1_3-butadiene_ 276 Abe_ S._ 277 Abrams_ R._ 199 Action ... - MIT Press

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					Index




1,3-butadiene, 276                        King and, 104–106, 110–112, 115,
                                           120–121
Abe, S., 277                              Malcolm X and, 114
Abrams, R., 199                           Manhattan and, 273
Action Pajaro Valley, 92                  Metropolitan Planning Organizations
Acton, 155                                 (MPOs) and, 265
Addressing Community Concerns:            mortgages and, 109–110
  How Environmental Justice Relates       NAACP and, 38, 40, 117–118
  to Land Use Planning and Zoning         Nashville and, 127, 132–137, 143–
  (National Academy of Public              146
  Administration report), 30              Negro removal programs and, 205
Advisory Commission on Intergov-          North Clayton County study area
  ernmental Relations (ACIR), 253,         and, 238–242
  257                                     public transit and, 91 (see also
African Americans, 4–8, 347–348. See       Transportation)
  also Racial issues                      regionalism and, 75, 79 (see also
 asthma and, 278                           Regionalism)
 Atlanta and, 226–228, 233–235 (see       religion and, 115
  also Atlanta, Georgia)                  Richland County and, 149–169
 automobiles and, 137                     self-reliance and, 111
 black officials and, 133                  slavery and, 111
 boycotts and, 104–106                    small business owners and, 236–237
 Brown v. Board of Education of           South Fulton County study area and,
  Topeka and, 34, 345                      225–238
 census demographics and, 83              sprawl effects on, 103–104 (see also
 civil rights and, 104 (see also Civil     Sprawl)
  rights)                                 steering and, 323–324
 food justice and, 174–176                WE ACT and, 43, 273, 285–288,
 Greensboro sit-in and, 104–105, 119       292–293
 Hurricane Katrina and, 189–206           zoning and, 109–110
 insurance companies and, 201–203,       AGENDA, 79
  235                                    Agricultural Street Landfill, 196
 intellectual leadership and, 75         Agriculture, 24, 52, 60, 150
382     Index


Agyeman, J., 9, 28, 31                   smog and, 275
AIDS, 194                                sulfur and, 280
Airports                                 Transit Workers Union and, 288
 air quality and, 224–225, 237–238       volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
 Dallas–Fort Worth International          and, 224, 275–276, 280
  Airport, 231                           WE ACT and, 285–288, 292–293
 Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta Inter-        zero-emission vehicles and, 291
  national Airport (ATL), 223–242       Akron, Ohio, 81
 O’Hare, Chicago, 223                   Alabama, 38
Airports Council International, 224     Alaska, 195
Air quality, 24–25, 29–30, 350–351,     Aldehydes, 276
  374–376                               Alexander v. Sandoval, 118
 1,3-butadiene and, 276                 Allen, K., 108
 airports and, 224–225, 237–238         Allstate, 235
 aldehydes and, 276                     Alston, D., 25
 alternative fuels and, 282–285         Alternative fuels, 282–285, 290–293
 asthma and, 275, 277–279               Ameregis, N. D., 332
 Atlanta and, 219–225, 237–238          American Academy of Allergy and
 automobiles and, 41–43                   Immunology, 195
 benzene and, 276                       American Association of State
 carbon monoxide and, 284                 Highway and Transportation
 Clean Air Act and, 221–223, 357,         Officials (AASHTO), 254
  360                                   American Chemical Council, 260
 CMAQ and, 290                          American International Group, 202
 diesel fuel and, 275–282               American Lung Association, 278
 existing regulations and, 279–282      American Planning Association, 128
 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and,   American Red Cross, 191
  275–276, 279                          Americans with Disabilities Act
 haze and, 276                            (ADA), 117, 137–138, 268
 hydrocarbons and, 279–280              Anaheim, California, 84
 National Air Toxics Assessment         Anderson v. Rochester–Genesee
  (NATA) and, 279                         Regional Transportation Authority,
 National Ambient Air Quality             117
  Standard and, 276                     Ansbro, J., 105
 new emission standards and, 279–       Anthony, Carl, 1, 75, 307
  280                                   Applebaum, B., 199
 New Orleans and, 194–195               Archer, Dennis, 60
 nitrous oxide and, 41, 224, 275,       Asanti, N. M., 110
  279–282, 284, 288, 359–360            Associated Press, 29–30, 62, 191
 ozone and, 221, 275                    Association of Community Organiza-
 particulate matter and, 276–284,         tions for Reform Now, 197
  289                                   Asthma, 42
 pollution control technologies and,     diesel and, 273, 275, 277–279
  279–282                                Hurricane Katrina and, 194
 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons       Atlanta, Georgia, 4, 14–15, 37, 81
  (PAHs) and, 276, 284                   air quality and, 219–225, 237–238
                                                               Index      383


 as Black Mecca, 215                    New Orleans and, 192, 195
 as Capital of the New South, 215       zero-emission vehicles and, 291
 coalitions and, 336                   Ayala, A., 282
 environmental issues and, 221
 as Gateway to the South, 215          Babineaux Blanco, Kathleen, 203
 Georgia fuel tax and, 220             Bailey, L., 36
 Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta             Baker, K., 327
  International Airport (ATL) and,     Baker, P., 203
  223–242                              Balz, D., 190
 health issues in, 220–223             Bank of America, 314
 highway sprawl of, 218–223            Barnes, W. R., 75, 329
 housing and, 218, 233–237             BART, 92–93
 MARTA and, 219, 221, 228              Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 199
 Mobility 2030 and, 220–221            Bay Area Transportation and Land
 noise levels and, 238                   Use Coalition, 304
 North Clayton County study area       Bayram, H., 277
  and, 238–242                         BellSouth, 221
 ozone and, 221                        Benfield, F. K., 219, 355
 property values and, 233–237          Bennett, D. L., 230
 schools and, 231                      Bennett College, 105
 South Fulton County study area and,   Benzene, 276
  225–238                              Berlau, J., 149–150
 as Standing Peachtree, 215            Bernstein, S., 356–357
 uneven growth in, 215–218, 227–       Berry, J., 117
  233                                  Bethel New Life, 95, 305
 Union destruction of, 215             Bhargava, S., 78
 white flight and, 218                  Biodiesel, 284
Atlanta Journal–Constitution, 37,      Black Enterprise magazine, 12, 39,
  231, 235, 237                          143–145, 215
Atlanta Outlook, 228                   Blackwell, Angela, 8, 75, 299
Atlanta Regional Commission, 216,      Bluegrass Tomorrow, 314
  220–222, 224, 230, 240, 357          Blumenauer, Earl, 173
Atlantic Steel/Station project, 359–   Blumenberg, E., 258
  360                                  Boland, S., 277
Aucott, M., 173                        Bollens, S. A., 58
Audubon, 202                           Bollier, D., 2, 42
Austin, Texas, 81                      Bonds, 359
Automobiles, 351. See also             Boston, Massachusetts, 81
  Transportation                       Bourne, J. K., Jr., 190–191
 African Americans and, 137            Boycotts, 119
 air pollution and, 41–43              Brand-Williams, O., 62
 alternative fuels and, 282–285        Brennan, William, 109
 Atlanta and, 219–220                  Brenner, R., 350–351
 dependence on, 1                      Bring Back New Orleans Commission,
 employment access and, 35, 39–41        193–194
 hybrid electric, 283–284              Brooke, J., 55
384     Index


Brookings Institution, 40, 128, 233,      L.A. Metropolitan Transit Authority
  347                                      and, 38–39
Brooks, J., 339–340                       Latinos and, 81, 84–96
Brown v. Board of Education of            Metropolitan Planning Organizations
  Topeka, 34, 345                          (MPOs) and, 256
Brown, C. M., 39, 215                     schools and, 32–33
Brown, Jerry, 66                          Transportation Land Use Coalition
Brown, M. K., 6                            and, 91–92
Browner, Carol, 308                      California Air Resources Board (ARB),
Brownfields, 24, 31–32, 334, 355,           279
  358, 374                               California Safe Routes to School, 312
Brownfields Act, 355                      Calmore, J. O., 57
Building Responsibility, Equity, and     Campo-Flores, A., 193
  Dignity, 304                           Cancer, 42–43
Bullard, Robert D., 75, 103, 118          diesel fuel and, 273, 276, 279
 Atlanta’s transportation sprawl and,     New Orleans and, 193
  215–247                                Capitalism, 112
 environmental justice and, 23–49        Carbon monoxide, 284
 equity and, 1–2, 4, 9, 14, 16, 307      Cardiac effects, 276
 future issues and, 371–378              Carlisle, J., 150
 Hurricane Katrina and, 189–211          Carr, M., 194
 regional strategies and, 55             Carry, B., 133
 revitalization tools and, 348, 357      Carson, C., 106
Burchell, R. W., 110, 335, 348–350,      Casey-Lefkowitz, S., 346
  358                                    Cashin, Sheryll, 7, 306, 310, 347
Buses, 38–39, 103, 105                   Census tracts (CTs), 226–228
 alternative fuels and, 282–285          Center for Business and Economic
 boycotts of, 34                           Research, 128
 diesel and, 273–294                     Center for Community Change, 205
 food access and, 116                    Center for Enterprise Development,
 Hudson Depot and, 286–287                 165–166
 Hurricane Katrina and, 192              Center for Neighborhood Technology,
 Manhattan and, 273–294                    40
 WE ACT and, 43, 273, 275–288,           Centers for Disease Control and
  292–293                                  Prevention, 42, 193–194, 223
Bush, George H. W., 29                   Central Business Districts (CBDs),
Bush, George W., 29                        132–133, 136, 218
Business Week, 194                       Central city neighborhoods, 134–137,
Bus Riders Union, 38–39, 79, 117–          372–373
  118                                     asthma and, 278
                                          community development corpora-
California, 314. See also specific city     tions and, 116
 Demographic Research Unit and, 91        crime and, 113
 diesel fuel and, 277, 279                diesel effects and, 273–294
 distorted tax structure of, 88           education and, 52
 greenfields and, 351, 354                 food justice and, 173–186
                                                                Index      385


