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                           Organizational Behavior: Managing People                                           © 2012, 2010 South-Western, Cengage Learning
                           and Organizations, Tenth Edition
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                                                                                                   1
                                                                                        C H A P T E R


                                                                        AN OVERVIEW
                                                                                                                                                                                   CHAPTER OUTLINE
                                                                                                                                                                                   • What Is Organizational
                                                                                                                                                                                     Behavior?
                                                                                                                                                                                   • Organizational Behavior and

                                                                        OF ORGANIZATIONAL
                                                                                                                                                                                     the Management Process
                                                                                                                                                                                   • Organizational Behavior and
                                                                                                                                                                                     the Manager’s Job


                                                                        BEHAVIOR                                                                                                   • Contemporary Organizational
                                                                                                                                                                                     Behavior
                                                                                                                                                                                   • Contextual Perspectives on
                                                                                                                                                                                     Organizational Behavior
                                                                                                                                                                                   • Managing for Effectiveness

                                                                                                                                                                                   CHAPTER
                                                                            No Company for Old-Fashioned Management                                                                LEARNING OBJECTIVES
                                                                                                                                                                                   After studying this chapter you
                                                                                   “Anything that requires knowledge and service gives                                             should be able to:
                                                                                                    us a reason to be.”                                                            • Define organizational behavior.

                                                                                           —DANNY WEGMAN, CEO OF WEGMANS FOOD MARKETS
                                                                                                                                                                                   • Identify the functions that
                                                                                                                                                                                     comprise the management
                                                                                                                                                                                     process and relate them to

                                                                        If you’re looking for the best Parmesan cheese for your chicken parmigiana recipe,
                                                                         you might try Wegmans, especially if you happen to live in the vicinity of Pittsford,
                                                                        New York. Cheese department manager Carol Kent will be happy to recommend
                                                                                                                                                                                     organizational behavior.
                                                                                                                                                                                   • Relate organizational behavior
                                                                                                                                                                                     to basic managerial roles
                                                                        the best brand because her job calls for knowing cheese as well as managing                                  and skills.
                                                                                                                                                                                   • Describe contemporary
                                                                                                                                                                                     organizational behavior
                                                                                                                                                                                     characteristics.
                                                                                                                                                                                   • Discuss contextual
                                                                                                                                                                                     perspectives on organizational
                                                                                                                                                                                     behavior.
                                                                                                                                                                                   • Describe the role of
                   RICHARD A. LIPSKI/THE WASHINGTON POST/GETTY IMAGES




                                                                                                                                                                                     organizational behavior in
                                                                                                                                                                                     managing for effectiveness.



                                                                                                                                                                                   Wegmans’ reputation
                                                                                                                                                                                   as a great place to
                                                                                                                                                                                   work has helped the firm
                                                                                                                                                                                   build a committed and
                                                                                                                                                                                   motivated workforce.
                                                                                                                                                                                   These Wegmans
                                                                                                                                                                                   employees are having a
                                                                                                                                                                                   team meeting before their
                                                                                                                                                                                   store opens.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1
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            2               PART 1              Introduction to Organizational Behavior

                                                               some 20 employees. Kent is a knowledgeable employee, and knowledgeable
                                                               employees, says Wegmans CEO Danny Wegman, are “something our competitors
                                                               don’t have and our customers couldn’t get anywhere else.”
                                                                     Wegmans Food Markets, a family-owned East Coast chain with more than
                                                               70 outlets in five states, prides itself on its commitment to customers, and it shows:
                                                               It (U of C, 6.64) ranks at the top of the latest Consumer Reports survey of the best
                                                               national and regional grocery stores. Wegmans rates especially high on service,
                                                               and although such amenities as sushi stations, crab-cake counters, kosher delis, and
                                                               Thai and Indian buffets drive up costs, the chain also keeps a close eye on prices.
                                                               In fact, back in November 2008, as the economy continued to sink into the reces-
                                                               sion, Wegmans announced what amounted to a price war with itself by promising
                                                               to cut prices on many of its products: Bread went down by 17 percent and pork by
                                                               26 percent, and Wegmans claims to have saved customers $20 million. “During
                                                               difficult times like these,” explains Danny Wegman, “it’s okay with us if we make a
                                                               little less money.”
                                                                     But commitment to customers is only half of Wegmans’ overall strategy, which
                                                               calls for reaching its customers through its employees. “How do we differentiate
                                                               ourselves?” asks Wegman, who then proceeds to answer his own question: “If we
                                                               can sell products that require knowledge in terms of how you use them, that’s our
                                                               strategy. Anything that requires knowledge and service gives us a reason to be.”
                                                               That’s the logic behind one of Carol Kent’s recent assignments—one that she under-
                                                               standably regards as a perk: Wegmans sent her to Italy to conduct a personal study
                                                               of Italian cheese. “We sat with the families” that make the cheeses, she recalls, and
                                                               “broke bread with them. It helped me understand that we’re not just selling a piece
                                                               of cheese. We’re selling a tradition, a quality.”
                                                                     Kent and the employees in her department also enjoy the best benefits package
                                                               in the industry, including fully paid health insurance. And that includes part-timers, who
                                                               make up about two-thirds of the company’s workforce of more than 37,000. In part,
                                                               the strategy of extending benefits to this large segment of the labor force is intended to
                                                               make sure that stores have enough good workers for crucial peak periods, but there’s no
                                                               denying that the costs of employee-friendly policies can mount up. At 15 to 17 percent
                                                               of sales, for example, Wegmans’ labor costs are well above the 12 percent figure for
                                                               most supermarkets. But according to one company HR executive, holding down labor
                                                               costs isn’t necessarily a strategic priority: “We would have stopped offering free health
                                                               insurance [to part-timers] a long time ago,” she admits, “if we tried to justify the costs.”
                                                                     Besides, employee turnover at Wegmans is about 6 percent—a mere fraction
                                                               of an industry average that hovers around 19 percent (and that, for part-timers, can
                                                               approach 100 percent). And this is an industry in which total turnover costs have
                                                               been known to outstrip total annual profits by 40 percent. Wegmans employees tend
                                                               to be knowledgeable because about 20 percent of them have been with the com-
                                                               pany for at least 10 years, and many have logged at least a quarter century. Says
                                                               one 19-year-old college student who works at an upstate–New York Wegmans while
                                                               pursuing a career as a high school history teacher: “I love this place. If teaching
                                                               doesn’t work out, I would so totally work at Wegmans.” Edward McLaughlin, who
                                                               directs the Food Industry Management Program at Cornell University, understands
                                                               this sort of attitude: “When you’re a 16-year-old kid, the last thing you want to do
                                                               is wear a geeky shirt and work for a supermarket,” but at Wegmans, he explains,
                                                               “it’s a badge of honor. You’re not a geeky cashier. You’re part of the social fabric.”


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                                                                                                       CHAPTER 1                     An Overview of Organizational Behavior                                                   3

                                In 2009, Wegmans placed fifth in Fortune magazine’s annual list of “100 Best
                           Companies to Work For”—down from number 1 in 2006 and number 3 in 2008
                           but good for twelve consecutive years on the list and five straight top-5 finishes.
                           “It says that we’re doing something right,” says a company spokesperson, “and that
                           there’s no better way to take care of our customers than to be a great place for our
                           employees to work.” In addition to its healthcare package, Wegmans has been cited
                           for such perks as fitness center discounts, compressed workweeks, telecommuting,
                           and domestic-partner benefits (which extend to same-sex partners). For eight weeks
                           in the summer of 2009, and again for a six-week period from Thanksgiving to New
                           Year’s, the company offered employees 10 percent discounts to help with grocery
                           purchases during economic crunch times. “With a challenging economy,” reasons
                           Danny Wegman, “being a great place to work is the best way we can take care
                           of our customers.”
                           What Do You Think?
                           1. Why don’t more firms adopt the kind of management practices that have
                              contributed to Wegmans’ success?
                           2. Under what circumstances might Wegmans be forced to change its approach
                              to dealing with its employees?
                           References: Jon Springer, “Danny Wegman,” Supermarket News, July 14, 2009, http://supermarketnews.com on
                           January 19, 2010; Michael A. Prospero, “Employee Innovator: Wegmans,” Fast Company, October 2004,
                           www.fastcompany.com on January 19, 2010; “Survey: Wegmans, Trader Joe’s and Publix among the Best of
                           59 Grocery Chains,” ConsumerReports.org, http://pressroom.consumerreports.org on January 19, 2010;
                           Dan Mitchell, “Wegmans Price War against Itself,” The Big Money, November 2, 2009, www.thebigmoney.com
                           on January 19, 2010; Sharon Linstedt, “Wegmans Ranked Fifth-Best Place to Work by Fortune Magazine,” The
                           Buffalo News, January 23, 2009, www.buffalonews.com on January 19, 2010; Business Civic Leadership Center,
                           “Wegmans,” 2009 Corporate Citizenship Awards (U.S. Chamber of Commerce, 2009), www.uschamber.com on
                           January 19, 2010.




                           In many ways a Wegmans store may not look substantially different from a large
                           national chain store. But its dual emphasis on both customer and employee satisfac-
                           tion had paid big dividends as the firm continues to thrive through good times and bad.
                           Regardless of their size, scope, or location, all organizations have at least one thing in
                           common—they are comprised of people. And it is these people who make decisions
                           about the strategic direction of a firm, it is they who acquire the resources the firm
                           uses to create new products, and it is they who sell those products; people manage a
                           firm’s corporate headquarters, its warehouses, and its information technology; and it is
                           people who clean up at the end of the day. No matter how effective a manager might
                           be, all organizational successes—and failures—are the result of the behaviors of many
                           people. Indeed, no manager can succeed without the assistance of others.
                                Thus, any manager—whether responsible for a big business like Google,
                           Abercrombie & Fitch, General Electric, Apple, Starbucks, or British Airways; for a
                           niche business like the Boston Celtics basketball team or the Mayo Clinic; or for a
                           local Pizza Hut restaurant or neighborhood dry cleaning establishment—must strive to
                           understand the people who work in the organization. This book is about those people.
                           It is also about the organization itself and the managers who operate it. The study of


   Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
 Licensed to: iChapters User

            4               PART 1              Introduction to Organizational Behavior

                                                               organizations and the study of the people who work in them together constitute the
                                                               field of organizational behavior. Our starting point in exploring this field begins with a
                                                               more detailed discussion of its meaning and its importance to managers.



                                                               WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR?
                                                               What exactly is meant by the term “organizational behavior”? And why should it be
                                                               studied? Answers to these two fundamental questions will both help establish our
                                                               foundation for discussion and analysis and help you better appreciate the rationale as
                                                               to how and why understanding the field can be of value to you in the future.


