Alaska_Writing_Session_2_PowerPoint by jianghongl

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									Explicit Instruction for Writing in
           Grades 1 - 8
                Effective and Efficient
                       Instruction
                   Webinar Series
                       Session 2
                    Anita L. Archer, Ph.D.
                    Author and Consultant

                       archerteach@aol.com




                                             1
                           Schedule
February 7, 2013                   • Time
Topics: Sentence Writing             3:45 to 5:45 (Alaska)
February 21, 2013                  • Materials needed
Topics: Big Ideas-Writing
                                      – PowerPoint Handout
Instruction; Scaffolding with
Writing Frames; Scaffolding with      – Paper
Strategies, Think Sheets              – Writing Tools
(Summary, Compare and
Contrast)                          • Follow-up Resources
                                      – Examples
March 7, 2013
Topics: Think Sheets for              – Articles
Products that Inform, Convince,
and Convey an Experience



                                                             2
                  Participation
1.   Structured Choral Responses:
     If the answer is short and the same, you will say an answer together.

2.   Structured Partner Responses:
     If you are viewing this with fellow educators, divide into partners and
     give each partner a number (either #1 or #2).

3.   Written Responses:
     Record written responses on the handout or on plain paper.

4.   Recorder: Select one person in your group to be the recorder of
     “best answers” when asked. Type into “Chat Box.”

5.   Best Practices: On a separate piece of paper, maintain a list of best
     practices.

                                                                        3
           Participation

• Passage Reading
  – Choral Reading
  – Cloze Reading
  – Partner Reading




                           4
           Questions


If you have a question, type it into the “Chat
 Box”. At intervals during the session, I will
 respond to the questions.




                                             5
                  Topics
• Overview of Foundation Skills
• Sentence Refinement
  – Sentence Formation - Patterns
  – Sentence Expansion
  – Sentence Combining
  – Word Choice
  – Sentence Starters


• What      Why    How

                                    6
Teaching Skills and Strategies


 Design of Instruction
   Modeling -              I do it.
   Guided Practice -       We do it.
   Check Understanding -   You do it.



                                        7
      Sentence Instruction
1. Structured initial instruction
   Model                    I do it
   Guided Practice          We do it
   Check Understanding      You do it
2. Judicious practice
3. Transfer skill to daily writing and editing



                                                 8
  Sentence Formation - Patterns
What
 - Students generate sentences that match a
 specific pattern
Why
 - Students gain:
     - Sentence sense
     - Ability to manipulate words within
        sentences
     - “Sentence Vocabulary” allowing
         discussion of sentences and feedback
         on sentences                           9
  Sentence Formation - Patterns

How -
1) Teacher presents pattern and explains the
   sentence parts
2) Teacher models generation of parallel
   sentences using stem
3) Students generate sentences by supplying
   missing element to stem
4) On subsequent days, students practice the
   same pattern with new stems
5) (Repeat with other other sentence stems.)
                                               10
Sentence Formation -Patterns


Who            Action       What
My friends     watched     a movie.
My friends   watched     a play.
My friends   watched
My friends   watched
My friends   watched

                                      11
Sentence Formation -Patterns


Who                 Action               What
My friends          watched             a movie.

           o
                Example Student Paper
     Who              Action                What
   My friends         watched             a movie.
   My friends         watched           zoo animals.
   My friends         watched           a small dog.
   My friends         watched             a video.
   My friends         watched            television.




                                                       12
Sentence Formation - Patterns
(See Examples for additional sentence stems)
   Additional sentence stems
   Who            Action        What
   Max            created
   Ms. Jones       lifted
   Pauline         drew
   Thomas          fixed
   Mr. King        baked
   The            cleaned
   children
                                               13
     Sentence Expansion
What
• Students add words or phrases to sentences
  expressing time (when), place (where), manner (how)
  or reason (why).
• Students add adjectives to modify nouns.
Why
• Useful if students sentences are short, incomplete, or
  stilted (Moats, 2001)
• Students gain:
   – Sentence sense
   – Greater precision in sentences (Cudd & Roberts, 1993)
   – Sentences rich in vocabulary and detail
                                                             14
        Sentence Expansion
How
1.   Teacher models how to add words or phrases to
     sentence stem to answer one or more of the
     following questions: who, what, when, where,how,
     why.
2.    Teacher guides students in adding words or
     phrases to sentence stem to answer.
3.   Students edit sentences in the same manner.



                                                        15
         Sentence Expansion
Example - Focus on when and where
Susan scampered.
Susan scampered down the forest trail.
After lunch, Susan scampered down the forest trail.

Susan scampered.
Susan scampered into class.
As the bell rang, Susan scampered into class.

Susan scampered.



                                                      16
       Sentence Expansion -
Writing “meaningful sentences” for vocabulary

who √
             relieved
what
             Maria was relieved.
when√

where        Maria was relieved when the music
why√         contest was over and her worrying
             could end.
how




                                                 17
     Sentence Combining
What
 Students make one smoother, more
 detailed sentence out of two or more
 shorter sentences.
Why???????



                                        18
      Sentence Combining

Why
 – students gain
      • increased sentence sense
      • ability to write more sophisticated
        sentences
 – when writing text, sentence combining reduces
   repetition and monotony




                                                   19
      Sentence Combining

Why
  – Recommended in Writing Next
    (Graham & Perin, 2007)



  – Has positive effect on students’ writing.
    (Evans, Venotozzi, Bundrick, & McWilliams, 1988; Howie, 1979;
    Kanellas, Carifio & Dagostino, 1998; Pedersen, 1977; Saddler &
    Graham, 2005; Stoddard, 1982)




                                                                     20
     Sentence Combining

1. Teacher provides a series of short
   sentences.
2. Teacher models sentence combining
   process.
3. Students practice combining short
   sentences into longer, more effective
   sentence.
                                           21
      Sentence Combining
Students ask themselves:
(clarity) Is the sentence clear?
(meaning) Does it express the desired
          meaning?
(coherence)Do the parts of the sentence fit
          together?