 haze in, 276                            Metropolitan Planning Organizations
 influx to, 55                              (MPOs) and, 258, 260–261, 268
 land-use reform and, 331–336            Milliken v. Bradley and, 56
 Latinos and, 80–87                      New Orleans and, 200
 location-efficient mortgages and, 356    Paynter v. State and, 117
 middle-income housing and, 64–67        segregation and, 55–57 (see also
 regional coalitions and, 323–342          Segregation)
 regionalism and, 77                     traditional urban lifestyles and, 104–
 suburban flight and, 53–55                 106
 transportation and, 40, 117–118         transportation and, 34–41
 urban sprawl effects and, 52–55        Clean Air Act, 221–223, 357, 360
Chang, J., 198                          Clean Water State Revolving Fund
Chapman, D., 237                           (CWSRF), 346
Chen, Don, 15–16, 39, 219, 299–320,     Clear Air/Clean Water Bond Act, 290
   354–355                              Cleveland, Ohio, 55, 61, 63, 67, 81,
Chicago, Illinois, 81, 314, 361            336
 Metropolitan Planning Organizations    Clinton, Bill, 26–27, 73, 250–251
   (MPOs) and, 264                      Coalitions, 360
 regional strategies and, 55             Bay Area Transportation and Land
 segregation and, 107                      Use Coalition, 304
 transportation coalitions and, 305      Figueroa Corridor Coalition, 79, 95
Child Proofing Our Communities            fiscal equity and, 325–331
   Campaign, 32                          Greater Rochester Area Coalition for
Choper, J. H., 59                          Education, 117
Chu, K., 201, 218                        Lake Street El Coalition, 305
Cieslewicz, D. J., 76                    land use and, 331–336
Cincinnati, Ohio, 333, 336               lessons on, 340–342
Cincinnati Insurance, 235                public services and, 330–331
Cisneros, Henry, 73–75, 97               reform issues and, 324–325
City of Atlanta Department of            regional governance and, 336–340
   Aviation, 233–236                     segregation and, 375–376
Civil rights, 9, 12, 25, 33, 376         steering and, 323
 advocates’ mistrust and, 59–64          taxes and, 325–331, 340
 Alexander v. Sandoval and, 118          transportation and, 91–92, 302–310
 antisprawl movement and, 59–64          Transportation Land Use Coalition
 boycotts and, 104–106                     and, 91–92
 Civil Rights Act of 1964 and, 27,      Coca-Cola, 221
   106, 118, 252, 260–261, 268, 286,    Cole, L., 28
   354, 358, 376                        Commercial Club of Chicago, 314
 food justice and, 185                  Commission for Racial Justice, 27
 Greensboro sit-in and, 104–105, 119    Common Interest, 331
 King and, 104–106, 110–112, 115,       Community-Based Organizations
   120–121                                 (CBOs), 90, 308–309, 371. See also
 legal issues and, 117–118                 Coalitions
 Malcolm X and, 114                     Community Development Block
 mass protests and, 115                    Grants, 116
386     Index


Community development corpora-          Demand and Response Transit
  tions, 116                              (DART) system, 38
Community Development Venture           Democracy South, 304
  Capital Alliance, 360                 Denton, Nancy, 6, 51, 53, 58, 150–
Community land trusts, 117                151, 172, 356
Community Leader’s Letter, 150          Denver, Colorado, 55
Community Reinvestment Act, 360         DeParle, J., 193
Compressed natural gas (CNG), 282–      Desegregation. See Segregation
  284, 286–287, 289–290, 292            Detroit, Michigan, 40, 61, 63, 107
Concerned Citizens of Agricultural       coalitions and, 336
  Street Landfill, 196                    demolition in, 114
Concurrency requirements, 335            middle-income housing and, 64–65,
Cone, M., 195                             67
Confronting Environmental Racism         Milliken v. Bradley and, 56
  (Bullard), 9                          Diamond, H. L., l, 7
Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality   Diaz-Sanchez, D., 277
  (CMAQ), 290, 357                      Diesel fuel
Conklin, E. E., 62                       1,3-butadiene and, 276
Conservation Law Foundation, 2           activism and, 285–290
Constrained Long-Range Plan (CLRP),      aldehydes and, 276
  252                                    alternatives to, 282–285, 290
Corless, J., 275                         asthma and, 273, 275, 277–278
Corley, Cheryl, 107                      benzene and, 276
Cotton States, 235                       biodiesel and, 284
Coulton, C., 301                         cancer and, 273, 276, 279
Council of Governments (COG), 255–       cardiac effects and, 276
  256, 265, 339–340                      EPA and, 275–282
Council on Environmental Quality,        existing regulations and, 279–282
  27                                     greater emissions from, 274–275
Coyle, M., 28                            hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and,
Crime, 8, 53, 113                         275–276, 279
Crocker, J., 116                         immune system, 276–278
Cummings, S., 331                        Los Angeles and, 276, 279
Cuomo, Andrew, 73                        new emission standards and, 279–
Curtis, K. A., 173                        282
Cycling, 313, 359                        New York City and, 273–274, 283–
                                          293
Dallas–Fort Worth International          nitrous oxide and, 275, 279–281,
  Airport, 231                            288
Dallas Morning News, 32                  particulate matter and, 276–280
Danziger, S., 4                          policies for, 290–293
Davis, M., 203                           pollution control technologies and,
Day-Night Average Noise Levels            279–282
  (DNL), 238                             polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Deakin, E., 253–254                       (PAHs) and, 276
Delta Airlines, 221, 231–232             smog and, 275
                                                                  Index     387


  source of, 274                           investment and, 1, 10, (see also
  sulfur and, 280                           Investment)
  in utero exposure to, 278                location-efficient mortgages and,
  vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and,         116–117, 356
   275                                     mass consumerism and, 111–112
  volatile organic compounds (VOCs)        more efficient growth and, 349–350
   and, 275, 280                           new accounting guidelines and, 355–
  WE ACT and, 273, 285–288                  356
Diet, 180–185                              New Orleans and, 189–190
Diez-Roux, A. V., 174, 180                 quality of life and, 10
Disabled citizens, 35, 117, 137–138,       racial place and, 4–8
   268                                     regionalism and, 75–80, 119–120
Disaster capitalism, 204                    (see also Regionalism)
Dittmar, H., 311, 354                      revitalization tools and, 345–363
Dolphin, W. R., 335                        schools and, 32–33
Donor regions, 36–37                       self-reliance and, 111, 377
Dornan, D., 355, 356                       Small Business Administration (SBA)
Downs, Anthony, 51, 54, 57                  loans and, 199–200
Draft Environmental Impact                 small business owners and, 236–237
   Statement (Hartsfield–Jackson            sprawl and, 23
   Atlanta International Airport), 232,    subsidies and, 2 (see also Subsidies)
   238                                     transparency and, 355–356
Dreier, P., 2–4, 24, 75                    urban flight and, 7
Drugs, 8                                   Warth v. Seldin and, 109
Dubofsky, J. E., 184                      Economist Newspaper, 349
‘‘Dump Dirty Diesels’’ (NRDC), 285–       Education, 3, 8, 301, 351. See also
   286                                      Schools
Dumping in Dixie (Bullard), 9              equity and, 55
Duncan, Cynthia M., 5, 349                 Fisk University and, 134
Durham, J. G., 63                          Paynter v. State and, 117
                                           poverty and, 58–59
Eaton, S. E., 114                          racial issues and, 113
Economic issues, 13–14, 371–372            Richland County, South Carolina,
 American Dream and, 112–113,               and, 160
  299–300                                  Rochester and, 117
 Atlanta International Airport and,        San Antonio Independent School
  223–242                                   District v. Rodriguez and, 351
 boycotts and, 104–106, 119               Eggleston, P. A., 278
 class distinctions and, 23               Eimer, S., 77
 deregulation and, 112–113                Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 110–111
 disaster capitalism and, 204             Emerson Park Development
 fiscal equity coalitions and, 325–331       Corporation, 304
 food justice and, 173–186                Emling, S., 235
 globalization and, 314–315               Employment, 1–3, 8–9, 299
 Hurricane Katrina and, 189, 192,          automobiles and, 35
  204–205                                  development linkages and, 360–361
388     Index