                                                               The Meaning of Organizational Behavior
                                                          Organizational behavior (OB) is the study of human behavior in organizational settings,
                                                          of the interface between human behavior and the organization, and of the organization
                                                          itself.1 Although we can focus on any one of these three areas, we must also remember
                                                          that all three are ultimately necessary for a comprehensive understanding of organiza-
                                                                                                      tional behavior. For example, we can study
            Figure 1.1                      THE NATURE OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
                                                                                                      individual behavior without explicitly con-
                                                                                                      sidering the organization. But because the
            The field of organizational behavior attempts to understand human                         organization influences and is influenced
            behavior in organizational settings, the organization itself, and the                     by the individual, we cannot fully under-
            individual–organization interface. As illustrated here, these areas are                   stand the individual’s behavior without
            highly interrelated. Thus, although it is possible to focus on only one                   learning something about the organiza-
            of these areas at a time, a complete understanding of organizational                      tion. Similarly, we can study organizations
            behavior requires knowledge of all three areas.
                                                                                                      without focusing explicitly on the people
                                                      Environment                                     within them. But again, we are looking at
                                                                                                      only a portion of the puzzle. Eventually we
                                                                                                      must consider the other pieces, as well as
                                                                                                      the whole.
                                                  Human Behavior in
                                                                                                           Figure 1.1 illustrates this view of orga-
                                               Organizational Settings
                                                                                                      nizational behavior. It shows the linkages
                                                                                                      among human behavior in organizational
                                                                                                      settings, the individual–organization inter-
                                       The Individual–Organization Interface
                                                                                                      face, the organization itself, and the envi-
                                                                                                      ronment surrounding the organization.
                                                                                                      Each individual brings to an organization
                                                         The Organization
                                                                                                      a unique set of personal characteristics as
                                                                                                      well as a unique personal background and
                                                                                                      set of experiences from other organizations.
                                                                                                      Therefore, in considering the people who
                                                            Environment                               work in their organizations, managers must
                                                                                                      look at the unique perspective each indi-
                                                          vidual brings to the work setting. For example, suppose managers at The Home
            Organizational behavior is                    Depot realize that employee turnover within the firm is gradually but consistently
            the study of human behavior in                increasing. Further suppose that they hire a consultant to help them better under-
            organizational settings, the interface        stand the problem. As a starting point, the consultant might analyze the types of
            between human behavior and the                people the company usually hires. The goal would be to learn as much as possible
            organization, and the organization itself.    about the nature of the company’s workforce as individuals—their expectations,
                                                          their personal goals, and so forth.


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                                                                                                       CHAPTER 1                     An Overview of Organizational Behavior                                                   5

                               But individuals do not work in isolation. They come in contact with other people
                           and with the organization in a variety of ways. Points of contact include managers, co-
                           workers, the formal policies and procedures of the organization, and various changes
                           implemented by the organization. In addition, over time, individuals change, as a
                           function of personal experiences and maturity as well as work experiences and orga-
                           nizational developments. The organization, in turn, is affected by the presence and
                           eventual absence of the individual. Clearly, then, managers must also consider how
                           the individual and the organization interact. Thus, the consultant studying turnover
                           at The Home Depot might next look at the orientation procedures and initial training
                           for newcomers to the organization. The goal of this phase of the study would be to
                           understand some of the dynamics of how incoming individuals are introduced to and
                           interact with the broader organizational context.
                               An organization, of course, exists before a particular person joins it and continues
                           to exist after he or she leaves. Thus, the organization itself represents a crucial third
                           perspective from which to view organizational behavior. For instance, the consul-
                           tant studying turnover would also need to study the structure and culture of The
                           Home Depot. An understanding of factors such as a firm’s performance evaluation and
                           reward systems, its decision-making and communication patterns, and the structure
                           of the firm itself can provide added insight into why some people choose to leave a
                           company and others elect to stay.
                               Clearly, then, the field of organizational behavior is both exciting and complex.
                           Myriad variables and concepts accompany the interactions just described, and together
                           these factors greatly complicate the manager’s ability to understand, appreciate, and
                           manage others in the organization. They also provide unique and important opportu-
                           nities to enhance personal and organizational effectiveness.


                           The Importance of Organizational Behavior
                           The importance of organizational behavior may now be clear, but we should nonethe-
                           less take a few moments to make it even more explicit. Most people are raised and
                           educated in organizations, acquire most of their material possessions from organiza-
                           tions, and die as members of organizations. Many of our activities are regulated by
                           the various organizations that make up our governments. And most adults spend the
                           better part of their lives working in organizations. Because organizations influence our
                           lives so powerfully, we have every reason to be concerned about how and why those
                           organizations function.
                                In our relationships with organizations, we may adopt any one of several roles
                           or identities. For example, we can be consumers, employees, suppliers, competitors,
                           owners, or investors. Since most readers of this book are either present or future man-
                           agers, we will adopt a managerial perspective throughout our discussion. The study of
                           organizational behavior can greatly clarify the factors that affect how managers manage.
                           Hence, the field attempts to describe the complex human context of organizations and
                           to define the opportunities, problems, challenges, and issues associated with that realm.
                                The value of organizational behavior is that it isolates important aspects of the man-
                           ager’s job and offers specific perspectives on the human side of management: people
                           as organizations, people as resources, and people as people. To further underscore the
                           importance of organizational behavior to managers, we should consider this simple fact:
                           Year-in and year-out, most of the firms on Fortune’s list of the world’s most admired
                           companies have impeccable reputations for valuing and respecting the people who
                           work for them.2 Clearly, then, an understanding of organizational behavior can play a
                           vital role in managerial work. To most effectively use the knowledge provided by this


   Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
 Licensed to: iChapters User

                                          6         PART 1       Introduction to Organizational Behavior

                                                                                                                                           field, managers must thoroughly under-
                                                                                                                                           stand its various concepts, assumptions,
                                                                                                                                           and premises. To provide this foundation,
                                                                                                                                           we next tie organizational behavior even
                                                                                                                                           more explicitly to management and then
                                                                                                                                           turn to a more detailed examination of
                                                                                                                                           the manager’s job itself.
         JIN LEE/BLOOMBERG/GETTY IMAGES




                                                                                                                                           Organizational Behavior
                                                                                                                                           and Management
                                                                                                                           Virtually all organizations have managers
                                                                                                                           with titles such as chief financial officer,
                                                                                                                           marketing manager, director of pub-
                                                                                                                           lic relations, vice president for human
                                                                                                                           resources, and plant manager. But prob-
                                                                                                                           ably no organization has a position called
                                              People represent the essence of an organization, regardless of the           “organizational behavior manager.” The
                                              size of the organization or the technology it uses. Apple, for example,      reason for this is simple: Organizational
                                              relies on creative people to help generate new business ideas and
                                                                                                                           behavior is not a defined business function
                                              then translate those ideas into business practice. While most Apple
                                                                                                                           or area of responsibility similar to finance
                                              products are assembled and shipped using automated technology,
                                              without people neither Apple products nor the technology used to             or marketing. Rather, an understanding
                                              make and distribute them would exist. These Apple employees are              of organizational behavior is a perspective
                                              celebrating the launch of the iPad, one of the most successful new           that provides a set of insights and tools that
                                              products to be introduced in business history.                               all managers can use to carry out their jobs
                                                                                                                           more effectively.3
                                                                                                                                An appreciation and understanding
                                                                                                                           of organizational behavior helps manag-
                                                                            ers better understand why others in the organization behave as they do.4 For example,
                                                                            most managers in an organization are directly responsible for the work-related behav-
                                                                            iors of a certain set of other people—their immediate subordinates. Typical manage-
                                                                            rial activities in this realm include motivating employees to work harder, ensuring that
                                                                            employees’ jobs are properly designed, resolving conflicts, evaluating performance,
                                                                            and helping workers set goals to achieve rewards. The field of organizational behavior
                                                                            abounds with models and research relevant to each of these activities.5
                                                                                 Unless they happen to be chief executive officers (CEOs), managers also report
                                                                            to others in the organization (and even the CEO reports to the board of directors).
                                                                            In dealing with these individuals, an understanding of basic issues associated with
                                                                            leadership, power and political behavior, decision making, organization structure and
                                                                            design, and organization culture can be extremely beneficial. Again, the field of orga-
                                                                            nizational behavior provides numerous valuable insights into these processes.
                                                                                 Managers can also use their knowledge of organizational behavior to better under-
                                                                            stand their own needs, motives, behaviors, and feelings, which will help them improve
                                                                            decision-making capabilities, control stress, communicate better, and comprehend
                                                                            how career dynamics unfold. The study of organizational behavior provides insights
                                                                            into all of these concepts and processes.
                                                                                 Managers interact with a variety of colleagues, peers, and coworkers inside the
                                                                            organization. An understanding of attitudinal processes, individual differences, group
                                                                            dynamics, intergroup dynamics, organization culture, and power and political behav-
                                                                            ior can help managers handle such interactions more effectively. Organizational
                                                                            behavior provides a variety of practical insights into these processes. Virtually all of the
                                                                            insights into behavioral processes already mentioned are also valuable in interactions


   Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
 Licensed to: iChapters User

                                                                                                       CHAPTER 1                     An Overview of Organizational Behavior                                                   7

                           with people outside the organization—suppliers, customers, competitors, government
                           officials, representatives of citizens’ groups, union officials, and potential joint-venture
                           partners. In addition, a special understanding of the environment, technology, and
                           global issues is valuable. Again, organizational behavior offers managers many differ-
                           ent insights into how and why things happen as they do.
                                Finally, these patterns of interactions hold true regardless of the type of organi-
                           zation. Whether a business is large or small, domestic or international, growing or
                           stagnating, its managers perform their work within a social context. And the same can
                           be said of managers in health care, education, and government, as well as in student
                           organizations such as fraternities, sororities, and professional clubs. We see, then, that
                           it is essentially impossible to understand and practice management without consider-
                           ing the numerous areas of organizational behavior. Further, as more and more orga-
                           nizations hire managers from other countries, the processes of understanding human
                           behavior in organizations will almost certainly grow increasingly complex. We now
                           address the nature of the manager’s job in more detail before returning to our primary
                           focus on organizational behavior.



