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True Bloods

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True Bloods Powered By Docstoc
					                                 S
        Jessica Butler
  Sport Medicine Physician
Carleton Sport Medicine Clinic
         April 4, 2012
                Overview
•   Blood sugar
•   Cholesterol
•   Cardiovascular risk
•   Iron
•   Vitamin B12
              Blood sugar
• Main energy source for cells
• Transported from liver/intestines to cells
  through the bloodstream
  – Insulin allows cells to uptake glucose
• Stored in the liver and muscles as
  glycogen
            Blood sugar
• Organs affected by high blood sugar
  – Heart
  – Kidneys
  – Eyes
  – Nerves
  – Immune system
             Blood sugar
• Fasting values:
  – Normal: 4.0-6.0mmol/L
  – Impaired fasting glucose: 6.1-6.9mmol/L
  – Diabetes: >7.0mmol/L
                  Cholesterol
• Role:
   – Build and maintain cell membranes
   – Precursor for production of Vitamin D and steroid
     hormones
• Converted to bile in the liver (then stored in
  the gallbladder
   – Bile helps in intestinal absorption of fat and fat-
     soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)
• Excess continues to circulate in the blood
   – Can build up in vessel walls!
            Triglycerides
• Made up of glycerol and fatty acids
  – Saturated
  – Unsaturated
• Main parts of vegetable oils
  (unsaturated) and animal fats
  (saturated)
              Triglycerides
• Role:
  – Energy source
     • 2x the energy level of carbohydrates and
       protein
  – Transporters of dietary fat
              Triglycerides
• Medical relevance:
  – Elevated levels linked to atherosclerosis
     • Normal level: <1.70mmol/L
• How to lower TGs:
  – Exercise
  – Omega 3s
  – Limit alcohol intake
                    HDL
• High density lipoprotein
  – Transports cholesterol to liver, adrenals,
    testes, ovaries
• “Good cholesterol”
  – Able to removed cholesterol from plaques
                   HDL
• Medical relevance:
  – Low: <0.9-1.03mmol/L
  – Optimum: >1.55mmol/L
• How to raise HDL:
  – Exercise
  – Omega 3s
  – Limit alcohol intake
  – Choose healthier fats
                    LDL
• Low density lipoprotein
  – Can transport cholesterol into artery walls
• Medical relevance:
  – Low risk: treat if >5.5mmol/L
  – Intermediate risk: treat if >4.5mmol/L
  – High risk: target <2.0mmol/L
Framingham Risk Score
                     Iron
• Iron required for Hemoglobin production
  – Hgb transports oxygen from the lungs to
    the body’s tissues
• Also carries electrons in cells, and
  involved in many enzyme reactions
• Total body iron 2-5g in humans
  – ~50% stored as ferritin
  – Iron deficiency- stores are the first to go
                        Iron
• Causes of               • Symptoms of
  deficiency:               deficiency:
  – Blood loss                 –   Fatigue
  – Inadequate intake          –   Paleness
  – Decreased                  –   Hair loss
    absorption                 –   Brittle or grooved
                                   nails
                         Iron
• Dietary sources:
  –   Red meat
  –   Beans
  –   Poultry
  –   Fish
  –   Leaf vegetables
  –   Chickpeas
  –   Tofu
  –   Fortified breads and cereals
                  Iron
• Daily recommendations:
  – M 8mg/d, F 18mg/d
• Iron supplementation
             Vitamin B12
• Involved in normal function of brain and
  lungs, and metabolism of every cell
• Also important in blood formation
• Requires intrinsic factor to transport it
  from the stomach to the small intestine
                Vitamin B12
• Causes of             • Symptoms:
  deficiency:             – Fatigue
  – Poor absorption       – Anemia
  – Inadequate intake     – Neurologic
  – Celiac disease          symptoms
                             • Tingling/numbness
                Vitamin B12
• Dietary sources
  – Meat
  – Eggs
  – Dairy
• Supplementation
  – Oral
  – Injection

				
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