Employment (cont.)                       noise levels and, 238
 entry-level opportunities and, 55       oil spills and, 195
 job flight and, 39–41                    ozone and, 221, 275
 land-use reform and, 334–335            particulate matter and, 276–284, 289
 middle-income housing and, 64–67        pollution control technologies and,
 new construction and, 163                279–282
 regionalism and, 77–78                  polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
 revitalization tools and, 345–363        (PAHs) and, 276, 284
 Richland County, South Carolina,        regionalism and, 75–76
   and, 152–155, 163–165                 revitalization tools and, 345–363
 skills and, 4                           Richland County, South Carolina,
 spatial mismatch and, 39–41              and, 149–150
 suburban flight and, 53–55               Sierra Club and, 150
 Transit Workers Union and, 288          sulfur and, 280
 transportation and, 39–41, 304 (see     Transit Workers Union and, 288
   also Transportation)                  underground storage tanks and, 355
Enchautegui, M. E., 236                  volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
Endangered species, 52                    and, 224, 275–276, 280
Enterprise Foundation, 360               WE ACT and, 285–288, 292–293
Environmental issues, 9, 15, 306–        zero-emission vehicles and, 291
   307                                  Environmental justice
 1,3-butadiene and, 276                  air pollution and, 24, 29–30, 41–43
 air quality and, 350–351, 374–376       Associated Press study and, 29–30
   (see also Air quality)                Atlanta International Airport and,
 aldehydes and, 276                       232–233, 237–238
 alternative fuels and, 282–285          brownfields cleanup and, 24, 31–32
 Atlanta and, 219–225, 237–238           burden of proof and, 26
 benzene and, 276                        Bush administration and, 29
 brownfields and, 24, 31–32, 334,         central city neighborhoods and, 24–
   355, 358, 374                          25
 Clean Air Act and, 221–223, 357,        civil rights and, 25, 27
   360                                   class distinctions and, 27
 diesel fuel and, 273–294                defined, 26
 endangered species and, 52              diesel and, 273–294
 Exxon Valdez and, 195                   documenting disparities and, 27–30
 filtration systems and, 350              enforcement and, 26
 greenfields and, 1, 3, 25, 345–346,      Executive Order 12866 and, 354
   351–352, 354, 373–374                 Executive Order 12898 and, 26–27,
 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and,     250–252, 261, 268, 354
   275–276, 279                          future issues for, 371–378
 Hurricane Katrina and, 189–206          hazardous substances and, 26–30
 level playing field for, 361–363         health issues and, 26–28, 41–43
 new emission standards and, 279–        integrationist approach and, 44
   280                                   investment and, 23–24
 nitrous oxide and, 41, 224, 275,        land-use zoning and, 30–33
   279–282, 284, 288, 359–360            Latinos and, 93–96
                                                                  Index      389


 Metropolitan Planning Organizations      private sector and, 313–314
  (MPOs) and, 249–268                     racial issues and, 3–8 (see also Racial
 NEPA and, 27                              issues)
 New Orleans and, 193–196                 regionalism and, 8, 76–80
 principles of, 25–27                     revitalization tools and, 345–363
 quality food and, 171–186                self-sufficiency and, 377
 sacrifice zones and, 378                  transportation and, 34–41, 215–247
 smart growth compatibility and, 23–       (see also Transportation)
  30, 43–44                               whole community approach and,
 subsidies and, 26                         310–312
 Superfund sites and, 28, 32–33           zoning laws and, 30–33
 toxic emissions and, 30, 32             Ernst, M., 275
 transportation and, 24, 34–41, 249–     Evans, B., 9, 28, 31
  268, 309                               Ewing, R., 173
 water pollution and, 24                 Executive Order 12866, 354
 WE ACT and, 43, 273, 285–287            Executive Order 12898, 26–27, 250–
Environmental Justice: EPA Should          252, 261, 268, 354
  Devote More Attention to               Exxon Valdez, 195
  Environmental Justice When
  Developing Clean Air Rule (GAO         Faber, D. R., 31
  report), 29                            Failures of Integration, The (Cashin),
Environmental Justice Resource              306
  Center, 309, 347–348                   Fair Housing Act, 184
Environmental racism, 118                Farber, H., 241
Environmental Science and Tech-          Farley, R., 4
  nology, 159                            Farquhar, M. B., 258
Envision Utah, 314                       ‘‘Federal Actions to Address
EPA Needs to Consistently Implement         Environmental Justice in Minority
  the Intent of the Executive Order on      Populations and Low-Income
  Environmental Justice (EPA report),       Populations’’ (Executive Order
  29                                        12898), 26–27, 250–252, 261, 268,
Equal Justice Society, 200                  354
Equitable Development Toolkit            Federal Emergency Management
  (PolicyLink), 361                         Agency (FEMA), 198–201, 204
Equity, 11                               Federal Financial Institutions
 coalitions and, 302–310, 323–342           Examination Council, 197
 education and, 55                       Federal Highway Administration
 environmental justice and, 23–44           (FHWA), 35, 252–253, 268, 303,
 food justice and, 171–186                  313
 future issues for, 371–378              Federal Housing Administration
 gasoline tax and, 36–37                    (FHA), 54, 109–110, 172, 351
 global economy and, 314–315             Fernandez, R., 301
 institutional strategies and, 312–313   Figueroa Corridor Coalition, 79, 95
 integrated approach for, 302–305        Fiscal Disparities Program, 327
 Metropolitan Planning Organizations     Fischel, W. A., 333
  (MPOs) and, 249–268                    Fisk University, 134
390     Index


Fitton, L. J., 27–28                   General Accounting Standards Board,
Fitzgerald, S., 173                       355
Fix-It-First, 312                      Gentrification, 7, 51–52, 377
Florida, Richard, 335                   antisprawl movement and, 61–64
Florida, State of, 350                  land use reform and, 331–336
Flying Off Course (Natural Resource     Latinos and, 80
   Defense Council), 238                middle-income housing and, 64–67
Food justice                            misnomer of, 63–64
 access issues and, 171–188            Geographic information systems (GIS)
 future research for, 183–185             techniques, 128, 138, 142–143
 housing and, 172                      Gerome, J., 134
 influence on diet and, 180–183         Gibson, T., 24
 Nutrition and Your Health:            Gillham, Oliver, 1
   Dietary Guidelines for Americans    Girard, Chris, 201
   and, 180                            Glaeser, E. D., 106, 218
 placement of stores and, 173–186      Glendening, Parris, 308
 regional equity and, 174–180          Globalization, 314–315
 segregation and, 174–180              Global Positioning System (GPS), 137
 survey methodology for, 174–180       Goedert, J. G., 59
 transportation and, 116, 172–173,     Goering, J. M., 331
   178–180                             Goetz, Andrew, 253
Ford, R. T., 56                        Gold, S., 194
Ford Foundation, 5                     Goldberg, D. T., 57, 222
Foster, S. R., 28                      Goldman, T., 27–28, 253–254
Foster-Bey, J., 53, 58                 Good News Garage, 302
Francois, F. B., 255                   Gordon, P., 52, 54
Frank, B. P., 3, 282                   Government. See also specific
Franklin, Aretha, 134                     department
Frazier, J. W., 4                       Advisory Commission on Inter-
Freedom Riders, 34                        governmental Relations (ACIR) and,
Freeman, L., 347                          253
Freilich, R. H., 51, 58                 Bring Back New Orleans Commission
Frew, A., 277                             and, 193–194
Fruitvale, California, 92–93            civil rights and, 55–57
Frumkin, H., 3                          coalitions and, 336–340
Fulton, W., 128                         donor regions and, 36–37
Funders’ Network for Smart Growth       environmental justice and, 25–27, 29
   and Livable Communities, 93, 354,    Executive Order 12866 and, 354
   361                                  Executive Order 12898 and, 26–27,
                                          250–252, 261, 268, 354
Gage, Robert W., 254                    Latinos and, 88–89
Galley, C. C., 335                      limited abilities of, 53–55
Galster, G. C., 52                      lower taxes and, 112–113 (see also
Garrow, D., 105–106                       Taxes)
Gasoline tax, 36–37, 220                place-based leadership and, 114–117
Gender issues, 264–265                  political fragmentation and, 57–58
                                                                Index      391