                           ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
                           AND THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS
                           Managerial work is fraught with complex-
                           ity and unpredictability and enriched with
                           opportunity and excitement. However, in
                                                                                                            Figure 1.2
                                                                                                    BASIC MANAGERIAL FUNCTIONS
                           characterizing managerial work most edu- Managers engage in the four basic functions of planning, organizing,
                           cators and other experts find it useful to leading, and controlling. These functions are applied to human, financial,
                                                                             physical, and information resources with the ultimate purpose of efficiently
                           conceptualize the activities performed by
                                                                             and effectively attaining organizational goals.
                           managers as reflecting one or more of four
                           basic functions. These functions are gener-
                           ally referred to as planning, organizing, lead-            Planning      Organizing        Leading        Controlling
                           ing, and controlling. While these functions
                           are often described in a sequential manner,
                           in reality, of course, most managerial work             Human
                                                                                   Resources
                           involves all four functions simultaneously.
                                Similarly, organizations use many differ-          Financial
                           ent resources in the pursuit of their goals and         Resources
                           objectives. As with management functions,
                           though, these resources can also generally be           Physical
                           classified into four groups: human, financial,          Resources
                           physical, and/or information resources. As illus-       Information
                           trated in Figure 1.2, managers combine these            Resources
                           resources through the four basic functions,
                           with the ultimate purpose of efficiently and
                           effectively attaining the goals of the organiza-                            Effective and Efficient Attainment
                           tion. That is, the figure shows how managers                                     of Organizational Goals
                           apply the basic functions across resources to
                           advance the organization toward its goals.
                                Planning, the first managerial function, is the process of determining the organiza- Planning is the process of determining
                           tion’s desired future position and deciding how best to get there. The planning process an organization’s desired future position
                           at Sears, for example, includes studying and analyzing the environment, deciding on and the best means of getting there.
                           appropriate goals, outlining strategies for achieving those goals, and developing tactics


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            8               PART 1              Introduction to Organizational Behavior




                  Microsoft Recruits to Win
                  There’s a battle waging to recruit top technical          two more tactics. When these still fall short,
                  talent. In 2006, just 10,000 computer science             Microsoft tries new recruiting methods.
                  degrees were awarded in the United States,                    One of the most interesting new techniques
                  yet Microsoft needed 11,000 new workers.                  is the use of online programming competitions
                  The competition to hire the best and brightest            run by TopCoder, Inc. The best algorithm wins.
                  is tough, highlighting fierce industry rivalry.           Winners can earn cash prizes—some top
                  On-campus interviews aren’t sufficient to                 competitors clear $500,000. Job offers follow,
                  generate the number of applicants needed.                 too, from companies such as Yahoo!, Google,
                      Unfortunately for Microsoft, Google is the            and eBay, as well as Microsoft. The method is
                  current favorite. The stock is rising rapidly,            completely free from biases related to age, race,
                  making stock-option                                                                       or gender. It also provides
                  compensation very                                                                         a global reach at little cost.
                                                     “While it takes super leadership to rise
                  attractive. While basic                                                                        The changes are
                                                       up and push for the change, it takes
                  compensation and                                                                          difficult, but worthwhile.
                  benefits are average,                extraordinary fantastic leadership to                An anonymous blogger
                  Google offers a wealth                realize big change day-to-day from                  at Microsoft says, “While
                  of “creature comforts.”                          here forward.”                           it takes super leadership
                  Employees get unlimited            —ANONYMOUS MICROSOFT EMPLOYEE AND BLOGGER              to rise up and push for
                  free gourmet beverages,                                                                   the change, it takes
                  meals, and snacks. Doctors, massage therapists,           extraordinary fantastic leadership to realize
                  and auto mechanics make on-site visits. The list          big change day-to-day from here forward.” For
                  goes on and on. Microsoft, on the other hand,             Microsoft to finally close the recruiting gap with
                  has a stagnant stock price that makes options             younger, hipper companies like Google, it must
                  unrewarding. The company offers above-average             sustain these changes.
                  pay and basic benefits, but less pampering.
                      What then can Microsoft do to compete? The            References: Michelle Conlin and Jay Greene, “How to Make a
                                                                            Microserf Smile,” BusinessWeek, September 10, 2007, www
                  company is doing a better job of publicizing              .businessweek.com on January 29, 2010; “Microsoft’s Mini-Me Susses
                  its advantages. The recruiting center has                 Brummel,” BusinessWeek, September 10, 2007, www.businessweek
                                                                            .com on January 29, 2010; Benjamin J. Romano, “Under Pressure,
                  been updated into a Google-style lounge with              Microsoft Fights to Keep Its Workers,” Seattle Times, May 19, 2006,
                  concierge service, food, and Guitar Hero.                 www.seattletimes.nwsource.com on January 29, 2010; Benjamin J.
                                                                            Romano, “Microsoft Exec Puts Her Stamp on Human Resources,”
                  Aggressive recruiting from competitors and                Seattle Times, October 9, 2006, www.seattletimes.nwsource.com on
                  more H1-B visas for skilled foreign workers are           January 29, 2010.




                                                               to help execute the strategies. Behavioral processes and characteristics pervade each of
                                                               these activities. Perception, for instance, plays a major role in environmental scanning,
                                                               and creativity and motivation influence how managers set goals, strategies, and tactics
            Organizing is the process of designing             for their organization. Larger corporations such as General Motors and Starbucks usu-
            jobs, grouping jobs into units, and                ally rely on their top management teams to handle most planning activities. In smaller
            establishing patterns of authority between         firms, the owner usually takes care of planning.
            jobs and units.                                         The second managerial function is organizing—the process of designing jobs, group-
                                                               ing jobs into manageable units, and establishing patterns of authority among jobs and


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                                                                                                       CHAPTER 1                     An Overview of Organizational Behavior                                                   9

                           groups of jobs. This process produces the basic structure, or framework, of the organiza-
                           tion. For large organizations such as Apple and Toyota, that structure can be extensive
                           and complicated. The structure includes several hierarchical layers and spans myriad
                           activities and areas of responsibility. Smaller firms can often function with a relatively
                           simple and straightforward form of organization. As noted earlier, the processes and
                           characteristics of the organization itself are a major theme of organizational behavior.
                                Leading, the third major managerial function, is the process of motivating mem-
                           bers of the organization to work together toward the organization’s goals. An Abercrom-
                           bie & Fitch store manager, for example, must hire people, train them, and motivate
                           them. Major components of leading include motivating employees, managing group
                           dynamics, and the actual process of leadership itself. These are all closely related to
                           major areas of organizational behavior. All managers, whether they work in a huge
                           multinational corporation spanning dozens of countries or in a small neighborhood
                           business serving a few square city blocks, must understand the importance of leading.
                                The Change box on page 8 shows how the leadership at Microsoft made the
                           changes necessary to compete with Google in the battle to recruit top talent in the
                           computer science market.
                                The fourth managerial function, controlling, is the process of monitoring and
                           correcting the actions of the organization and its people to keep them headed toward
                           their goals. A manager at Best Buy has to control costs, inventory, and so on. Again,
                           behavioral processes and characteristics are a key part of this function. Performance
                           evaluation, reward systems, and motivation, for example, all apply to control. Control
                           is of vital importance to all businesses, but it may be especially critical to smaller ones.
                           Wal-Mart, for example, can withstand with relative ease a loss of several thousand
                           dollars due to poor control; but an equivalent loss may be devastating to a small firm.


                           ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
                           AND THE MANAGER’S JOB
                           As they engage in the basic management functions previously described, managers
                           often find themselves playing a variety of different roles. Moreover, in order to perform
                           the functions most effectively and to be successful in their various roles, managers
                           must also draw upon a set of critical skills. This section first introduces the basic mana-
                           gerial roles and then describes the core skills necessary for success in an organization.

                           Basic Managerial Roles
                           In an organization, as in a play or a movie, a role is the part a person plays in a given
                           situation. Managers often play a number of different roles. In general, as summarized
                           in Table 1.1, there are ten basic managerial roles which cluster into three general
                           categories.6                                                                                                                                            Leading is the process of getting the
                                                                                                                                                                                   organization’s members to work together
                           Interpersonal Roles The interpersonal roles are primarily social in nature; that
                                                                                                                                                                                   toward the organization’s goals.
                           is, they are roles in which the manager’s main task is to relate to other people in certain
                           ways. The manager sometimes may serve as a figurehead for the organization. Taking                                                                      Controlling is the process of monitoring
                           visitors to dinner and attending ribbon-cutting ceremonies are part of the figurehead                                                                   and correcting the actions of the
                           role. In the role of leader, the manager works to hire, train, and motivate employees.                                                                  organization and its members to keep
                           Finally, the liaison role consists of relating to others outside the group or organization.                                                             them directed toward their goals.
                           For example, a manager at Intel might be responsible for handling all price negotia-                                                                    Key interpersonal roles are the
                           tions with a key supplier of microchips. Obviously, each of these interpersonal roles                                                                   figurehead, the leader, and the liaison.
                           involves behavioral processes.


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            10              PART 1              Introduction to Organizational Behavior


                                                               Table 1.1                     IMPORTANT MANAGERIAL ROLES

                                                                 Category                  Role                                  Example

                                                                 Interpersonal             Figurehead                            Attend employee retirement ceremony
                                                                                           Leader                                Encourage workers to increase productivity
                                                                                           Liaison                               Coordinate activities of two committees

                                                                 Informational             Monitor                               Scan Business Week for information about
                                                                                                                                 competition
                                                                                           Disseminator                          Send out memos outlining new policies
                                                                                           Spokesperson                          Hold press conference to announce new plant

                                                                 Decision-Making           Entrepreneur                          Develop idea for new product and convince others
                                                                                                                                 of its merits
                                                                                           Disturbance handler                   Resolve dispute
                                                                                           Resource allocator                    Allocate budget requests
                                                                                           Negotiator                            Settle new labor contract



                                                               Informational Roles The three informational roles involve some aspect of
                                                               information processing. The monitor actively seeks information that might be of value
                                                               to the organization in general or to specific managers. The manager who transmits this
                                                               information to others is carrying out the role of disseminator. The spokesperson speaks
                                                               for the organization to outsiders. A manager chosen by Dell Computer to appear at
                                                               a press conference announcing a new product launch or other major deal, such as
                                                               a recent decision to undertake a joint venture with Microsoft or Amazon, would be
                                                               serving in this role. Again, behavioral processes are part of each of these roles, because
                                                               information is almost always exchanged between people.

                                                               Decision-Making Roles Finally, there are also four decision-making roles.
                                                               The entrepreneur voluntarily initiates change—such as innovations or new strategies—
                                                               within the organization. The disturbance handler helps settle disputes between various
                                                               parties, such as other managers and their subordinates. The resource allocator decides
                                                               who will get what—how resources in the organization will be distributed among vari-
                                                               ous individuals and groups. The negotiator represents the organization in reaching
                                                               agreements with other organizations, such as contracts between management and labor
                                                               unions. Again, behavioral processes clearly are crucial in each of these decisional roles.


