Canaan
civilizations Euphrates Rivers Nile River
• Sargon, c. 2340–2279 B.C. • Abraham, c. 1800 B.C.
Who are some • Hammurabi, • Moses, c. 1250 B.C.
important • King Khufu, c. 2540 B.C.
c. 1792–1750 B.C .
• Hatshepsut, c. 1470 B.C. • David, c. 1000–970 B.C.
people in these • Nebuchadnezzar, • The Maccabees, 168 B.C.
c. 605–562 B.C . • Ramses II, c. 1279–
civilizations? 1213 B.C .
• Kashta, c. 750 B.C.
• Most people • Some people lived in • Most people lived in
Where did lived on farms large cities small villages or near
most of the near walled
• Most people lived in
the city of Jerusalem
villages along the Nile
people live? • The center
of the city
(t)Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY, (b)Louvre Museum, Paris/Bridgeman Art Library
First Ancient Ancient
Civilizations Egypt Israelites
Chap ter 1 Cha p te r 2 C h a p te r 3
• Worshiped many • Worshiped gods and • Worshiped one God
these people’s different gods goddesses
• Used the Bible as a
beliefs? • The gods • Believed in record of their history
appointed life after
the rulers death
• Early Israelites were led
What was their by prophets
government • Early Mesopotamians
were ruled by priests
• King was a ruler-priest
and a god
• Later, they
like? • Later, kings ruled the • Pharaoh owned all land by judges,
people; they believed in Egypt then kings
kings had divine approval
• Early: cuneiform: wedge- • Hieroglyphics: images
What was their shaped characters that stood for ideas • Adapted Phoenician
language and • Later: a Semitic language characters to form
letters and words
• Developed writing • Built machines to move • Developed ideas of legal
What • Created system of water to crops system
contributions mathematics • Developed a calendar • Passed on ideas of
justice, fairness, and
did they make? • Studied systems of time • Built large temples compassion in society
and created calendars and pyramids
• Introduced iron weapons • Believed in one God
• Similar measurements • Pyramids and other • Many religions today are
How do these are still used in building structures still amaze based on ideas similar
contributions today people today to those of the early
• Our system of time is
affect me? Can based on seconds,
you add any? minutes, and hours
(t)Boltin Picture Library, (tr)Stock Montage/SuperStock, (c)Smithsonian Institution, (b)CORBIS