 segregation and, 55–57                  South Fulton County study area and,
 sprawl creation by, 54                    225–238
 state DOTs and, 36                      toxic materials and, 224–225
 subsidies and, 2, 7, 26, 300          Harvard University, 33, 205
 toxic cleanup disparities and, 28     Harvey, S., 238
 transportation and, 34–41, 249–250    Haughwout, A., 348, 357–359, 361
  (see also Transportation)            Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs),
 zoning laws and, 30–33                    275–276, 279
Graham, K. M., 250                     Hazardous materials, 275–280
Great Divide, The (Association of        airports and, 224–225
  Community Organizations for            diesel fuel as, 273–294
  Reform Now), 197                       environmental justice and, 26–32
Greater Rochester Area Coalition for     lead poisoning and, 193
  Education, 117                         New Orleans and, 193–195
Greene, R., 96                         Health Assessment Document for
Greene-Roesel, R., 275                     Diesel Exhaust (EPA), 277
Greenfields, 1, 3                       Health Effects Institute, 42, 279
 environmental justice and, 25         Health issues, 25, 306–307, 375
 future issues for, 373–374              AIDS, 194
 revitalization tools and, 345–346,      air pollution and, 41–43 (see also Air
  351–352, 354                             quality)
Greensboro sit-in, 104–105, 119          asthma, 42, 194, 273, 275, 277–279
Griggs, T., 195                          Atlanta and, 220–223
Grogan, P., 115                          cancer and, 42–43, 193, 273, 276,
Guinier, L., 60                            279
Guo, S., 301                             cardiac effects, 276
Gurwitt, R., 108                         central city neighborhoods and, 25
                                         diesel and, 273–294
Haar, C. M., 30                          diet and, 180–185
Halpern, R., 66                          environmental justice and, 23–44
Hamburg, J., 131                         food justice and, 171–186
Harlem Hospital Center, 278              Katrina cough and, 194
Hartsfield, William, 223                  lead poisoning and, 193
Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta Inter-         mold and, 194–195
  national Airport (ATL), 14–15          New Orleans and, 193–196
 description of, 223–224                 Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary
 environmental impact of, 224–225,         Guidelines for Americans and, 180
  237–238                                ozone and, 221, 275
 fifth runway expansion of, 225–226,      particulate matter and, 276–277
  240–242                                transportation and, 41–43
 noise levels and, 238                   waste management and, 139–142
 North Clayton County study area       ‘‘Heavy-Duty Engine and Vehicle
  and, 238–242                             Standards and Highway Diesel Fuel
 passenger volume of, 223–224              Sulfur Control Requirements, The’’
 property values and, 233–237              (EPA), 280–281
 small business owners and, 236–237    Hendricks, Gary, 231–232, 236
392     Index


Hendrix, Jimi, 134                       National Fair Housing Alliance and,
Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation,         197–198
  205                                    New Orleans and, 194–204
Henton, D., 75                           property values and, 119, 233–237
Hidden in Plain Sight (America), 305     redlining and, 172, 201–203
Highway Robbery: Transportation          relocation and, 299–300
  Racism and New Routes to Equity        Richland County, South Carolina,
  (Bullard, Johnson, and Torres), 9,       and, 165–168
  34                                     Section 8, 139
Hill, E. W., 36–37, 52                   steering and, 323–324
Hinze, S., 327                           suburban flight and, 58
Hipp, J., 31                             taxes and, 340 (see also Taxes)
Hirschman, D., 226                       trailers and, 198–199
Hispanics. See Latinos                   urban renewal projects and, 133
Holgate, S., 277                         zoning laws and, 109–110 (see also
Holzer, H. J., 4                           Zoning)
Homeland security, 204, 378             Housing and Urban Development
Home Owner Loan Corporation                (HUD), 73–74
  (HOLC), 172                           Houston, Texas, 9, 55, 133
HOPE Unseen, A: Voices from the         Houston: Growth and Decline in a
  Other Side of Hope VI (Center for        Sunbelt Boomtown (Shelton et al.),
  Community Change), 205                   9
Hope VI projects, 139, 205              Hsu, S. S., 190
Hosenball, M., 199                      Hudson Depot, 286–287
Housing, 2–3, 7–9, 58                   Hughes, M. A., 93
 American Dream and, 299–300            Hurricane Andrew, 194, 201–202
 Atlanta and, 218, 227–228, 233–        Hurricane Betsy, 196
  237                                   Hurricane Georges, 191
 attracting middle-income, 64–68        Hurricane Ivan, 191
 central city neighborhoods and, 25     Hurricane Katrina, 4–5, 14, 378
 development linkages and, 360–361       Agricultural Street Landfill and, 196
 Fair Housing Act and, 184               Baton Rouge and, 199
 Federal Housing Administration          buses and, 192
  (FHA) and, 54, 109–110, 172, 351       cleanup from, 196–197, 203–204
 fiscal equity coalitions and, 325–331    cost of, 189, 192
 food justice and, 171–186               death toll of, 189
 health issues and, 194                  debris from, 194
 Home Owner Loan Corporation and,        disaster assistance and, 197–200
  172                                    FEMA and, 198–201, 204
 insurance and, 201–203                  insurance redlining and, 201–203
 land use reform and, 331–336            Katrina cough and, 194
 location-efficient mortgages and,        landfall of, 189
  116–117, 356                           levee restoration and, 203–204
 mixed-income policy for, 119            looting and, 201
 mold and, 194–195                       marsh restoration and, 203–204
 Nashville and, 132–133                  ‘‘New’’ New Orleans and, 204–205
                                                                Index     393


 oil spills and, 195                     Oakland and, 66
 Old Gentilly Landfill and, 196–197       Rochester and, 116
 racial issues and, 193–196              tax credits and, 360
 Red Cross and, 191                     Invisible Houston (Bullard), 9
 transportation and, 190–192            Iron triangle, 1
 water damage and, 195–196
Hurricane Rita, 202                     Jackson, K. T., 54, 58, 351
Hurricane Wilma, 202                    Jackson, Maynard, 223
Hutch, Daniel J., 16, 345–369           Jackson, R., 3
Hybrid electric automobiles, 283–       Jargowsky, P. A., 7–8, 23, 51, 53, 57,
  284                                     62, 151
Hydrocarbons, 279–280                   Jim Crow laws, 34, 56, 202
Hydrogen fuel cells, 284–285            Jobs Access and Reverse Commute
                                          Program, 304, 357
IBM, 221                                Johnson, A., 198
‘‘If You Live Uptown, Breathe at Your   Johnson, C., 137
    Own Risk’’ (WE ACT), 285, 288       Johnson, Glenn S., 76, 307, 348, 357
‘‘I Have a Dream’’ (King), 104           Atlanta’s transportation sprawl and,
Imagine Richland 2020 Comprehen-          215–247
    sive Plan, 153–155                   environmental justice and, 24–25,
Immigrants, 90–91, 95                     34, 37–38
In Search of the New South (Bullard),    regional equity and, 1–2, 4, 9, 14
    9                                   Johnson, Stephen, 308
Institute of Medicine (IOM), 27–28      Johnson, William, Jr., 12, 75, 103–
Institute on Race and Poverty, 325,       123
    349                                 Joint Venture: Silicon Valley Network,
Insurance, 201–203, 235                   94
Integrationist approach, 44             Just Sustainabilities (Agyeman,
Intermodal Surface Transportation         Bullard, and Evans), 9
    Efficiency Act (ISTEA), 35, 251–     Just Transportation (Bullard and
    253, 257–258, 268                     Johnson), 9
International City/County Manage-
    ment Association, 312, 355–357      Kahn, M., 218
Interwoven Destinies: Cities and the    Kain, J. F., 301
    Nation (Cisneros), 97               Katrina cough, 194
Investment, 1, 10, 374–375              Katz, M. B., 76
  Community Reinvestment Act and,       Kayden, J. S., 30
    360                                 King, B. B., 134
  core communities and, 358             King, Martin Luther, Jr., 104–106,
  environmental justice and, 23–24        110–112, 115, 120–121
  highway development and, 249–251      Kirby, M., 108
    (see also Transportation)           Korean Immigrant Workers
  level playing field and, 361–363         Advocates, 38
  maintenance and, 355–356              Kousser, J. M., 60
  new accounting guidelines and, 355–   Kozol, J., 114
    356                                 Krieg, E. J., 31
394     Index


Ku Klux Klan, 150                        Urban Zoning Overlay (UZO) and,
Kunstler, J. H., 33                       132–133
                                         zoning and, 3, 30–33, 109–110 (see
Labor/Community Strategy Center,          also Zoning)
  38, 118                               Lang, R. E., 249
Lacombe, A., 108, 258, 301              Lanni, T., 282
Lake Street El Coalition, 305           Laska, S., 191
Lancet magazine, 42                     Latino Issues Forum, 303
Land use, 8, 14–15, 27, 51, 307, 347–   Latinos, 372–373. See also Racial
  348                                     issues
 Agricultural Street Landfill and, 196    asthma and, 278
 agriculture and, 24, 52, 60, 150        CBOs and, 90
 Atlanta International Airport and,      census demographics and, 80–87
  223–242                                Cisneros and, 73–75, 97
 brownfields and, 24, 31–32, 334,         civic involvement and, 88–93, 96–97
  355, 358, 374                          environmental justice and, 93–96
 central city neighborhoods and, 24–     Figueroa Corridor Coalition and, 79,
  25                                      95
 coalitions and, 331–336                 Fruitvale and, 92–93
 community land trusts and, 117          gentrification and, 80
 concurrency requirements and, 335       immigrants and, 90–91
 dominant growth pattern in, 1–2         intellectual leadership and, 75
 future issues for, 373–374              labor movement and, 74, 77–78, 90–
 greenfields and, 1, 3, 25, 345–346,       91, 94
  351–352, 354, 373–374                  Manhattan and, 273
 increased urban, 2 (see also            Mayfair and, 94–95
  Urbanization)                          Metropolitan Planning Organizations
 LULUs and, 3, 142, 306, 376–377          (MPOs) and, 265
 metropolitan fringes and, 54–55         Perez and, 91–92
 middle-income housing and, 64–67        poverty and, 74, 80
  (see also Housing)                     public transit and, 91
 mixed, 3                                regionalism and, 74, 75–80, 87–96
 MPOs and, 249–268 (see also             rural South and, 81
  Metropolitan Planning Organiza-        Spanish Speaking Unity Council and,
  tions [MPOs])                           92–93
 Nashville and, 127–147                  steering and, 323–324
 Negro removal programs and, 205         suburbs and, 80–87
 New Orleans and, 189, 193–194,          sustainable development and, 90–91
  203–204                                transportation and, 79
 Old Gentilly Landfill and, 196–197       zoning and, 74
 reform and, 331–336                    Lavelle, M., 28
 Richland County, South Carolina,       Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights,
  and, 149–169                            200
 Rochester and, 116                     Lazaroff, C., 33
 transportation and, 91–92, 249–268,    Lead poisoning, 193
  307 (see also Transportation)         Leavitt, Mike, 308
                                                                Index     395