                                                               Critical Managerial Skills
                                                               Another important element of managerial work is mastery of the skills necessary to
            Key informational roles are the                    carry out basic functions and fill fundamental roles. In general, most successful man-
            monitor, the disseminator, and the
                                                               agers have a strong combination of technical, interpersonal, conceptual, and diagnos-
            spokesperson.
                                                               tic skills.7
            Important decision-making roles are
            the entrepreneur, the disturbance handler,         Technical Skills Technical skills are skills necessary to accomplish specific tasks
            the resource allocator, and the negotiator.        within the organization. Designing a new computer for Hewlett-Packard, developing
            Technical skills are the skills necessary          a new formula for a frozen-food additive for Conagra, or writing a press release for
            to accomplish specific tasks within the             Halliburton all require technical skills. Hence, these skills are generally associated with
            organization.                                      the operations employed by the organization in its production processes. For example,
                                                               David Packard and Bill Hewlett, founders of Hewlett-Packard, started out their careers


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                                                                                                       CHAPTER 1                     An Overview of Organizational Behavior                                                 11

                           as engineers. Other examples of managers with strong technical skills include H. Lee
                           Scott (president and CEO of Wal-Mart, who started his career as a store manager) and
                           Eric Molson (CEO of Molson Coors Brewing, who began his career as a brewmaster).
                           The CEOs of the Big Four accounting firms also began their careers as accountants.

                           Interpersonal Skills The manager uses interpersonal skills to communicate
                           with, understand, and motivate individuals and groups. As we have noted, managers
                           spend a large portion of their time interacting with others, so it is clearly important that
                           they get along well with other people. For instance, David Novak is CEO of YUM!
                           Brands, the firm that owns KFC, Pizza Hut, and Taco Bell. Novak is able to relate to
                           employees throughout the firm. He is also known to his employees as a caring, com-
                           passionate, and honest person. These qualities inspire others throughout the firm and
                           help motivate them to work hard to help Novak work toward the firm’s goals.

                           Conceptual Skills Conceptual skills are the manager’s ability to think in the
                           abstract. A manager with strong conceptual skills is able to see the “big picture.” That
                           is, she or he can see opportunity where others see roadblocks or problems. For exam-
                           ple, after Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs built a small computer of their own design in
                           a garage, Wozniak essentially saw a new toy that could be tinkered with. Jobs, however,
                           saw far more and convinced his partner that they should start a company to make and
                           sell the computers. The result? Apple Computer. More recently Jobs has also used
                           his conceptual skills to identify the potential in digital media technologies, leading to
                           the introduction of such products as the iPod, iPhone, iTunes, and iPad as well as his
                           overseeing the creation of Pixar Animation Studios.

                           Diagnostic Skills Most successful managers also bring diagnostic skills to the
                           organization. Diagnostic skills allow managers to better understand cause-and-effect
                           relationships and to recognize the optimal solutions to problems. For instance, as
                           chairman and CEO of SBC Communications, Ed Whitacre recognized that, while his
                           firm was performing well in the consumer market, it lacked strong brand identification
                           in the business environment. He first carefully identified and then implemented an
                           action to remedy the firm’s shortcoming—SBC would buy AT&T (for $16 billion),
                           acquiring in the process the very name recognition that his company needed. Hence,
                           after the acquisition was completed, the firm changed its corporate name from SBC
                           to AT&T. And it was his diagnostic skills that pulled it all together.8 Indeed, his legacy
                           of strong diagnostic skills led to him being asked to lead the corporate turnaround at
                           General Motors in 2009.
                                Of course, not every manager has an equal measure of these four basic types of
                           skills. Nor are equal measures critical. As shown in Figure 1.3, for example, the opti-
                           mal skills mix tends to vary with the manager’s level in the organization. First-line
                           managers generally need to depend more on their technical and interpersonal skills
                           and less on their conceptual and diagnostic skills. Top managers tend to exhibit the
                           reverse combination—more emphasis on conceptual and diagnostic skills and less                                                                          The manager uses interpersonal
                                                                                                                                                                                   skills to communicate with, understand,
                           dependence on technical and interpersonal skills. Middle managers require a more
                                                                                                                                                                                   and motivate individuals and groups.
                           even distribution of skills. Similarly, the mix of needed skills can vary depending on
                           economic circumstances. One recent survey suggested that during very tough eco-                                                                         The manager uses conceptual skills to
                           nomic times, the most important skills for a CEO are that he or she be an effective                                                                     think in the abstract.
                           communicator and motivator, be decisive, and be a visionary.9 While these skills cer-                                                                   The manager uses diagnostic skills to
                           tainly are always important, during times of economic prosperity other skills may be                                                                    understand cause-and-effect relationships
                           even more critical.                                                                                                                                     and to recognize the optimal solutions to
                                The Ethics box on page 13 describes a form of managerial behavior that, to put it                                                                  problems.
                           as tactfully as possible, reflects a breakdown in interpersonal skills.


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            12              PART 1              Introduction to Organizational Behavior


                                                               Figure 1.3                        MANAGERIAL SKILLS AT DIFFERENT ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS
                                                               Most managers need technical, interpersonal, conceptual, and diagnostic skills, but the
                                                               importance of these skills varies by level in the organization. As illustrated here, conceptual
                                                               and diagnostic skills are usually more important for top managers in organizations, whereas
                                                               technical and interpersonal skills may be more important for first-line managers.

                                                                                                   Conceptual Skills                                                Diagnostic Skills


                                                                  Top
                                                                  Managers


                                                                  Middle
                                                                  Managers


                                                                  First-Line
                                                                  Managers


                                                                                         Technical Skills                                              Interpersonal Skills




                                                               CONTEMPORARY
                                                               ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
                                                               Now, with this additional understanding of managerial work, we can return to our
                                                               discussion of organizational behavior. We first introduce two fundamental charac-
                                                               teristics of contemporary organizational behavior that warrant special discussion; we
                                                               then identify the particular set of concepts that are generally accepted as defining the
                                                               field’s domain.


                                                               Characteristics of the Field
                                                               Managers and researchers who use concepts and ideas from organizational behavior
                                                               must recognize that it has an interdisciplinary focus and a descriptive nature; that is, it
                                                               draws from a variety of other fields and it attempts to describe behavior (rather than to
                                                               predict how behavior can be changed in consistent and predictable ways).

                                                               An Interdisciplinary Focus In many ways, organizational behavior synthesizes
                                                               several other fields of study. Perhaps the greatest contribution is from psychology,
                                                               especially organizational psychology. Psychologists study human behavior, whereas
                                                               organizational psychologists deal specifically with the behavior of people in organi-
                                                               zational settings. Many of the concepts that interest psychologists, such as individual
                                                               differences and motivation, are also central to students of organizational behavior.
                                                               These concepts are covered in Chapters 3–8.
                                                                   Sociology, too, has had a major impact on the field of organizational behavior.
                                                               Sociologists study social systems such as families, occupational classes, and organiza-
                                                               tions. Because a major concern of organizational behavior is the study of organization
                                                               structures, the field clearly overlaps with areas of sociology that focus on the organiza-
                                                               tion as a social system. Chapters 16–19 reflect the influence of sociology on the field
                                                               of organizational behavior.


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                                                                                                       CHAPTER 1                     An Overview of Organizational Behavior                                                 13




                                 Do You Feel Like You Have “Kick Me” Tattooed on Your Forehead?
                                 Have you ever encountered a bully? If you’ve                 Work-related bullying may also take the
                                 ever worked in an organizational setting,                following forms:
                                 there’s a pretty good chance—75 percent,
                                                                                             • Removing areas of responsibility without
                                 says one study—that you’ve at least witnessed
                                                                                                cause
                                 bullying behavior. In fact, according to the
                                 Workplace Bullying Institute, 37 percent                    • Constantly changing work guidelines
                                 of the U.S. labor force—that’s 54 million                   • Establishing impossible deadlines
                                 people—have actually been the object of                     • Assigning unreasonable duties or workload
                                 bullying at some point during their work
                                                                                             • Assigning too little work (to foster a sense of
                                 lives. “Anything that affects 37 percent of the
                                                                                                uselessness)
                                 public,” says Institute director Gary Namie,
                                 “is an epidemic, but it’s                                                             You don’t have to
                                 a silent epidemic,” he         “Targets of severe workplace bullying are           look too closely at the
                                 adds, largely because                                                              items on the second list
                                                                 suffering from physical and psychological
                                 victims tend to confide                                                            to recognize actions
                                                                    conditions that would drive even the
                                 their experiences to close                                                         that can be taken by
                                 friends rather than to the           strongest of us into the ground.”             superiors in order to
                                                                     —DAVID C. YAMADA, DIRECTOR OF THE NEW
                                 higher-ups who might be                       WORKPLACE INSTITUTE
                                                                                                                    bully subordinates.
                                 expected to take some                                                              Granted, there can be
                                 kind of action.                                                                    a fine line between
                                     What is bullying? For one thing, it’s a form         strong management techniques and bullying
                                 of aggression—it’s intended to intimidate,               tactics, but upon closer inspection, the
                                 offend, or degrade a particular person or                line isn’t quite that fine. Human resource
                                 group of people. For another, it’s a pattern             professionals, for example, characterize “tough
                                 of aggression—it involves repeated incidents             bosses” as objective, performance focused,
                                 or instances of behavior. And because it                 and organizationally oriented. But “with a
                                 works through repetition, it often takes subtle          bully,” says one HR veteran, “there’s no goal
                                 forms and may, according to one expert,                  orientation. There’s nothing to do with your job.
                                 “include behaviors that don’t appear obvious             There’s nothing to do with the company. . . .
                                 to others.” Physical abuse or the threat of              It’s simply something that’s irritated the
                                 it are clearly forms of bullying, as are                 individual. It’s maddened him to the point that
                                 tampering with someone’s personal property               he’s driven to make a person’s life miserable.”
                                 or workplace equipment and yelling at                    HR managers point to the misuse of power and
                                 someone or using profanity. Other less overt             authority as the most common sign of workplace
                                 examples include:                                        bullying, and psychologists observe that people
                                                                                          who are prone to bullying display bullying
                                    • Spreading rumors or gossip about someone
                                                                                          behavior once they’ve achieved positions of
                                    • Excluding someone socially                          power and influence.
                                    • Undermining or impeding someone’s work                  How does bullying affect its victims? They
                                    • Intruding on someone’s privacy by pestering         report feeling “beaten,” “abused,” “broken,”
                                      or spying                                           “maimed,” “eviscerated,” and “character
                                                                                          assassinated,” and many describe the
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Continued



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                                                                           14         PART 1     Introduction to Organizational Behavior


                                                                                sensation of having been reduced to a level of                For more about counterproductive emotions in
                                                                                vulnerability associated with children, prisoners,         the workplace, see the Organizational Behavior
                                                                                and slaves. “I feel like I have ‘kick me’                  Case for Discussion, “What to Do When
                                                                                tattooed on my forehead,” admits one victim.               the Boss Unleashes His Inner Toddler,”
                                                                                According to a psychologist who’s studied                  on page 23.
                                                                                the effects of workplace bullying, “There’s no             References: Steve Opperman, “Workplace Bullying:
                                                                                question that unrelenting, daily hostilities” in the       Psychological Violence?” FedSmith.com, December 3, 2009,
                                                                                                                                           www.workplacebullying.org on January 25, 2010; Jeanna Bryner,
                                                                                workplace, “. . . can be on a par with torture”            “Workplace Bullying ‘Epidemic’ Worse Than Sexual Harassment,”
                                                                                and that “repeated and severe bullying can                 LiveScience, March 8, 2008, www.livescience.com on January 25,
                                                                                                                                           2010; Jan Aylsworth, “Sociopaths and Bullying in the Workplace,”
                                                                                cause psychological trauma.” Adds another                  WorkplaceViolenceNews.com, July 28, 2009, http://
                                                                                researcher: “Targets of severe workplace                   workplaceviolencenews.com on January 25, 2010; Jeanna Bryner,
                                                                                                                                           “Study: Office Bullies Create Workplace ‘Warzone,’” LiveScience,
                                                                                bullying are suffering from physical and                   October 31, 2006, www.livescience.com on January 26, 2010;
                                                                                psychological conditions that would drive even             Teresa A. Daniel, “Tough Boss or Workplace Bully?” SHRM, June 1,
                                                                                                                                           2009, www.shrm.org on January 26, 2010.
                                                                                the strongest of us into the ground.”



