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Chapter 4 - Quia

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					Survey of the Animal
Industry

Chapter 4
Poultry and Egg Products
Poultry Meat and Egg
Production
 Broiler Chickens makes up most of the worlds
  production of poultry meat
 Other meats consumed
      turkeys, roaster chickens, mature laying hens,
       ducks, geese, pigeons, guinea
 Most are slaughter by large companies that are
  vertically integrated
      2001 Sales for top 2 companies
         Tyson Foods $25 billion
         Perdue Farms $2.5 billion
Composition

 Meat
     Dressing percentage
        Chickens   78%
        Turkeys    83%
     Edible raw meat from the carcass
        Chickens   67%
        Turkeys    78%
    Composition of Chicken
and Turkey
 A comparison is shown on table 4.3 on
  page 79
 Dark meat compared to white meat
     higher in calories
     Lower in protein
     higher cholesterol
       Eggs

 Structure
    Is diagramed on page 79 figure 4.1
    Shell
        94% calcium carbonate
        Contains 7000 to 17,000 pore spaces for the
         exchange of moisture and carbon dioxide
               Take a fresh egg and hold it in front of a bright light
                and you can see the pore spaces
          Surrounded by the cuticle
               preserves freshness and blocks micro organisms
                entry into the egg
          Two membranes are just inside the shell
               Attached to the shell
               Other encloses the eggs contents
Eggs

 Structure
     Air cell
        airpocket that forms between the inner and
         outer membranes
Eggs

    Egg White (albumen)
       Has   Four Distinct layers
            Chalaziferous layer -- surrounds the yolk and
             keeps it centered in the egg
                Twisted and squeezes out the thin
                 albumen
            Chalazae
            Thick Albumen
            Thin Albumen
                Highest protein content in the egg
Eggs

 Structure
     Yolk
        Yellowish  center of the egg
        Surrounded by the vitelline membrane- a thin,
         transparent covering
        Relatively high fat and protein content
Egg Weight

 Average is 2 oz. With a range of 1.5 to
  2.5 oz.
 Parts that make up the weight
     Shell and membranes    11%
     Albumen                58%
     Yolk                   31%
Poultry Products

 Meat
     More than 60% of all broilers leave the processing
      plant as cut-up chicken or selected parts
     1 out of every 8 lb. are processed now and larger
      amounts are expected in the future
     Consumers respond to value added products that
      cut down on the amount of preparation time need
      to make a meal
     50% of broilers, fowl(mature chickens) and turkeys
      are process beyond the parts or ready to cook
      stage
Poultry Products

 Boned and formed products
        turkeyroll fingers
        nuggets

     Cut and diced
        salads   and casseroles
     Canned and ground
     Cured and smoked products
Eggs

 Eggs come naturally prepackaged for
  sale
 Further processing of shell eggs produce
     Pasteurized liquid eggs
     Powdered eggs
     This processing allows for:
        easier transportation of eggs
        longer shelf life

        Increased food safety
Eggs

 Shell color
     Some lay white
     Some lay brown
             comes from ooporphyrin – reddish-
        Color
        brown pigment of the blood
     There is no significant difference between
      the eggs in nutritional value
Feathers and down

 Down -- small soft feather found under the out
  feathers of ducks and geese
      Older birds produce the best down
      Takes 4 ducks or 3 geese to make 1 lb. of feather
       and down mix of which 15-25% is down
      Used in the manufacturing of many things
 90% of the feathers and down used in this
  country are imported
Other Products and By
products
 Goose livers
     Produced by force feeding corn to geese 3
      times a day for 4 to 8 weeks
     Produces a liver that is 2 lbs. each
 Hydrolyzed feather meal
 poultry meat and bone scraps
     Both are used in animal feeds
Nutritional considerations
 Nutritional value of meat
      Protein
         White meat is 33% protein

         Dark meat is 28% protein

         Is easily digested and contains all of the essential
           amino acids
      Fat
         Poultry is lower in fat than a lot of meats – if eaten
           with out the skin
      Vitamins
         Excellent source of vitamin A
               Thiamin
               Riboflavin
               Niacin
Nutritional Value of eggs
 High nutrient density
 Excellent source of
     Protein
        highin readily digestible proteins
        Large amount of amino acids

        Eggs are a least cost source of protein

     Vitamins A, D, E, Folic Acid, Riboflavin,
      B12 and Pantothenic Acid
     Minerals -- Phosphorus, Iodine, Iron and
      Zinc
Nutritional Value of Eggs

 One egg supplies a high amount of the
  Nutritional requirements for a day
 Eggs are High in Cholesterol and fat
     Most of the fat and cholesterol are
      concentrated in the Yolk
     Ideas for reducing intake of fat and
      cholesterol from eggs
        Limityolk consumption to 1 serving
        Replace the yolk by adding 2 egg whites
         instead
Consumption
 Meat
   Chicken
        Highest     per capita consumption is in Antigua
          United States has a high per capita consumption
               It is approximately 90 lb. or ½ of the total meat
                consumption
               Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) and other fast food
                restaurants have increase the speed of preparing
                and their consumption
               Heavy hens account for 10% of the poultry meat
                consumed by Americans
     Turkey
        Consumption has increased from 1.7 lb. to 18 lb.
         in 2001
        Most of the increase is due to processed parts
        In past years turkey was mainly consumed on
         holidays
Consumption

 Eggs
     Consumption is 235 eggs per year and is
      down
      85% consumed as shell eggs
     Per capita consumption is near the
      production of one hen a year which is 254
Marketing

 Large amounts of meat are exported
    Most of the meat in the market is from
     broilers
    More than 900 million lb. per year
 100 million dozen eggs are exported from the
  US annually
 Ways sold
      Chicken is sold fresh
      Turkey is sold frozen
Marketing

 Ways Sold
   Most chicken is package for sale within 7
    days of processing
         Properrefrigeration can extend the shelf life
         beyond its expiration date up to 3 days (28-
         35o F)
      Most poultry meat is inspected by state
       and federal inspectors
 40% of broilers are marketed under
  a brand name
Marketing
 Turkeys
   Before the 1950’s 90% of turkey sold
    were for the holidays of Thanksgiving
    and Christmas
   Now less that 40% are sold during
    this time
       Dueto increase in offerings of
       preprocessed turkey.

				
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