Ledebur, L. C., 75, 329                  Los Angeles Neighborhood Iniative,
Legal issues                               305
  Alexander v. Sandoval, 118             Louisiana Citizens Fair Plan, 202
  Anderson v. Rochester–Genesee          Louisiana Department of Environ-
   Regional Transportation Authority,      mental Quality (LDEQ), 196
   117                                   Love Canal, 118
  Brown v. Board of Education of         Luce, T., 327
   Topeka, 34, 345                       Lucy, W. H., 173
  civil rights and, 117–118              Lung cancer, 276
  environmental racism and, 118          Luria, D. D., 78
  Jim Crow laws and, 34, 56, 202
  Labor/Community Strategy Center v.     Ma, J., 35–36, 38
   Los Angeles Metropolitan Transit      Maantay, J., 30
   Authority, 118                        Malcolm X, 114
  Milliken v. Bradley, 56                Manhattan
  Paynter v. State, 117                   African Americans and, 273
  Plessy v. Ferguson, 34                  diesel effects and, 273–274, 283–
  San Antonio Independent School           293
   District v. Rodriguez, 351             Latinos and, 273
  Warth v. Seldin, 109                    WE ACT and, 43, 273, 285–288,
Leinberger, C., 348                        292–293
Leroy, G., 78                            Margai, F. M., 4
Levees, 203–204                          Martin Associates, 230
Lewis, Paul G., 62, 255–258              Maryland, 76, 331, 335
Lewis Mumford Center, 106–107            Massey, Douglas, 6, 51, 53, 68, 150–
Lewyn, M., 219                             151, 172, 356
Limitless City, The (Gillham), 1         Matier, P., 66
Litman, T., 192                          Mayfair, 94–95
Local Initiatives Support Corporation,   Maze, T., 355
   360                                   McClellan, S., 173
Locally unwanted land uses (LULUs),      McConnell, R., 275
   3, 142, 306, 376–377                  McDowell, Bruce D., 253–254, 268,
Logan, John, 7, 40, 44, 106–107            357
Long Beach, California, 84               McElfish, J., Jr., 346
‘‘Looking for Regionalism in All the     McLeod, R. G., 55
   Wrong Places’’ (Pastor), 89           Meharry Medical College, 134
Looting, 201                             Melendez, E., 74
Los Angeles, California, 81, 84, 86,     Mellnik, T., 199
   377                                   Melville, J., 75
  Bus Riders Union and, 117–118          Memphis, Tennessee, 107
  diesel fuel and, 276, 279              Mendez, M. A., 90, 96
  inclusionary zoning and, 373           Methane, 282–283
  Metropolitan Planning Organizations    Metro Atlanta Southern Crescent,
   (MPOs) and, 263–264                     230
Los Angeles Metropolitan Transit         Metropolitan Atlanta Regional Transit
   Authority, 38–39                        Authority (MARTA), 219, 221, 228
396     Index


Metropolitan Planning Organizations      Metropolitan Transit Authority
 (MPOs), 15, 346–347, 374–375              (MTA), 117–118
Advisory Commission on Intergov-          Manhattan and, 273–274, 285–286,
 ernmental Relations (ACIR) and,           288–293
 253, 257                                 Nashville and, 137–138
assessment survey of, 258–266            Metropolitan Transportation
board composition and, 263–266,            Commission, 262
 357–358                                 Mexican American Legal Defense and
Chicago and, 264                           Education Fund (MALDEF), 96
civil rights and, 258, 260–261, 268,     Migration, 9, 299–301
 358                                     Milken Institute, 236
Clinton administration and, 250–251      Milliken v. Bradley, 56
coalitions and, 336–340                  Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 81, 333
COG boards and, 255–256, 265             Minnesota, 327
Constrained Long-Range Plan              Mississippi River, 193
 (CLRP) and, 252                         Mobility 2030 (Atlanta Regional
Executive Order 12898 and, 268             Commission), 220–221
Federal Highway Administration           Modie, N., 62
 and, 268                                Mold, 194–195
future challenges for, 267–268           Mollenkopf, J., 24, 75
gender issues and, 264–265               Moller, J., 195
ISTEA and, 35, 251–253, 257–258,         Molotch, H. L., 7
 268                                     Monroe County, 106–109
Los Angeles and, 263–264                 More Blacks Live with Pollution
Manhattan and, 273–274                     (Associated Press study), 29
NEPA and, 261                            Morin, R., 205
New York and, 264                        Morland, Kimberly, 13–14, 142, 171–
political participation and, 255–258       188
public involvement and, 253–255          Morning Edition (NPR program), 107
responsibilities of, 251–252             Muller, S., 78
state DOTs and, 257–258, 268             Music City USA. See Nashville,
structure of, 251–252                      Tennessee
TEA-21 and, 252–253, 257–258,
 268                                     NAACP, 38, 40, 117–118
three-year plans (TIPs) and, 258–        Nagin, Ray, 191, 193–194, 198
 259                                     Nashville, Tennessee, 12–13
transportation planning and, 35–36,       African Americans and, 127, 132–
 41, 249–253, 260–263                      137, 143–146
underserved populations and, 258          central city neighborhoods of, 134–
voting bias and, 255–258                   137
Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs),    fast growth of, 127–131
 12                                       Fisk University and, 134
Atlanta and, 215–242                      food quality and, 142–143
Latinos and, 80–87                        geographic information systems (GIS)
Nashville and, 127–146                     techniques and, 128
New Orleans and, 189–206                  Hope VI projects and, 139
                                                                 Index     397


 housing and, 132–133                     National Governors’ Association, 308,
 Jefferson Street and, 134                  312
 population growth in, 127                National Highway Traffic Safety
 public transit access and, 137–138         Administration, 375
 Purcell and, 140                         National Law Journal, 28
 schools and, 131                         National League of Cities, 312
 spatial dislocation of public services   National Neighborhood Coalition,
  and, 139                                  117
 State Route 840 and, 136                 National Public Radio, 107
 transportation and, 136–138              National Research Council, 276
 urban renewal projects and, 133          Natural gas, 282–283
 Urban Zoning Overlay (UZO) and,          Natural Resource Defense Council
  132–133                                   (NRDC), 195, 224–225, 238, 285–
 waste management and, 139–142              286
Nasser, H. El, 127–128                    Naughton, K., 199
National Academy of Public                Negro removal programs, 205
  Administration, 28, 30                  Neighbors Building Neighborhoods,
National Air Toxics Assessment              116
  (NATA), 279                             Nel, A. E., 277
National Allergy Bureau, 195              Nelson, A., 198, 263, 349, 351
National Alternative Fuels Day and        Ness, I., 77
  Environmental Summit, 290               New Jersey, 312, 327, 335, 350
National Ambient Air Quality              New Orleans, Louisiana, 4–5, 14
  Standards, 221, 276                      Agricultural Street Landfill and, 196
National Argonne Laboratory, 41            air quality and, 194–195
National Association of Latino Elected     Army Corps of Engineers and, 194
  and Appointed Officials (NALEO),          automobiles and, 192, 195
  97                                       Babineaux Blanco and, 203
National Association of Counties,          Bring Back New Orleans Commission
  312                                       and, 193–194
National Association of Realtors, 308      buses and, 192
National Black Business Council, 236       cancer and, 193
National Center for Health Statistics,     cleanup and, 194, 196–197, 203–
  278                                       204
National Community Capital                 economic structure of, 189–190
  Association, 360                         environmental justice and, 193–196
National Community Investment              evacuation plan weaknesses and,
  Fund, 360                                 190–192
National Congress for Community            FEMA and, 198–201, 204
  Economic Development, 360                hazardous materials and, 193–195
National Environmental Policy Act          housing and, 194–204
  (NEPA), 27, 261, 354                     Hurricane Betsy and, 196
National Fair Housing Alliance             Hurricane Katrina and, 189–206, 378
  (NFHA), 197–198                          insurance claims and, 201–203
National Flood Insurance Program,          land use and, 189, 193–194, 203–
  202–203                                   204
398     Index