                                                                                                                 Anthropology is concerned with the interactions between people and their envi-
                                                                                                            ronments, especially their cultural environment. Culture is a major influence on the
                                                                                                            structure of organizations and on the behavior of people in organizations. Culture is
                                                                                                            discussed in Chapters 2 and 18.
                                                                                                                 Political science also interests organizational behaviorists. We usually think of
                                                                                                            political science as the study of political systems such as governments. But themes of
                                                                                                            interest to political scientists include how and why people acquire power and such top-
                                                                                                                                                            ics as political behavior, decision making,
                                                                                                                                                            conflict, the behavior of interest groups,
                                                                                                                                                            and coalition formation. These are also
                                                                                                                                                            major areas of interest in organizational
                                                                                                                                                            behavior, as is reflected in Chapters 9–15.
                                                                                                                                                                 Economists study the production,
                                                                                                                                                            distribution, and consumption of goods
         © 2005 David Sipress from cartoonbank.com. All rights reserved.




                                                                                                                                                            and services. Students of organizational
                                                                                                                                                            behavior share the economist’s interest
                                                                                                                                                            in areas such as labor market dynamics,
                                                                                                                                                            productivity, human resource planning
                                                                                                                                                            and forecasting, and cost-benefit analysis.
                                                                                                                                                            Chapters 2, 5, and 6 most strongly illus-
                                                                                                                                                            trate these issues.
                                                                                                                                                                 Engineering has also influenced the
                                                                                                                                                            field of organizational behavior. Industrial
                                                                                                                                                            engineering in particular has long been
                                                                                                                                                            concerned with work measurement,
                                                                                                                                                            productivity measurement, work flow
                                                                                                                                                            analysis and design, job design, and labor
                                                                                                                                                            relations. Obviously these areas are also
                                                                            Stress has emerged as an important individual-level outcome in many
                                                                            organizations. Organizational factors can both cause and be affected            relevant to organizational behavior and
                                                                            by stress among the firm’s workers. While few employees may                     are discussed in Chapters 2, 5, and 10.
                                                                            actually exhibit the stress levels shown here, many firms do actively                Most recently, medicine has come
                                                                            seek ways to help people better cope with stress. (We discuss stress            into play in connection with the study of
                                                                            more fully in Chapter 7.)                                                       human behavior at work, specifically in
                                                                                                                                                            the area of stress. Increasingly, research is


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                                                                                                       CHAPTER 1                     An Overview of Organizational Behavior                                                 15

                           showing that controlling the causes and consequences of stress in and out of organiza-
                           tional settings is important for the well-being of both the individual and the organiza-
                           tion. Chapter 7 is devoted to stress.

                           A Descriptive Nature A primary goal of studying organizational behavior is to
                           describe relationships between two or more behavioral variables. The theories and
                           concepts of the field, for example, cannot predict with certainty that changing a spe-
                           cific set of workplace variables will improve an individual employee’s performance
                           by a certain amount.10 At best, the field can suggest that certain general concepts or
                           variables tend to be related to one another in particular settings. For instance, research
                           might indicate that in one organization, employee satisfaction and individual percep-
                           tions of working conditions are positively related. However, we may not know if better
                           working conditions lead to more satisfaction, or if more-satisfied people see their jobs
                           differently than dissatisfied people, or if both satisfaction and perceptions of working
                           conditions are actually related through other intervening variables. Also, the relation-
                           ship between satisfaction and perceptions of working conditions observed in one set-
                           ting may be considerably stronger, weaker, or nonexistent in other settings.
                                Organizational behavior is descriptive for several reasons: the immaturity of the field,
                           the complexities inherent in studying human behavior, and the lack of valid, reliable,
                           and accepted definitions and measures. Whether the field will ever be able to make
                           definitive predictions and prescriptions is still an open question. But even if it never
                           succeeds in these endeavors, the value of studying organizational behavior is firmly
                           established. Because behavioral processes pervade most managerial functions and roles,
                           and because the work of organizations is done primarily by people, the knowledge and
                           understanding gained from the field can significantly help managers in many ways.11


                           Basic Concepts of the Field
                           The central concepts of organizational behavior can be grouped into three basic cat-
                           egories: (1) individual processes, (2) interpersonal processes, and (3) organizational
                           processes and characteristics. As Figure 1.4 shows, these categories provide the basic
                           framework for this book.
                               This chapter and the next develop a managerial perspective on organizational
                           behavior and link the core concepts of organizational behavior with actual manage-
                           ment for organizational effectiveness. Chapter 2 describes the changing environment
                           of organizations, especially relating to diversity, globalization, and similar trends and
                           issues. Together, the two chapters in Part I provide a fundamental introduction to
                           organizational behavior.
                               The six chapters of Part II cover individual processes in organizations. Chapter 3
                           explores key individual differences in such characteristics as personality and attitudes.
                           Chapter 4 provides an introduction to and discussion of basic models useful for under-
                           standing employee work motivation. Chapters 5 and 6 are devoted to various methods
                           and strategies that managers can use to enhance employee motivation and perfor-
                           mance. Chapter 7 covers the causes and consequences of stress in the workplace.
                           Finally, Chapter 8 explores decision making, problem solving, and creativity.
                               Part III is devoted to interpersonal processes in organizations. Chapter 9 introduces
                           the foundations of interpersonal behavior through its coverage of group dynamics.
                           Chapter 10 describes how managers are using teams in organizations today, while
                           Chapter 11 explores communications processes in organizations. Chapter 12 discusses
                           leadership models and concepts, while Chapter 13 describes contemporary views
                           of leadership in organizations. Power, politics, and workplace justice are covered in
                           Chapter 14. Chapter 15 covers conflict and negotiation processes in organizations.


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            16              PART 1              Introduction to Organizational Behavior


                                                               Figure 1.4                        THE FRAMEWORK FOR UNDERSTANDING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
                                                               Organizational behavior is an exciting and complex field of study. The specific concepts
                                                               and topics that constitute the field can be grouped into three categories: individual,
                                                               interpersonal, and organizational processes and characteristics. Here these concepts and
                                                               classifications are used to provide an overall framework for the organization of this book.


                                                                                                 The Managerial Context of Organizational Behavior
                                                                                                                   (Chapter 1)




                                                                                              The Environmental Context of Organizational Behavior
                                                                                                                  (Chapter 2)




                                                                                Individual                                    Interpersonal                                  Organizational
                                                                                Processes                                       Processes                                     Processes

                                                                            Foundations                                     Groups and Teams                               Organization
                                                                            (Chapter 3)                                     (Chapters 9–10)                                Structure
                                                                            Motivation                                      Communication                                  (Chapter 16)
                                                                            (Chapters 4–6)                                  (Chapter 11)                                   Organization Design
                                                                            Stress                                          Leadership and                                 (Chapter 17)
                                                                            (Chapter 7)                                     Power Politics                                 Organization Culture
                                                                            Decision Making                                 (Chapters 12–14)                               (Chapter 18)
                                                                            (Chapter 8)                                     Conflict and                                   Organization Change
                                                                                                                            Negotiation                                    (Chapter 19)
                                                                                                                            (Chapter 15)




                                                                            Individual-Level                                   Group-Level                                Organization-Level
                                                                               Outcomes                                         Outcomes                                      Outcomes

                                                                         Productivity                                    Productivity                                  Productivity
                                                                         Performance                                     Performance                                   Performance
                                                                         Absenteeism                                     Norms                                         Turnover
                                                                         Attitudes                                       Cohesion                                      Survival
                                                                         Turnover                                        Group Satisfaction                            Stakeholder Satisfaction
                                                                         Stress
                                                                         (Chapter 1)                                     (Chapter 1)                                   (Chapter 1)




                                                                                                                  Organizational Effectiveness



                                                                   Part IV is devoted to organizational processes and characteristics. Chapter 16 sets
                                                               the stage with its coverage of the foundations of organization structure; Chapter 17
                                                               is an in-depth treatment of organization design. Organizational culture is discussed
                                                               in Chapter 18. Organizational change and development are covered in Chapter 19.
                                                               Finally, research methods in organizational behavior and the field’s historical develop-
                                                               ment are covered in Appendices A and B.


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                                                                                                       CHAPTER 1                     An Overview of Organizational Behavior                                                 17


                           CONTEXTUAL PERSPECTIVES
                           ON ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
                           Several contextual perspectives—most notably the systems and contingency perspec-
                           tives and the interactional view—also influence our understanding of organizational
                           behavior. Many of the concepts and theories discussed in the chapters that follow
                           reflect these perspectives; they represent basic points of view that influence much of
                           our contemporary thinking about behavior in organizations. In addition, they allow us
                           to more clearly see how managers use behavioral processes as they strive for organiza-
                           tional effectiveness.


                           Systems and Situational Perspectives
                           The systems and situational perspectives share related viewpoints on organizations and
                           how they function. Each is concerned with interrelationships among organizational
                           elements and between organizational and environmental elements.

                           The Systems Perspective The systems perspective, or the theory of systems,
                           was first developed in the physical sciences, but it has been extended to other
                           areas, such as management.12 A system is an interrelated set of elements that func-
                           tion as a whole. Figure 1.5 shows a general framework for viewing organizations
                           as systems.
                               According to this perspective, an organizational system receives four kinds of
                           inputs from its environment: material, human, financial, and informational (note that
                           this is consistent with our earlier description of management functions). The organi-
                           zation’s managers then combine and transform these inputs and return them to the
                           environment in the form of products or services, employee behaviors, profits or losses,
                           and additional information. Then the system receives feedback from the environment
                           regarding these outputs.