                                              22
              Sentence Combining


• Sentence-Combining Activities (Rewards Writing -
  Sentence Refinement published by Sopris Learning )


• Students start with a stem sentence and combine it
  with one to four other sentences.




                                                       23
              Sentence Combining

(Examples from REWARDS Writing -Sentence Refinement
    published by Sopris Learning)


•   Start:      Linda grabbed a seat.
•   Add:        Bobby grabbed a seat.
•   Add:        The seats were adjoining.
•   Add:        The seats were on the bus.
•   Add:        The bus was crowded.
•   Create:
                                                      24
           Sentence Combining

• Start:    As the cubs grow fur, they spend
            periods of time outside the den.
•   Add:    The fur is thicker.
•   Add:    The periods of time are short.
•   Add:    The den is warm.
•   Add:    The den is protective.
•   Create:
    ___________________________________

                                               25
           Sentence Combining

• Start:    Jared will finish shopping for
            school supplies.
• Add:      He will shop this afternoon.
• Add:      He will shop at the mall.
• Create:
     _____________________________
  ___

                                             26
          Sentence Combining


•   Start:  Everyone ate birthday cake.
•   Add:    The birthday cake was chocolate.
•   Add:    Everyone ate vanilla ice cream.
•   Add:    Everyone ate candy.
•   Create:
       _________________________________
    ___
                                           27
• Porcupine caribou are large mammals.
• Add:    Porcupine caribou are hoofed
          mammals.
• Add:    They live in northern Canada.
• Add:    They live in eastern Alaska.
•         (Use that to make one sentence.)
• Create:
     _________________________________
  ___
                                         28
           Word Choice

What
Students replace overused words with
stronger, more precise words that better
convey meaning. .



                                           29
           Word Choice


• He walked into the big building.

• (Better)
  He wandered into an enormous
  department store.

                                     30
                Word Choice

• We had a nice holiday. Our nice relatives
  came to visit. We did a lot of nice things
  including eating at three nice restaurants. It
  was a really nice vacation.
• (Better)
  My family had an incredible holiday. Five
  close relatives arrived Thursday for an
  extended visit. We enjoyed many adventures
  including feasting at three gourmet
  restaurants. It was the most memorable
  vacation of my life.                           31
         Word Choice

Why
 ?????????




                       32
                  Word Choice

Why
 Word choice is the most important tool
 for expressive power. (Scott and Nagy, 2009)
  Students will
  –   reduce use of “overused words”
  –   increase use of alternative words in their lexicon
  –   use a greater variety of words
  –   increase the quality of their writing

                                                       33
               Word Choice

How
Students edit sentences replacing
common, overused verbs.

  made, liked, walked, ran, ate, took, grew, got,
  went, saw, knew, used, gave, let, said, had,
  lived, talked, found, stayed, wanted, put,
  helped, build, thought


                                                34
                      Word Choice
Jamie ran down the hall.
  Alternative Words (From Sentence Refinement - Help Book published by
   Sopris Learning)

   jogged                dashed
   sprinted              darted
   hurried               fled
   rushed                galloped
   scampered             ambled
                                                                     35
             Word Choice

Students edit sentences, replacing
common, overused adjectives.

 nice, big, bad, pretty, hot, little, smart,
 cold, good, happy, terrible, funny, dirty,
 wonderful, scared, sad, old, clean,
 mean, hard

                                               36
          Sentence Starters


What
 - The teacher provides the initial portion
 of a sentence that students then
 complete in response to a question.



                                          37
          Sentence Starters


Why
 - Students
     - initiate answers with more ease
     - respond in complete sentences
     - are more likely to have accurate
       answers
     - embed more “academic language”
                                          38
           Sentence Starters

1.   Ask a question
2.   Give students thinking time
3.   Provide a verbal or written sentence starter
4.   Have students share answers with their
     partners using the sentence starter
5.   Call on a student to give answer


                                                    39
             settlements


settle
settlements

Visual Learning: What can you conclude about
the houses in early African settlements?

                                           40
                          technique
Elementary Example

• This batik artist uses many special
  techniques as she creates. How
  might an artist acquire these
  techniques?

• Begin by saying:
  An artist might acquire these
  techniques by……….



                                        41
         Reading Check page 335
Reading Check (Middle School)

Why were Adams and Clay accused of making
a “corrupt bargain” (stealing the election)?

Begin your answer with:
Adams and Clay were accused of making a
“corrupt bargain” because ________________

                                               42
           Reading Check page 335
Scaffolding Questions
How many political parties were there in 1824?

Four men in the party ran for president. Did Andrew Jackson get a
majority of votes?

Which of the 4 candidates received the most votes?

Who did the House of Representatives select as president?

Who helped Adams to be elected as president?

What position in the government was Clay given?

                                                                    43
              ethnic group              n


(high school social studies)

An ethnic group is a group of people who share the
same ancestors, culture, language, religion, and
customs.

Africa has hundreds of ethnic group.

Visual Learning: What are some the differences
between these ethnic groups?

                                                     44
ethnic groups




                45
ethnic groups




                46
ethnic group




               47
What are some the differences between
these ethnic groups?

Begin your answer with:
Some of the differences between these
ethnic groups include:


                                        48
settlements




              49
settlements




              50
settlements




              51
     Best Practice List


Share your best practice list with your
partner. Tell your partner two practices that
you intend to implement in your classroom.




                                                52
            Thank You



May we always remember :

How well we teach =
How well they learn

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