New Orleans, Louisiana (cont.)          Not in my backyard (NIMBY), 31,
 lead poisoning and, 193                 198
 looting and, 201                       Not in My Backyard (USCCR report),
 mold and, 194–195                       28–29
 Morial Convention Center and, 191      Nowak, Jeremy, 79
 Nagin and, 191, 193–194, 198           Nutrition. See Food justice
 Old Gentilly Landfill and, 196–197      Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary
 poverty and, 189–192                    Guidelines for Americans, 180
 Rapid Transit Authority and, 192
 Red Cross and, 191                     Oakland, California, 62, 66–67, 92
 Small Business Administration (SBA)    Office Sprawl: The Evolving
   loans and, 199–200                     Geography of Business (Brookings
 Superdome and, 191                       Institution), 40
 trailers and, 198–199                  O’Hare Airport, 223
 transportation and, 190–192            Ohland, G., 311
 zoning and, 193                        Oil spills, 195
New York City, 43, 81, 377              Old Gentilly Landfill, 196–197
 asthma and, 278                        Oliver, M. L., 53, 165
 diesel effects and, 273–274, 283–293   Orange County, 81
 Hudson Depot and, 286–287              Orfield, Myron, 2, 16, 103, 114, 300
 Metropolitan Planning Organizations     equity and, 25, 33
   (MPOs) and, 264                       Latinos and, 74, 77, 890
 public purchasing policies and, 290     regional strategies and, 51, 53–55,
 water filtration and, 350                 58, 60, 323–344
 WE ACT and, 43, 273, 285–288,           revitalization tools and, 351, 359,
   292–293                                362
New York City Environmental Justice     Overburg, P., 128
   Alliance, 311–312                    Ozkaynk, H., 42
New York Times, 112, 200, 203           Ozone, 221, 275
Niagara Frontier Transportation
   Authority, 39                        Pace, D., 30
Nieves, L. A., 41, 66                   Padgett, David A., 12, 39, 127–147,
Nitrous oxide, 41, 224, 359–360           215
 alternative fuels and, 282, 284        Paine, Anne, 136
 diesel fuel and, 275, 279–281, 288     Pajaro Valley, 92
 EPA and, 279–280                       Pankratz, A., 236
No Home for the Holidays (National      Parks, Rosa, 34, 38
   Fair Housing Alliance), 197          Particulate matter (PM), 276–284, 289
Noise levels, 238                       Partners for Livable Communities, 116
Nolan, Bruce, 191–192                   Partners through Food, 116
Noonan, P. F., 7                        Pastor, Manuel, Jr., 2–3, 8, 11, 31,
North Carolina A&T University, 104        73–101, 315
Northeast Environmental Justice         Paynter v. State, 117
   Network, 309                         Peachtree Creek, 215
Nos Quedamos, 311                       Peacock, Walter G., 201
Nossiter, A., 203                       Pedestrians, 307, 313, 359
                                                                Index     399


Peirce, N. R., 53–55, 137                 Executive Order 12866, 354
Penfield, New York, 109                    Executive Order 12898 and, 26–27,
Pennsylvania, 335                           250–252, 261, 268, 354
People Improving Communities              food justice and, 173–186
   through Organizing (PICO), 95          future issues for, 371–378
People of Color Environmental             land use, 331–336 (see also Land
   Directory (Environmental Justice         use)
   Resource Center), 309                  level playing field for, 361–363
Perera, F., 276                           mixed-income housing, 119
Perez, Katherine, 91–92                   MPOs and, 249–268 (see also
Perez-Pena, R., 278                         Metropolitan Planning Organi-
Perlstein, M., 191                          zations [MPOs])
Persky, J. J., 348, 358                   Red Cross and, 191
Peshoff, B. G., 51, 58                    Richland County, South Carolina,
Peterson, B., 277                           and, 149–169
Pew Center for Civic Journalism, 303      sprawl contribution by, 108–110
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 81              transportation, 249–268, 312–313
Planned growth, 52. See also Metro-         (see also Transportation)
   politan Planning Organizations        PolicyLink, Inc., 6, 8, 299, 361
   (MPOs)                                Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
 Atlanta International Airport and,         (PAHs), 276, 284
   223–242                               Pope, J., 200, 276
 Richland County, South Carolina,        Population and Housing Summary
   and, 149–169                             Tape Files, 174
Plessy v. Ferguson, 34                   Porter, M. E., 358
PODER, 304                               Portland, Oregon, 119
Pohanka, M., 173                         Portney, K., 117
Point CDC, 311                           Poverty, 3, 8, 10, 14
Policy                                    American Dream and, 299–300
 alternative fuels and, 290–293           central city neighborhoods and, 24–
 antisprawl movement and, 59–64             25, 52–55 (see also Central city
 Bring Back New Orleans Commission          neighborhoods)
   and, 193–194                           coalitions and, 302–310, 323–342
 Brownfields Act and, 355                  concentrated, 51–68
 Cisneros and, 73–75                      crime and, 113
 Civil Rights Act of 1964 and, 27,        desegregation and, 55–57
   106, 118, 252, 260–261, 268, 286,      education and, 58–59, 117
   354, 358, 376                          gentrification and, 51–52, 61–64 (see
 Clean Air Act and, 221–223, 357, 360       also Gentrification)
 Clean Water State Revolving Fund         Good News Garage and, 302
   (CWSRF) and, 346                       Latinos and, 74, 80
 Community Reinvestment Act and,          middle-income housing and, 64–67
   360                                    migration and, 299–301
 diesel fuel and, 290–293                 Monroe County and, 109
 environmental justice and, 23–44 (see    New Orleans and, 189–192
   also Environmental justice)            political fragmentation and, 57–58
400     Index


Poverty (cont.)                          Puls, M., 64
 self-sufficiency and, 111, 377           Purcell, Bill, 140
 systemic, 58                            Purdum, T. S., 52
 transportation and, 34–41, 190–192
  (see also Transportation)              Quest for Environmental Justice, The
 welfare and, 301–302                     (Bullard), 9
 zoning laws and, 30–33
powell, john a., 75, 110, 345, 348,      Rabin, Y., 30
  351                                    Rabito, F. A., 193
 Metropolitan Planning Organizations     Race in American Public Schools:
  (MPOs) and, 250                          Rapidly Resegregating School
 regional strategies and, 4, 6, 8, 11,     Districts (Harvard Civil Rights
  51–71, 332, 338                          Project), 33
 Richland County, South Carolina,        Racial issues
  and, 151                                antisprawl movement and, 59–64
Powers, A., 195                           automobile ownership and, 35
Prakash, Swati R., 15, 273–298            Brown v. Board of Education of
Precautionary principle, 25–26             Topeka and, 34
President’s Task Force, 278               central city neighborhoods and, 24–
Pribitkin, A. E., 41, 43                   25
Prince William Sound, 195                 civil rights and, 9, 12, 27, 33 (see also
Proscio, Tony, 93, 96, 115, 306, 308       Civil rights)
Protestantism, 111                        crime and, 113
Public Interest Law Project, 200          educational performance and, 113
Public services, 1, 7                     environmental justice and, 23–44, 118
 Anderson v. Rochester–Genesee            equity and, 3–8 (see also Equity)
  Regional Transportation Authority       food justice and, 171–186
  and, 117                                future issues for, 371–378
 coalitions and, 330–331                  insurance companies and, 201–203,
 cost of, 349–350                          235
 Nashville and, 139                       Jim Crow laws and, 34, 56, 202
 Richland County, South Carolina,         land use reform and, 331–336
  and, 158–160                            Latinos and, 73–98
 Rochester and, 103                       middle-income housing and, 64–67
Public transit, 1–2. See also             MPO boards and, 265–266
  Transportation                          Negro removal programs and, 205
 African Americans and, 91                Plessy v. Ferguson and, 34
 Detroit and, 40                          racialized space and, 57–59
 diesel effects and, 273–294              redlining and, 9, 25, 172, 201–203
 gasoline tax and, 36–37                  Richland County, South Carolina,
 Latinos and, 91                           and, 149–169
 Manhattan and, 273–294                   schools and, 32–33 (see also Schools)
 Nashville and, 137–138                   segregation tax and, 4 (see also
 reduction of, 38                          Segregation)
Pucher, J., 35                            slavery and, 111
Puentes, R., 36                           small business owners and, 236–237
                                                                 Index     401