                           Figure 1.5                         THE SYSTEMS APPROACH TO ORGANIZATIONS
                           The systems approach to organizations provides a useful framework for understanding how
                           the elements of an organization interact among themselves and with their environment.
                           Various inputs are transformed into different outputs, with important feedback from the
                           environment. If managers do not understand these interrelations, they may tend to ignore
                           their environment or to overlook important interrelationships within their organizations.

                                                                                            Feedback



                                             Inputs                                                                                            Outputs
                                                                                      Transformation
                                     Material Inputs                                     Technology                                    Products/Services
                                     Human Inputs                                (including manufacturing,                             Profits/Losses
                                     Financial Inputs                                  operations, and                                 Employee Behaviors
                                     Information Inputs                              service processes)                                New Information


                                                                                                                                                                                   A system is a set of interrelated
                                                                                                                                                                                   elements functioning as a whole.
                                                                                         Environment



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            18              PART 1              Introduction to Organizational Behavior

                                                                   As an example, we can apply systems theory to the Shell Oil Company. Material
                                                               inputs include pipelines, crude oil, and the machinery used to refine petroleum. Human
                                                               inputs are oil field workers, refinery workers, office staff, and other people employed by
                                                               the company. Financial inputs take the form of money received from oil and gas sales,
                                                               stockholder investment, and so forth. Finally, the company receives information inputs
                                                               from forecasts about future oil supplies, geological surveys on potential drilling sites,
                                                               sales projections, and similar analyses.
                                                                   Through complex refining and other processes, these inputs are combined and
                                                               transformed to create products such as gasoline and motor oil. As outputs, these prod-
                                                               ucts are sold to the consuming public. Profits from operations are fed back into the
                                                               environment through taxes, investments, and dividends; losses, when they occur, hit
                                                               the environment by reducing stockholders’ incomes. In addition to having on-the-job
                                                               contacts with customers and suppliers, employees live in the community and partici-
                                                               pate in a variety of activities away from the workplace, and their behavior is influenced
                                                               in part by their experiences as Shell workers. Finally, information about the company
                                                               and its operations is also released into the environment. The environment, in turn,
                                                               responds to these outputs and influences future inputs. For example, consumers may
                                                               buy more or less gasoline depending on the quality and price of Shell’s product, and
                                                               banks may be more or less willing to lend Shell money based on financial information
                                                               released about the company.
                                                                   The systems perspective is valuable to managers for a variety of reasons. First, it
                                                               underscores the importance of an organization’s environment. For instance, failing to
                                                               acquire the appropriate resources and failing to heed feedback from the environment
                                                               can be disastrous. The systems perspective also helps managers conceptualize the flow
                                                               and interaction of various elements of the organization itself as they work together to
                                                               transform inputs into outputs.

                                                               The Situational Perspective Another useful viewpoint for understanding
                                                               behavior in organizations comes from the situational perspective. In the earlier days
                                                               of management studies, managers searched for universal answers to organizational
                                                               questions. They sought prescriptions, the “one best way” that could be used in any
                                                               organization under any conditions, searching, for example, for forms of leadership
                                                               behavior that would always lead employees to be more satisfied and to work harder.
                                                               Eventually, however, researchers realized that the complexities of human behavior
                                                               and organizational settings make universal conclusions virtually impossible. They dis-
                                                               covered that in organizations, most situations and outcomes are contingent; that is,
                                                               the precise relationship between any two variables is likely to be situational—i.e.,
                                                               dependent on other variables.13
                                                                   Figure 1.6 distinguishes the universal and situational perspectives. The universal
                                                               model, shown at the top of the figure, presumes a direct cause-and-effect linkage
                                                               between variables. For example, it suggests that whenever a manager encounters a
                                                               certain problem or situation (such as motivating employees to work harder), a uni-
                                                               versal approach exists (such as raising pay or increasing autonomy) that will lead to
                                                               the desired outcome. The situational perspective, on the other hand, acknowledges
                                                               that several other variables alter the direct relationship. In other words, the appro-
                                                               priate managerial action or behavior in any given situation depends on elements of
                                                               that situation.
            The situational perspective suggests                   The field of organizational behavior gradually has shifted from a universal approach
            that in most organizations situations and          in the 1950s and early 1960s to a situational perspective. The situational perspective
            outcomes are influenced by                          is especially strong in the areas of motivation (Chapter 4), job design (Chapter 5),
            other variables.                                   leadership (Chapters 12 and 13), and organizational design (Chapter 17), but it is
                                                               becoming increasingly important throughout the entire field.


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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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                                                                                                       CHAPTER 1                     An Overview of Organizational Behavior                                                 19


                           Figure 1.6                         UNIVERSAL VERSUS SITUATIONAL APPROACH
                           Managers once believed that they could identify the “one best way” of solving problems or
                           reacting to situations. Here we illustrate a more realistic view, the situational approach. The
                           situational approach suggests that approaches to problems and situations are contingent on
                           elements of the situation.

                              Universal Approach


                                Organizational
                                                                                                                                           the one best way
                                problems or situations
                                                                                                                                           of responding.
                                determine . . .



                              Situational Approach

                                Organizational
                                                                                        elements of the                                    contingent or
                                problems or situations
                                                                                        situation, which                                   situational ways
                                must be evaluated in
                                                                                        then suggest . . .                                 of responding.
                                terms of . . .




                           Interactionalism:
                           People and Situations
                           Interactionalism is another useful perspective
                           to help better understand behavior in organi-
                           zational settings. First presented in terms of                                       Figure 1.7
                                                                                                       THE INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE
                           interactional psychology, this view assumes that                            ON BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
                           individual behavior results from a continuous When people enter an organization, their own behaviors and actions
                           and multidirectional interaction between char- shape that organization in various ways. Similarly, the organization
                           acteristics of the person and characteristics of the itself shapes the behaviors and actions of each individual who
                           situation. More specifically, interactionalism becomes a part of it. This interactionist perspective can be useful in
                           attempts to explain how people select, interpret, explaining organizational behavior.
                           and change various situations.14 Figure 1.7 illus-
                           trates this perspective. Note that the individual
                                                                                            Individual
                           and the situation are presumed to interact con-
                           tinuously. This interaction is what determines
                           the individual’s behavior.
                                The interactional view implies that simple                                                             Behavior
                           cause-and-effect descriptions of organizational
                           phenomena are not enough. For example, one
                           set of research studies may suggest that job
                           changes lead to improved employee attitudes.                      Situation
                           Another set of studies may propose that atti-
                           tudes influence how people perceive their jobs
                           in the first place. Both positions probably are
                           incomplete: Employee attitudes may influence job perceptions, but these perceptions Interactionalism suggests that
                           may in turn influence future attitudes. Because interactionalism is a fairly recent con- individuals and situations interact
                           tribution to the field, it is less prominent in the chapters that follow than the systems continuously to determine individuals’
                           and contingency theories. Nonetheless, the interactional view appears to offer many behavior.
                           promising ideas for future development.


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            20              PART 1              Introduction to Organizational Behavior


                                                               MANAGING FOR EFFECTIVENESS
                                                               Earlier in this chapter we noted that managers work toward various goals. We are
                                                               now in a position to elaborate on the nature of these goals in detail. In particular, as
                                                               shown in Figure 1.8, goals—or outcomes—exist at three specific levels in an orga-
                                                               nization: individual-level outcomes, group-level outcomes, and organizational-level
                                                               outcomes. Of course, it may sometimes be necessary to make trade-offs among these
                                                               different kinds of outcomes, but, in general, each is seen as a critical component of
                                                               organizational effectiveness. The sections that follow elaborate on these different
                                                               levels in more detail.

                                                               Individual-Level Outcomes
                                                               Several different outcomes at the individual level are important to managers. Given
                                                               the focus of the field of organizational behavior, it should not be surprising that most
                                                               of these outcomes are directly or indirectly addressed by various theories and mod-
                                                               els. (We provide a richer and more detailed analysis of individual-level outcomes in
                                                               Chapter 3.)

                                                               Individual Behaviors First, several individual behaviors result from a person’s
                                                               participation in an organization. One important behavior is productivity. A person’s
                                                               productivity is an indicator of his or her efficiency and is measured in terms of the
                                                               products or services created per unit of input. For example, if Bill makes 100 units
                                                               of a product in a day and Sara makes only 90 units in a day, then, assuming that the
                                                               units are of the same quality and that Bill and Sara make the same wages, Bill is more
                                                               productive than Sara.
                                                                   Performance, another important individual-level outcome variable, is a somewhat
                                                               broader concept. It is made up of all work-related behaviors. For example, even though


                                                               Figure 1.8                        MANAGING FOR EFFECTIVENESS
                                                               Managers work to optimize a variety of individual-level, group-level, and organization-level
                                                               outcomes. It is sometimes necessary to make trade-offs among the different types and levels
                                                               of outcomes, but each is an important determinant of organizational effectiveness.

                                                                          Individual-Level                                    Group-Level                                 Organization-Level
                                                                             Outcomes                                          Outcomes                                       Outcomes

                                                                        Productivity                                     Productivity                                   Productivity
                                                                        Performance                                      Performance                                    Absenteeism
                                                                        Absenteeism                                      Norms                                          Turnover
                                                                        Turnover                                         Cohesiveness                                   Financial Performance
                                                                        Attitudes                                                                                       Survival
                                                                        Stress                                                                                          Stakeholder Satisfaction




                                                                                                                 Organizational Effectiveness




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                                                                                                       CHAPTER 1                     An Overview of Organizational Behavior                                                 21

                           Bill is highly productive, it may also be that he refuses to work overtime, expresses
                           negative opinions about the organization at every opportunity, and will do nothing
                           unless it falls precisely within the boundaries of his job. Sara, on the other hand, may
                           always be willing to work overtime, is a positive representative of the organization, and
                           goes out of her way to make as many contributions to the organization as possible.
                           Based on the full array of behaviors, then, we might conclude that Sara actually is the
                           better performer.
                               Two other important individual-level behaviors are absenteeism and turnover.
                           Absenteeism is a measure of attendance. Although virtually everyone misses work
                           occasionally, some people miss far more than others. Some look for excuses to miss
                           work and call in sick regularly just for some time off; others miss work only when
                           absolutely necessary. Turnover occurs when a person leaves the organization. If the
                           individual who leaves is a good performer or if the organization has invested heavily in
                           training the person, turnover can be costly.

                           Individual Attitudes and Stress Another set of individual-level outcomes
                           influenced by managers consists of individual attitudes. (We discuss attitudes
                           more fully in Chapter 3.) Levels of job satisfaction or dissatisfaction, organiza-
                           tional commitment, and organizational involvement all play an important role
                           in organizational behavior. Stress, discussed more fully in Chapter 7, is another
                           important individual-level outcome variable. Given its costs, both personal and
                           organizational, it should not be surprising that stress is becoming an increasingly
                           important topic for both researchers in organizational behavior and practicing
                           managers.


