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					     Chapter Five:
Road to Independence
         1763-1776

      Section Four:
     Moving Toward
      Independence
     Guide to Reading
• Main Idea             • Section Theme
  – The Second            – The Declaration of
                            Independence declared
    Continental             the colonies free and
    Congress voted to       independent.
    approve the         • Key Terms
    Declaration of        – petition
    Independence.         – preamble
• Read to Learn
  – what happened at
    the Second
    Continental
    Congress.
  – why the colonists
      Did You Know?
• In 1775 Benjamin Franklin wrote the
  first version of a Declaration of
  Independence because he was so upset
  by the British and the fighting at
  Lexington and Concord. He presented it
  to the Continental Congress, but the
  delegates were not ready for it. It took
  another year before the Continental
  Congress approved the final version of
  the Declaration of Independence.
  Thomas Jefferson wrote this one with
  Franklin’s help.
    Colonial Leaders
        Emerge
• The Second Continental
  Congress met for the first
  time on May 10, 1775.
 –In addition to the delegates
  from the first Continental
  Congress, Benjamin
  Franklin, John Hancock,
  and Thomas Jefferson
  were new delegates.
     Colonial Leaders
         Emerge
• The Congress governed the
  colonies.
 – It
    • authorized the printing of money
    • set up a post office
    • established a Continental Army
      with George Washington as the
      commander
    • sent a formal request to King
      George III asking for peace and for
      the king to protect the colonists’
      rights.
    Colonial Leaders
        Emerge
• Washington trained the
  army, and on March 17,
  1776, led his troops into
  Boston after surrounding
  the city and forcing the
  redcoats to withdraw.
 –The British sailed to
  Halifax, Nova Scotia.
     Colonial Leaders
         Emerge
• After an attack on New York
  by the British in Canada, the
  American troops at Fort
  Ticonderoga struck and
  captured Montreal in
  November.
 –American troops failed to
  capture Quebec but stayed
  outside the city through the
  winter and returned to Fort
 Discussion Question
• Why was Thomas Paine
  important to the
  independence movement?
• What traits did George
  Washington have to be able
  to lead his troops with such
  success?
 The Colonies Declare
    Independence
• The Second Continental
  Congress debated a
  resolution to support
  independence.
 –Some delegates thought the
  colonies were not ready to
  separate, and others felt that
  a large part of the population
  wanted to separate from
  Britain.
 The Colonies Declare
    Independence
• The Congress formed a
  committee to draft a
  Declaration of
  Independence.
 –Members included
  Jefferson, Franklin, John
  Adams, Roger Sherman of
  Connecticut, and Robert
  Livingston of New York.
 The Colonies Declare
    Independence
• On July 2, 1776, twelve
  colonies voted for the
  resolution for independence.
 –On July 4, they approved the
  Declaration with some
  changes.
   • John Hancock was the first to
     sign it.
     –His signature was large so that
      the king would have no trouble
 The Colonies Declare
    Independence
• The Declaration has four
  main sections:
 –The preamble, or introduction
 –A list of the rights of the
  colonists
 –A list of the grievances
  against Britain
 –A proclamation claiming the
  emergence of a new nation
 Discussion Question
• What grievances against
  King George III were
  included in the
  Declaration of
  Independence?
• What did the Declaration
  of Independence do for
Section 4 Assessment
1. What was King George III’s
   response to the Olive Branch
   Petition?
2. Why was the Second
   Continental Congress more
   like a government that the
   First Continental Congress?
3. What are the “unalienable
   Rights” to which Jefferson
 Graphic Organizer
       Describe each individual’s role
  in the movement toward independence.

                             Role

Thomas Jefferson

 Thomas Paine

 Samuel Adams

Benjamin Franklin
 Journal Assignment
• What are reasons for
  (pros) and reasons
  against (cons) a formal
  declaration of
  independence?
Remember…
 there will be
 a quiz at the
beginning of our
  next class!

				
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