  sprawl patterns and, 53                 Residential Apartheid (Bullard,
  steering and, 323–324                     Grigsby, and Lee), 9
  suburban flight and, 58                  Restaurants, 13–14
  toxic cleanup disparities and, 28        food justice and, 174–186
  transportation and, 34–41, 252 (see      Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary
   also Transportation)                     Guidelines for Americans and, 180
  zoning laws and, 30–33 (see also        Riccardi, N., 190
   Zoning)                                Rich, M., 301
Racism and Metropolitan Dynamics          Richards, L., 2–3
   (powell), 8                            Richardson, Bill, 308
Rami, M. D., 219, 350, 355                Richardson, H. W., 52, 54
Ranghelli, L., 93                         Richland County, South Carolina, 13
Raphael, S., 39                            Columbia and, 149, 152, 155
Rapid Transit Authorities (RTAs),          community leader rift in, 149–150
   192                                     conservation groups and, 149–150
Reagan, Ronald, 112                        County Council of, 151–160, 163,
Real estate markets. See Housing            167–168
Recent Trends in Real Estate journal,      demographic changes in, 160–168
   314                                     description of, 151–153
Recycling, 139–142                         development vision for, 153–157
Red Cross, 191                             education and, 157, 160
Redlining, 9, 25, 172, 201–203             emergency services and, 160
Regionalism, 8, 10, 55, 374                employment and, 152–155, 163
  agriculture and, 60                      housing and, 165–168
  antisprawl movement and, 59–64           income in, 164–165
  Cisneros and, 73–75                      infrastructure costs of, 149
  coalitions and, 323–342                  Interstate 77 and, 152, 156–157, 163
  community-based, 78–79                   new construction in, 163
  cross-jurisdictional cooperation and,    population growth in, 149, 161–163
   59–60                                   sewer management and, 158–160
  environmental issues and, 75–76          Sierra Club and, 150
  equity and, 76–80                        transportation and, 152, 157–158
  food justice and, 174–180                water and, 158–160
  future strategies and, 68                zoning in, 155–156
  labor movement and, 77–78               Riverside, California, 81, 84
  Latinos and, 74, 87–97                  Robbins, M., 263
  new regionalism and, 75–80, 87–89       Rochester, New York, 12, 120
  new urbanism and, 87–89                  community development corpora-
  smart growth and, 119–121                 tions and, 116
‘‘Regionalism: The New Geography of        education and, 117
   Opportunity’’ (Cisneros), 73            grassroots projects and, 115–116
Rein, L., 205                              housing and, 109
Religion, 105, 111, 115                    Paynter v. State and, 117
Renne, J. L., 35                           segregation and, 103, 106–107
Report on Environmental Justice            supermarkets in, 116
   (USDOT), 292                            urban pressures and, 107–108
402     Index


Rockefeller Institute of Government,     Richland County, South Carolina,
  313                                      and, 157
Rogers, J., 78                           Rochester and, 117
Romney, Mitt, 308                        San Antonio Independent School
Root, A., 264                              District v. Rodriguez and, 351
Rosenberg, J. M., 200                    Superfund sites and, 28, 32–33
Ross, C. L., 66                          zoning and, 32–33
Roux, A. D., 142                        Scott, P., 240
Rusk, David, 4–5, 103, 347              Seattle, Washington, 61–62
 New Orleans and, 189                   Section 8 housing, 139
 regional strategies and, 51, 54, 57–   Segregation, 3–9, 375–376
  61, 333                                boycotts and, 104–106
 segregation and, 150–151                Brown v. Board of Education of
Russell, G., 197                           Topeka and, 34, 345
                                         Chicago and, 107
Sacrifice zones, 378                      civil rights and, 55–57
Sadd, J., 31                             coalitions and, 302–310, 323–342
Saint Paul, Minnesota, 77, 327           desegregation and, 55–57, 103
Salvi, S., 277                           food justice and, 174–180
Samet, D., 276                           Jim Crow laws and, 56, 202
Samuels, Joseph, 66                      King and, 104–106
San Antonio, Texas, 73, 351              land use reform and, 331–336
San Antonio Independent School           Milliken v. Bradley and, 56
  District v. Rodriguez, 351             Monroe County and, 106–107
San Bernardino, California, 81, 84       Plessy v. Ferguson and, 34
Sanchez, Thomas W., 15, 25–26, 38,       public services and, 103
  249–271                                residential, 103, 106–107
San Francisco, California, 61–62         Richland County, South Carolina,
San Jose, California, 78, 94–95            and, 149–169
Santa Ana, California, 84                Rochester and, 103, 106–107
Santa Clara County, California, 95       schools and, 32–33
Sauer, M., 190                           South and, 107
Savitch, H. V., 54, 75, 172              sprawl patterns and, 53
Saxon, A., 277                           steering and, 323–324
Scallan, M., 203                         transportation and, 34–41
Schieber, R. A., 173                     zoning and, 109–110
Schintler, L., 264                      Segregation tax, 4
Schleifstein, M., 191                   Self-reliance, 111, 377
Schmidt, C. W., 2                       Sewage treatment, 2, 158–160
Schools, 1–2, 7, 24, 312, 324–325,      Shad, N. A., 348–349, 358
  372                                   Shapiro, T. M., 53, 165
 Atlanta and, 231                       Shelton, B. A., 63
 crowding of, 23                        Sheridan Expressway, 311
 health issues and, 43                  Shorter, C., 193
 Nashville and, 131                     Shprentz, D. S., 276
 prayer and, 112                        Sierra Business Council, 314
                                                              Index     403


Sierra Club, 32, 150                   Southeast Michigan Council of
Silicon Valley Manufacturing Group,       Governments (SEMCOG), 339–340
   94, 314                             Southerland, M. T., 172
Simmons, A. M., 194                    Southern Christian Leadership
Simonsen, B., 263                         Conference, 38
Singer, Audrey, 80–82                  Southern Environmental Law Center,
Skidmore, F., 332–333                     222
Slavery, 111                           Spanish Speaking Unity Council, 92–
Small Business Administration (SBA)       93
   loans, 199–200                      Sprague, Mary, 255–256
Smart growth, 1, 9                     Sprawl, 9
 benefits of, 346–347                    central city neighborhoods and, 52–
 challenges of, 346–347                   55
 environmental justice and, 23–44,      civil rights and, 59–64, 104
   23–49                                concentrated poverty and, 55–57 (see
 equity and, 76–77 (see also Equity)      also Poverty)
 future issues for, 371–378             defined, 1
 Latinos and, 73–98                     as dominant growth pattern, 1–2
 more efficient growth and, 349–350      environmental justice and, 23–44
 new regionalism and, 75–80             food justice and, 171–186
 purpose of, 2–3, 75–80                 future issues for, 371–378
 racial issues and, 119–121             gentrification and, 7, 61
 reform and, 331–336                    Hobson’s choice of, 60
 regionalism and, 119–121               legal issues and, 117–118
 revitalization tools and, 345–363      limits to, 114–115
 segregation and, 149–169               low-density, 110
 transportation and, 299–315 (see       magnitude of incentives for, 348–349
   also Transportation)                 migration and, 299–301
Smart Growth America, 303, 307, 310     more efficient growth and, 349–350
Smart Growth Network, 308, 356–         patterns in, 52–55
   357                                  place-based leadership and, 114–120
Smart Growth News, 360                  policy’s contribution to, 108–110
Smith, D., 361                          political desirability of, 110–114
Smith, G. M., 221                       political fragmentation and, 57–58
Smith, N., 7                            proximity factors and, 59
Smog, 275                               racialized space and, 57–59
Social justice, 308. See also Equity    residential segregation and, 103,
 antisprawl movement and, 59–64           106–107
 civil rights and, 104                  revitalization tools and, 345–363
 urban sprawl movement and, 59–64       social desirability of, 110–114
Solof, M., 338                          social justice advocates and, 59–64
Sorel, Georges, 112                     transportation and, 34–41, 299–315
Soundararajan, T., 198                    (see also Transportation)
South Bay Labor Council, 78             zoning abuses and, 30–33
South Coast Air Quality Management     Sprawl City (Bullard, Johnson, and
   District (AQMD), 279                   Torres), 9
404     Index


Squires, G., 235                         ‘‘Tale of Two Airports’’ (Hendricks),
Standing Peachtree, 215                     231
Stanford, D., 37                         Tang, S., 282
Star Tribune, 52                         Tarbet, V. E., 355
State and Territorial Air Pollution      Taxes, 1–2, 58
  Program Administrators, 42, 279          base sharing and, 359
State Farm Insurance, 202, 235             brownfields and, 358
Steering, 323–324                          bus system cuts and, 38
Stoll, Michael, 39                         California and, 88
Stolz, R., 35–36, 38, 93                   coalitions and, 325–331, 340
Strategic racism, 66                       discrimination and, 377
Streeter, K., 39                           fiscal equity and, 325–331
Subsidies, 2–3, 7, 300                     gasoline, 36–37, 220
 donor regions and, 36–37                  homogenous neighborhoods and, 114
 environmental justice and, 26             housing and, 323–324, 340
 FHA and, 54, 109–110                      lower, 112–113
 location-efficient mortgages and, 356      new market credits and, 360
 transportation and, 351, 354              private activity bonds and, 359
Suburbs                                    race to the bottom and, 8
 coalitions and, 323–342                   segregation, 4
 future issues for, 371–378              Tax increment financing (TIF), 361–
 land use reform and, 331–336               362
 Latinos and, 80–87                      Taylor, J., 62
 migration and, 299–301                  Tennessee Department of
 more efficient growth and, 349–350          Transportation, 136–137
 regional coalitions and, 323–342        Tennessee State University Geographic
 transportation and, 40                     Information Sciences Laboratory
 white flight and, 53–55, 58, 120, 356       (TSU GISL), 127, 137, 141
Sugre, T. J., 64, 66                     Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), 140
Sulfur, 280                              Tettey-Fio, E., 4
Sullivan, B., 199                        Texas Citizen Action, 304
Superfund sites, 28, 32–33               Texas Citizen Fund, 304
Supermarkets, 13–14, 116                 Thevenot, B., 191
 food justice and, 173–186               Thomas, E., 193
 Nashville and, 142–143                  Thomas, K. B., 202
 Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary      Thomson, K., 117
  Guidelines for Americans and, 180      Tierney, J., 333
Surface Transportation Policy Project,   Tilly, C., 4
  267, 303                               Times-Picayune, 191–192
Suro, Roberto, 80–82                     Torres, Angel O., 103
Sustainable development, 2–3, 8–9,         Atlanta’s transportation sprawl and,
  52, 90–91                                 215–247
Swanstrom, T., 4, 24, 75                   environmental justice and, 24–25
                                           equity and, 1, 4, 9, 14, 37–38, 307
Taft, G. A., 24                            Latinos and, 76
Tagami, K., 240                            revitalization tools and, 348, 357
                                                                 Index      405