                           Group- and Team-Level
                           Outcomes
                           Another set of outcomes exists at the group
                           and team level. Some of these outcomes




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  JACOB WACKERHAUSEN/ISTOCKPHOTO.COM
                           parallel the individual-level outcomes just
                           discussed. For example, if an organization
                           makes extensive use of work teams, team
                           productivity and performance are important
                           outcome variables. On the other hand, even
                           if all the people in a group or team have the
                           same or similar attitudes toward their jobs,
                           the attitudes themselves are individual-level
                           phenomena. Individuals, not groups, have
                           attitudes.
                                But groups or teams can also have
                           unique outcomes that individuals do not                                                Group- and team-level outcomes are becoming increasingly
                                                                                                                  important to all organizations. Because so much work today is
                           share. For example, as we will discuss in
                                                                                                                  done by groups and teams, managers need to understand how to
                           Chapter 9, groups develop norms that
                                                                                                                  effectively create a team, how to direct and motivate that team,
                           govern the behavior of individual group                                                and then how to assess the team’s performance. In this team, one
                           members. Groups also develop different                                                 member is presenting a proposal for how to complete a project to
                           levels of cohesiveness. Thus, managers                                                 his five teammates. The team as a whole will then decide whether
                           need to assess both common and unique                                                  to accept the proposal, modify it, or start over looking for a new
                           outcomes when considering the individual                                               approach.
                           and group levels.




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            22              PART 1              Introduction to Organizational Behavior

                                                               Organization-Level Outcomes
                                                               Finally, a set of outcome variables exists at the organization level. As before, some of
                                                               these outcomes parallel those at the individual and group levels, but others are unique.
                                                               For example, we can measure and compare organizational productivity. We can also
                                                               develop organization-level indicators of absenteeism and turnover. But profitability is
                                                               generally assessed only at the organizational level.
                                                                   Organizations are also commonly assessed in terms of financial performance: stock
                                                               price, return on investment, growth rates, and so on. They are also evaluated in terms
                                                               of their ability to survive and the extent to which they satisfy important stakeholders
                                                               such as investors, government regulators, employees, and unions.
                                                                   Clearly, then, the manager must balance different outcomes across all three lev-
                                                               els of analysis. In many cases, these outcomes appear to contradict one another. For
                                                               example, paying workers high salaries can enhance satisfaction and reduce turnover,
                                                               but it also may detract from bottom-line performance. Similarly, exerting strong pres-
                                                               sure to increase individual performance may boost short-term profitability but increase
                                                               turnover and job stress. Thus, the manager must look at the full array of outcomes and
                                                               attempt to balance them in an optimal fashion. The manager’s ability to do this is a
                                                               major determinant of the organization’s success.




            SYNOPSIS
            Organizational behavior is the study of human behav-                                                        Managerial work involves ten basic roles and
            ior in organizational settings, the interface between                                                  requires the use of four skills. The roles consist of three
            human behavior and the organization, and the orga-                                                     interpersonal roles (figurehead, leader, and liaison),
            nization itself. The study of organizational behavior                                                  three informational roles (monitor, disseminator, and
            is important because organizations have a powerful                                                     spokesperson), and four decision-making roles (entre-
            influence over our lives. It also directly relates to man-                                             preneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and
            agement in organizations. Indeed, by its very nature,                                                  negotiator). The four basic skills necessary for effective
            management requires an understanding of human                                                          management are technical, interpersonal, conceptual,
            behavior, to help managers better comprehend those                                                     and diagnostic skills.
            behaviors at different levels in the organization, those                                                    Contemporary organizational behavior attempts
            at the same level, those in other organizations, and                                                   to describe, rather than prescribe, behavioral forces in
            those in themselves.                                                                                   organizations. Ties to psychology, sociology, anthro-
                The manager’s job can be characterized in terms                                                    pology, political science, economics, engineering, and
            of four functions. These basic managerial functions                                                    medicine make organizational behavior an interdisci-
            are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.                                                    plinary field. The basic concepts of the field are divided
            Planning is the process of determining the organiza-                                                   into three categories: individual processes, interpersonal
            tion’s desired future position and deciding how best to                                                processes, and organizational processes and characteris-
            get there. Organizing is the process of designing jobs,                                                tics. Those categories form the framework for the orga-
            grouping jobs into manageable units, and establishing                                                  nization of this book.
            patterns of authority among jobs and groups of jobs.                                                        Important contextual perspectives on the field of
            Leading is the process of motivating members of the                                                    organizational behavior are the systems and situational
            organization to work together toward the organization’s                                                perspectives and interactionalism. There are also a
            goals. Controlling is the process of monitoring and cor-                                               number of very important individual-, group-, and
            recting the actions of the organization and its people to                                              organizational-level outcomes related to organizational
            keep them headed toward their goals.                                                                   effectiveness.


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                                                                                                       CHAPTER 1                     An Overview of Organizational Behavior                                                 23


                           DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
                             1. Some people have suggested that understanding                                                            to satisfaction with their work and to the
                                human behavior at work is the single most                                                                opportunity to grow and develop. How would
                                important requirement for managerial success. Do                                                         you defend this position? How would you argue
                                you agree or disagree with this statement? Why?                                                          against it?
                             2. In what ways is organizational behavior                                                             8.   Many universities offer a course in industrial or
                                comparable to functional areas such as finance,                                                          organizational psychology. The content of those
                                marketing, and production? In what ways is it                                                            courses is quite similar to the content of this one.
                                different from these areas? Is it similar to statistics                                                  Do you think that behavioral material is best
                                in any way?                                                                                              taught in a business or in a psychology program, or
                             3. Identify some managerial jobs that are highly                                                            is it best to teach it in both?
                                affected by human behavior and others that are                                                      9.   Do you believe the field of organizational behavior
                                less so. Which would you prefer? Why?                                                                    has the potential to become prescriptive as
                             4. The text identifies four basic managerial functions.                                                     opposed to descriptive? Why or why not?
                                Based on your own experiences or observations,                                                    10.    Are the notions of systems, situationalism, and
                                provide examples of each function.                                                                       interactionalism mutually exclusive? If not,
                             5. Which managerial skills do you think are                                                                 describe ways in which they are related.
                                among your strengths? Which are among your                                                        11.    Get a recent issue of a popular business magazine
                                weaknesses? How might you improve the latter?                                                            such as Business Week or Fortune and scan its
                             6. Suppose you have to hire a new manager. One                                                              major articles. Do any of them reflect concepts
                                candidate has outstanding technical skills but                                                           from organizational behavior? Describe.
                                poor interpersonal skills. The other has exactly the                                              12.    Do you read Dilbert? Do you think it accurately
                                opposite mix of skills. Which would you hire? Why?                                                       describes organization life? Are there other comic
                             7. Some people believe that individuals working                                                             strips that reflect life and work in contemporary
                                in an organization have basic human rights                                                               organizations?




                           ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR CASE FOR DISCUSSION
                           WHAT TO DO WHEN THE BOSS RELEASES HIS INNER TODDLER

                           Put yourself in the following scenario:                                  On the whole, the meeting is part of a pretty
                                                                                                sound overall strategy that allows everyone to
                                   You’re one of 10 VPs at a small chain of regional
                                                                                                know what’s going on and what to expect across
                                   clothing stores, where you’re in charge of the
                                                                                                the board. Typically, the only drawback to an
                                   women’s apparel department. One of your jobs
                                                                                                informative and productive session is the presi-
                                   is to review each month’s performance at a meet-
                                                                                                                     dent’s apparent inability
                                   ing of all 10 department
                                                                                                                     to deal with bad news. He
                                   heads and the company           “Most tantrums don’t involve things being
                                                                                                                     gets irritable and likes to
                                   president. Like your fellow               thrown across the room.”                lambaste “underperformers,”
                                   VPs, you prepare a Power-          —ORGANIZATIONAL CONSULTANT LYNN TAYLOR,
                                                                                                                     and as a result, you and your
                                   Point presentation showing                        ON TOTS
                                                                                                                     colleagues always enter the
                                   the results for the previous
                                                                                                                     meeting with stomachs in
                                   month and your projections for the upcoming
                                                                                                knots and leave it with full-blown gastric distress.
                                   month, and during your presentation, you take
                                                                                                The president himself thinks he’s fostering open
                                   the podium and lead the discussion from the front
                                                                                                and honest discussion, but everyone else in the
                                   of the room.


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            24              PART 1              Introduction to Organizational Behavior

                    room knows plain old-fashioned bullying when                                                   which are fairly aggressive, she catalogs under “Bratty
                    they see it.                                                                                   Behavior”:
                         As luck would have it, you now find yourself
                                                                                                                       • Bragging
                    at the front of the room, looking up at the floor-to-
                    ceiling screen on which are emblazoned, in what                                                    • Bullying
                    looks to you like 500-point font (red, of course),                                                 • Demanding
                    your less than stellar monthly numbers. Sweating                                                   • Ignoring
                    profusely, you’re attempting to explain some dis-
                                                                                                                       • Impulsiveness
                    appointing sales figures when you hear a noise—
                    a sort of thudding and rattling—against the wall                                                   • Lying
                    behind you. Startled, you spin around toward the                                                   • Self-centeredness
                    room and are surprised to see that everyone seems                                                  • Stubbornness
                    to be looking for something on the floor or check-
                                                                                                                       • Tantrums
                    ing the weather through the windows on one side
                    of the room. Finally you glance toward the wall                                                    • Territorialism
                    behind you, where you discover a bent meeting-                                                     • Whining
                    room chair lying on the floor, and as you look
                                                                                                                        “Most tantrums,” Taylor assures us, “don’t involve
                    up again, you see that the president is standing,
                                                                                                                   things being thrown across the room,” and TOT behav-
                    his arms crossed and his face scowling. “The next
                                                                                                                   ior, especially in its less aggressive forms—fickleness,
                    time you show me numbers like those,” he snarls,
                                                                                                                   mood swings, neediness—can be “proactively managed”
                    “I won’t miss!”
                                                                                                                   by employees who don’t care to be treated as emotional
                 Believe it or not, this is a true story (although we’ve                                           punching bags. She recommends “humor, common
            changed a few details—very few—in the interest of plau-                                                sense, rational thinking, and setting limits to bad
            sibility and dramatic impact). It’s told by John McKee,                                                behavior.” And remember, she adds, “You are the
            a consultant to professionals and businesspeople who                                                   parent with the proverbial cookie jar when it comes to
            want to move up the ladder as quickly—and, presum-                                                     managing a TOT.”
            ably, with as little violence—as possible. McKee was                                                        Taylor’s approach to understanding and dealing with
            actually an eyewitness to the episode, and although he                                                 bad bosses isn’t entirely metaphorical, and she does sug-
            admits that it’s “the clearest example of a boss behaving                                              gest that beleaguered employees translate her general
            badly” that he’s ever seen, he hastens to add that he                                                  advice into some concrete coping techniques. When
            won’t be the least bit surprised when someone comes                                                    confronted by managerial neediness, for example, a good
            up with an even better one.                                                                            “pacifier” might be a reply such as: “It’ll be the first thing
                 Consultant Lynn Taylor, who specializes in the                                                    on my to-do list tomorrow.” If you’re looking for a handy
            development of work and management teams, calls                                                        toolbox of effective techniques, you can find dozens on
            bosses like the one in our scenario Terrible Office Tyrants,                                           the Internet, most of them posted by psychologists and
            or TOTs—managers who can’t control their behavior                                                      organizational consultants. The following was compiled
            when they’re placed under stress. Taylor believes that                                                 by Karen Burns, U.S. News & World Report columnist
            the characterization is apt in light of research showing                                               and specialist on career advice for women:
            that bosses like the one we’ve described actually “return
                                                                                                                       • Put everything in writing. Write and date progress
            to their misbehaving ‘inner toddler’ to handle unwieldy
                                                                                                                         reports. When you get verbal instructions, summa-
            pressures.” In other words, they revert to the kind
                                                                                                                         rize them in a reply email.
            of behavior that produced “self-serving results” when
            they were children. In the adult workplace, explains                                                       • Be a star performer. Beyond just being a good
            Taylor, they “occasionally find that their ability to mas-                                                   employee, maintain a positive demeanor; it’s hard
            ter the world is limited, as it is with most mortal beings.                                                  for some to ambush you when you’re doing your
            This revelation, on top of their inability to communi-                                                       job and smiling in the process.
            cate clearly in the moment, makes them furious and                                                         • Pick your moments. Rather than simply avoiding
            frustrated.”                                                                                                 your boss, study her patterns. Steer clear when she’s
                 According to Taylor, there are 20 “core, parallel                                                       a nutcase and schedule interactions for times when
            traits [shared by] TOTs and toddlers.” The following,                                                        she’s stabilized.




