Chapter Five: Road to Independence 1763-1776 Section Four: Moving Toward Independence Guide to Reading • Main Idea • Section Theme – The Second – The Declaration of Independence declared Continental the colonies free and Congress voted to independent. approve the • Key Terms Declaration of – petition Independence. – preamble • Read to Learn – what happened at the Second Continental Congress. – why the colonists Did You Know? • In 1775 Benjamin Franklin wrote the first version of a Declaration of Independence because he was so upset by the British and the fighting at Lexington and Concord. He presented it to the Continental Congress, but the delegates were not ready for it. It took another year before the Continental Congress approved the final version of the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson wrote this one with Franklin’s help. Colonial Leaders Emerge • The Second Continental Congress met for the first time on May 10, 1775. –In addition to the delegates from the first Continental Congress, Benjamin Franklin, John Hancock, and Thomas Jefferson were new delegates. Colonial Leaders Emerge • The Congress governed the colonies. – It • authorized the printing of money • set up a post office • established a Continental Army with George Washington as the commander • sent a formal request to King George III asking for peace and for the king to protect the colonists’ rights. Colonial Leaders Emerge • Washington trained the army, and on March 17, 1776, led his troops into Boston after surrounding the city and forcing the redcoats to withdraw. –The British sailed to Halifax, Nova Scotia. Colonial Leaders Emerge • After an attack on New York by the British in Canada, the American troops at Fort Ticonderoga struck and captured Montreal in November. –American troops failed to capture Quebec but stayed outside the city through the winter and returned to Fort Discussion Question • Why was Thomas Paine important to the independence movement? • What traits did George Washington have to be able to lead his troops with such success? The Colonies Declare Independence • The Second Continental Congress debated a resolution to support independence. –Some delegates thought the colonies were not ready to separate, and others felt that a large part of the population wanted to separate from Britain. The Colonies Declare Independence • The Congress formed a committee to draft a Declaration of Independence. –Members included Jefferson, Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman of Connecticut, and Robert Livingston of New York. The Colonies Declare Independence • On July 2, 1776, twelve colonies voted for the resolution for independence. –On July 4, they approved the Declaration with some changes. • John Hancock was the first to sign it. –His signature was large so that the king would have no trouble The Colonies Declare Independence • The Declaration has four main sections: –The preamble, or introduction –A list of the rights of the colonists –A list of the grievances against Britain –A proclamation claiming the emergence of a new nation Discussion Question • What grievances against King George III were included in the Declaration of Independence? • What did the Declaration of Independence do for Section 4 Assessment 1. What was King George III’s response to the Olive Branch Petition? 2. Why was the Second Continental Congress more like a government that the First Continental Congress? 3. What are the “unalienable Rights” to which Jefferson Graphic Organizer Describe each individual’s role in the movement toward independence. Role Thomas Jefferson Thomas Paine Samuel Adams Benjamin Franklin Journal Assignment • What are reasons for (pros) and reasons against (cons) a formal declaration of independence? Remember… there will be a quiz at the beginning of our next class!
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