Toxic air contaminants (TACs), 279         Labor/Community Strategy Center v.
Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 224–         Los Angeles Metropolitan Transit
  225                                       Authority and, 118
Transit Workers Union, 288                 Metropolitan Planning Organizations
Transportation, 1, 3, 8–10                  (MPOs) and, 249–268
 air quality and, 41–43, 351               money trail in, 35–37
 alternative fuels and, 282–285            MPOs and, 35–36, 41
 Anderson v. Rochester–Genesee             Nashville and, 136–138
  Regional Transportation Authority        National Highway Traffic Safety
  and, 117                                  Administration and, 375
 BART, 92–93                               New Orleans and, 190–192
 buses and, 34, 38–39, 43, 79, 103,        Parks and, 34, 38
  105, 116–118, 192, 273–294               pedestrians and, 307, 313, 359
 central city neighborhoods and, 25, 40    Plessy v. Ferguson and, 34
 coalitions for, 302–310                   private sector and, 313–314
 congestion and, 24                        Rapid Transit Authorities (RTAs)
 cost of, 39–40                             and, 192
 cycling and, 313, 359                     Richland County, South Carolina,
 DART system and, 38                        and, 152, 157–158
 diesel fuels and, 273–294                 spatial mismatch and, 39–41
 dismantling apartheid of, 37–39           state DOTs and, 36, 41
 efficiency and, 24                         subsidies for, 351, 354
 employment and, 39–41, 301–302            suburban flight and, 54
 environmental justice and, 24, 34–        traffic congestion and, 52, 54
  41, 249–268, 309                         traffic deaths and, 42
 federal expansion and, 249–250            urban infill benefits and, 359–360
 Federal Highway Administration            U.S. Department of Transportation
  (FHWA), 35, 252–253, 268, 303,            (USDOT) and, 35–36, 221, 223,
  313                                       251–252, 261, 286, 292, 347, 354,
 food justice and, 116, 172–173, 178–       357
  180                                      U.S. expenditure on, 34–35
 fund leveraging and, 356–357              whole community approach and,
 gasoline tax and, 36–37, 220               310–312
 Good News Garage and, 302                Transportation Equity Act for the
 greenfields and, 351, 354                   Twenty-First Century (TEA-21), 35,
 Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta                  252–253, 257–258, 268, 292
  International Airport (ATL) and,        Transportation Riders United, 340
  223–242                                 Tri-State Transportation Campaign,
 Hurricane Katrina and, 190–192             303, 311–312
 institutional strategies for, 312–313    Troutt, D. D., 173
 integrated access approach for, 302–     Turner, M. A., 332–333
  305                                     Turner Broadcasting Systems, 221
 Intermodal Surface Transportation        Twombly, R., 32
  Efficiency Act (ISTEA) and, 35,
  251–253, 257–258, 268                   Underground storage tanks, 355
 job flight and, 39–41                     Unequal Protection (Bullard), 9
406     Index


Union of Concerned Scientists, 291         Urban Land Institute (ULI), 193–194,
United Kingdom, 261–262                      230–232, 238
United States. See also specific city       Urban League, 120
 American Dream and, 112–113,              Urban renewal projects, 133
   299–300                                 Urban Zoning Overlay (UZO), 132–
 Civil War and, 111, 215                     133
 diet and, 180–185                         USAA, 235
 dominant growth pattern in, 1–2           U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 194
 FEMA and, 198–201                         USA Today, 127–128
 homeland security and, 378                U.S. Census Bureau, 4, 37, 107, 128,
 infrastructure decline in, 2                162, 165
 Latino demographics and, 80–87            U.S. Centers for Disease Control and
 mass consumerism and, 111–112               Prevention, 193
 racial issues and, 4–8 (see also Racial   U.S. Commission on Civil Rights
   issues)                                   (USCCR), 28–29
 slavery and, 111                          U.S. Conference of Mayors, 312
 urban infrastructure issues and, 2        U.S. Congress, 35, 173, 338, 349,
University of Denver, 253                    358–359
University of Michigan, 140–141            U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2,
University of Texas, 32                      174, 185
Urban Affairs Review, 89                   U.S. Department of Commerce, 236
Urbanization                               U.S. Department of Energy, 284, 291,
 central city neighborhoods and, 52–         349
   55                                      U.S. Department of Environmental
 coalitions and, 323–342                     Health, 174
 community development                     U.S. Department of Homeland
   corporations and, 116                     Security, 204
 diesel fuel and, 273–294                  U.S. Department of Transportation
 environmental issues and, 75–76 (see        (USDOT)
   also Environmental issues)               Atlanta International Airport and,
 future issues for, 371–378                  221, 223
 land use and, 249, 331–336 (see also       diesel fuel and, 286, 292
   Land use)                                environmental justice and, 35–36,
 Latinos and, 80–87                          251–252, 261
 livability and, 107–108                    revitalization tools and, 347, 354, 357
 marketing advantages of, 358–359          U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
 middle-income housing and, 64–67            3, 334, 346
 migration and, 299–301                     diesel fuel and, 275–282
 more efficient growth and, 349–350          emissions regulations and, 279–280
 new urbanism and, 87–89                    environmental justice and, 26, 29, 32,
 race to the bottom and, 8                   42–43, 308, 311
 regionalism and, 87–89 (see also           hydrocarbons and, 279–280
   Regionalism)                             Nashville and, 141
 revitalization tools for, 345–363          new emission standards and, 279–
 transportation and, 34–41                   282
 zoning and, 30–33                          New Orleans and, 194–195
                                                               Index     407


 revitalization tools and, 350–351,     Wheeler, Heaster, 40, 75
  357–361                               White, M. C., 193, 223
 Web site of, 279                       Whitman, Christie, 308
U.S. General Accountability Office, 29   Wievel, W., 348, 358
U.S. General Accounting Office, 31–      Wiggins, Cynthia, 39
  32, 253, 254                          Wiley, Maya, 13, 149–169
U.S. Office of Comptroller of            Willis, G., 200
  Currency, 360                         Willis, N., 258
U.S. Supreme Court, 34, 109, 118, 133   Wilson, William Julius, 54, 79, 103,
                                         300
Van Vliet, P., 42                       Wing, Steve, 13–14, 142, 171–188
Varney, J., 195                         Win Win Partners, 360
Vehicle miles traveled (VMT), 275       Wolch, J., 2–3
Verma, N., 301                          Wolf, James F., 15, 249–271
Vidal, A. C., 59                        Woman’s College of the University of
Vigdor, J. L., 106                       North Carolina, 105
Vogel, R. K., 75                        Woodbury, C., 171
Voith, R., 54, 77, 330                  Working Partnerships, USA, 78, 94
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs),      World War II era, 114, 172
  224, 275–276, 280                     Wright, Beverly, 14, 189–211

Walesh, K., 75                          Yago, G., 236
Waller, M., 258                         Yinger, J., 332
Wal-Mart, 205                           Young Ministries for Peace and
Warrick, J., 203, 281                     Justice, 311
Warth v. Seldin, 109
Washington, J. M., 111                  Zegeer, C. V., 173
Washington Post, 205                    Zero-emission vehicles (ZEVs), 291
Waste management, 1, 306–307            Zoning, 3, 113, 351
Nashville and, 139–142                   brownfield sites and, 31–32
sewage, 2, 158–160                       environmental justice and, 30–33
toxic, 27                                exclusionary, 30–31, 109–110
Water, 1–2, 24                           inclusionary, 373
Clean Water State Revolving Fund         Latinos and, 74
 (CWSRF) and, 346                        New Orleans and, 193
Hurricane Katrina and, 195–196           Richland County, South Carolina,
Richland County, South Carolina,          and, 155–156
 and, 158–160                            sacrifice zones and, 378
Watsonville, California, 92              schools and, 32–33
Weiher, Gregory, 56–58, 65, 68           Urban Zoning Overlay (UZO) and,
Weinhold, B., 287                         132–133
Welfare, 301–302                         Warth v. Seldin and, 109
Wernett, D. R., 41
West Harlem Environmental Action,
 Inc. (WE ACT), 43, 273, 285–288,
 292–293

				
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