AMERICAN RED CROSS ADULT CPR SECTION I Recognizing Emergencies • Look For – Unusual odors • Discuss – Unusual sights • Discuss – Unusual sounds • Discuss – Unusual appearances • Discuss Chain of Survival CHAIN OF SURVIVAL CITIZEN RESPONDER FIRST REPONDER EMT CARE HOSPITAL Key Steps in any Emergency • CHECK – Scene for safety, number of victims, and what happened – Victim for Life threatening conditions • Consciousness, Airway, Breathing, Circulation, Severe Bleeding • Call 911 or local emergency number • Care for victims life threatening conditions CALL WHEN RESPONDER IS ALONE • CALL FIRST • CARE FIRST (Provide – An unconscious adult or two minutes of care, then call child 8 years or older 911) – An unconscious infant or – An unconscious victim less child known to be a high than 8 years old risk for heart problems – Any victim of submersion – Cardiac Emergencies, or near drowning. Sudden Cardiac Arrest. – Any victim of cardiac arrest associated with trauma – Any victim of Drug overdose – Often Breathing related WHEN TO CALL EMS • Is or becomes unconscious • Has trouble breathing or breathing in strange way • Has chest discomfort more than 3-5 minutes • Is bleeding severely • Has pressure or pain in the abdomen that does not go away • Is vomiting or passing blood > WHEN TO CALL EMS • Has a seizure that lasts more than 5 minutes or multiple seizures • Has a seizure and is pregnant • Has a seizure and is diabetic • Has a severe headache or slurred speech • Appears to have been poisoned • Has injuries to the head, neck or back. • Has possible broken bones. > WHEN TO CALL EMS • Fire or explosion • Downed electrical lines • Swiftly moving or rapidly rising water • Presence of poisonous gas • Vehicle collisions • Victims who cannot be moved easily Caring for Shock • Shock is a condition in which the circulatory system fails to deliver blood to all parts of the body. • This triggers a response that produces signals of shock. • Shock is likely to develop in any serious injury or illness Emergencies That Can Cause Shock • Injuries • Excessive bleeding • Cardiac emergencies • Strokes • Seizures • Diabetic reactions • Poisoning and allergic reactions • Bites and stings • Emotional trauma Signals of Shock • Restlessness and irritability • Altered consciousness • Nausea • Pale or ashen, cool, moist skin • Rapid breathing • Rapid pulse Caring for Shock • Have victim lie down. Resting in a more comfortable position will lessen pain • Call 911 immediately. Shock cannot be managed by first aid and is life threatening • Control external bleeding • Elevate legs about 12” unless you suspect head, neck, back injury or broken bones • Help victim maintain normal body temp • Do not give anything to eat or drink • Reassure the victim Checking an Unconscious Adult Checking an Unconscious Adult If you have to leave an unconscious, breathing victim for any reason, you should place the victim in the recovery position if no head, neck or back injuries are suspected. Check for signs of circulation in the lower arm. If the victim’s arm is pale, ashen, grayish or cool to the touch or the victim has been in the recovery position for more than 30 minutes, turn the victim on the other side. Checking an Unconscious Adult • Check consciousness – Tap and shout • Airway – Head tilt – chin lift • Breathing – Look, listen, and feel for 5-10 seconds • Circulation – Check for pulse and signs of Circulation for 10 seconds and then check for severe bleeding Checking a Conscious Adult Checking a Conscious Adult • Imagine you just heard a call for help. Outside you find a person lying at the bottom of a ladder. The person is trying to sit up. • What information can you gather? What info can you gather? • Is the scene safe? • Is the victim conscious? • Is the victim breathing? • Does the victim show signs of circulation? • Is the victim bleeding severely? • Does the victim have a possible head, back or neck injury? • Does the victim have any other injuries? What questions should you ask? • Can I help you? • What is your name? • What happened? • Do you have any pain? • Do you have any allergies? • Are you taking any medications? • Are you feeling any numbness or loss of sensation? • When did you last eat or drink something?
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