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                                                                                                       CHAPTER 1                     An Overview of Organizational Behavior                                                 25

                               • Seek community. Anchor your sanity in ties to                                                      2. How do you suppose the executive described in the
                                 coworkers and other managers. Find a mentor                                                           scenario got to be president of the company?
                                 inside the workplace and someone outside to talk                                                   3. Have you ever encountered anyone who behaved
                                 (and vent) to.                                                                                        in ways that can be compared to the behavior
                               • Control what you can. You can’t control your boss’s                                                   of the president in the scenario—either in the
                                 irrational behavior, so control what you can—                                                         workplace or in any other context? As you think
                                 namely, the way you respond to it. Ignore the cranky                                                  back on your experience, how well does Taylor’s
                                 tone of voice and respond to the substance of what                                                    TOT framework help to explain the individual’s
                                 she says. Also, eat right, exercise, get enough sleep,                                                behavior?
                                 and spend the rest of your time with sane people.                                                  4. Of the items on Burns’s list of recommended
                                                                                                                                       coping techniques, which do you think would be
                               • Know your rights. If you want to take your griev-
                                                                                                                                       most helpful to the employees of the company in
                                 ance to the HR department (or further), be sure that
                                                                                                                                       the scenario? Which would you be most likely to
                                 you’ve documented your problem and your efforts
                                                                                                                                       adopt? Can you think of any potentially effective
                                 to resolve it, and be specific about the remedy
                                                                                                                                       techniques that aren’t on Burns’s list?
                                 you’re asking for (transfer, severance package, etc.).
                               • Identify the exits. Come up with a plan, and don’t
                                                                                                                                  REFERENCES
                                   be bullied into taking action before you’re ready.
                                                                                                                                  John McKee, “Worst Boss Ever,” TechRepublic, February 8, 2007,
                                                                                                                                  http://blogs.techrepublic.com on January 20, 2009; Lynn Taylor,
                           CASE QUESTIONS                                                                                         “Why Bad Bosses Act Like Toddlers,” Psychology Today, August 27,
                                                                                                                                  2009, www.psychologytoday.com on January 20, 2009; Lynn Taylor,
                              1. How might the episode described in the scenario
                                                                                                                                  “10 Ways to Manage Bad Bosses,” CNN.com, December 15, 2009,
                                 be explained from the situational perspective on                                                 www.cnn.com on January 20, 2009; Karen Burns, “How to Survive
                                 organizational behavior? From the interactionalist                                               a Bad Boss,” U.S. News & World Report, November 4, 2009, www
                                 perspective?                                                                                     .usnews.com on January 20, 2009.




                            EXPERIENCING ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
                            Relating OB and Popular Culture

                           Purpose This exercise will help you appreciate the                                                     concepts it illustrated. The following television shows
                           importance and pervasiveness of organizational behav-                                                  are especially good for illustrating behavioral concepts
                           ior concepts and processes in both contemporary orga-                                                  in organizational settings:
                           nizational settings and popular culture.                                                                    The Big Bang Theory                         N.C.I.S.
                           Format Your instructor will divide the class into                                                           American Chopper                            C. S. I.(any version)
                           groups of three to five members. Each group will be                                                         The Office                                  Star Trek
                           assigned a specific television program to watch before                                                      Grey’s Anatomy                              Lost
                                                                                                                                       The Deadliest Catch                         Glee
                           the next class meeting.
                                                                                                                                       Pawn Stars                                  30 Rock
                           Procedure Arrange to watch the program as a group.
                           Each person should have a pad of paper and a pencil
                           handy. As you watch the show, jot down examples of                                                     Follow-up Questions
                           individual behavior, interpersonal dynamics, organiza-                                                  1. What does this exercise illustrate about the per-
                           tional characteristics, and other concepts and processes                                                   vasiveness of organizations in our contemporary
                           relevant to organizational behavior. After the show,                                                       society?
                           spend a few minutes comparing notes. Compile one                                                        2. What recent or classic movies might provide simi-
                           list for the entire group. (It is advisable to turn off the                                                lar kinds of examples?
                           television set during this discussion!)                                                                 3. Do you think television programs from countries
                                During the next class meeting, have someone in                                                        other than the United States would provide more
                           the group summarize the plot of the show and list the                                                      or fewer examples of shows set in organizations?


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            26               PART 1             Introduction to Organizational Behavior


            BUILDING MANAGERIAL SKILLS

            Exercise Overview It’s important for managers to                                                            strengths and weaknesses; (b) a list of his or her most
            have a reasonably good idea of what they do in various                                                      noteworthy accomplishments.
            situations, how they do it, and what the consequences                                                    2. Each member will take about 3 minutes to intro-
            usually are. In short, they need a certain degree of self-                                                  duce himself or herself to the group. Be sure to give
            knowledge. When it comes to building skills, however,                                                       some background about yourself and to mention
            just “knowing” ourselves isn’t enough: The vast majority                                                    your career goals and your most noteworthy accom-
            of us have room for improvement, and improvement                                                            plishments; finally, briefly describe your strengths
            generally means acquiring new knowledge about our-                                                          and weaknesses.
            selves. The purpose of this exercise is to combine two                                                   3. Now comes a round of self-disclosure and feedback.
            good ways of gathering new self-knowledge:                                                                  One member volunteers to be the “focus” of the
                                                                                                                        group’s discussion: That person will share his or her
                • Taking self-assessment inventories like the one in
                                                                                                                        scores from the “Self-Assessment Exercise” and then
                  the previous “Self-Assessment Exercise”
                                                                                                                        say what he or she thinks about its accuracy. Then
                • Getting feedback from other people                                                                    it’s the group’s turn: One person at a time, members
            Exercise Background Fill in the questionnaire in the                                                        will provide feedback by comparing the scores from
            “Self-Assessment Exercise” for this chapter. Add up your                                                    the “Self-Assessment Exercise” with the information
            scores and be prepared to share your results.                                                               provided by the “focus” member in Steps 1 and 2
                                                                                                                        of this exercise. Finally, the “focus” member will
            Exercise Task Your instructor will divide the class                                                         provide a brief summary of the feedback that he or
            into small groups of five to seven members. Once your                                                       she has received during the round.
            group has been formed, do the following:                                                                 4. Each member of the group volunteers in turn to
               1. Each group member should spend about 5 minutes                                                        be the “focus” member, and the process is repeated
                  drawing up two lists: (a) a list of his or her interpersonal                                          until everyone has had a turn as “focus.”



            SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISE
            Assessing Your Own Management Skills

            The following questions are intended to provide insights                                                 3. It is usually easy for me to see how material in one
            into your confidence about your capabilities regard-                                                        of my classes relates to material in other classes.
            ing the management skills discussed in this chapter.                                                              5                4                  3                     2                  1
            Answer each question by circling the scale value that
            best reflects your feelings.                                                                                 Strongly           Agree         Neither Agree             Disagree           Strongly
                                                                                                                           Agree                            Nor Disagree                               Disagree
               1. I generally do well in quantitative courses like math,
                                                                                                                     4. I can usually figure out why a problem occurred.
                  statistics, accounting, and finance.
                                                                                                                              5                4                  3                     2                  1
                       5                4                   3                     2                 1
                                                                                                                         Strongly           Agree         Neither Agree             Disagree           Strongly
                   Strongly          Agree          Neither Agree            Disagree           Strongly                   Agree                            Nor Disagree                               Disagree
                     Agree                           Nor Disagree                               Disagree
                                                                                                                     5. When I am asked to perform a task or to do some
               2. I get along well with most people.
                                                                                                                        work, I usually know how to do it or else can figure
                       5                4                   3                     2                 1                   it out pretty quickly.
                   Strongly          Agree          Neither Agree            Disagree           Strongly                      5                4                  3                     2                  1
                     Agree                           Nor Disagree                               Disagree
                                                                                                                         Strongly           Agree         Neither Agree             Disagree           Strongly
                                                                                                                           Agree                            Nor Disagree                               Disagree



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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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                                                                                                       CHAPTER 1                     An Overview of Organizational Behavior                                                   27

                              6. I can usually understand why people behave as                                                    11. I am much more interested in understanding the
                                 they do.                                                                                             “big picture” than in dealing with narrow, focused
                                      5                4                   3                     2                 1                  issues.
                                                                                                                                             5                4                  3                     2                  1
                                  Strongly          Agree          Neither Agree            Disagree           Strongly
                                    Agree                           Nor Disagree                               Disagree                 Strongly          Agree          Neither Agree             Disagree           Strongly
                                                                                                                                          Agree                            Nor Disagree                               Disagree
                              7. I enjoy classes that deal with theories and concepts.
                                      5                4                   3                     2                 1              12. When I know what I am supposed to do, I can usu-
                                                                                                                                      ally figure out how to do it.
                                  Strongly          Agree          Neither Agree            Disagree           Strongly                      5                4                  3                     2                  1
                                    Agree                           Nor Disagree                               Disagree

                              8. I usually understand why things happen as they do.                                                     Strongly          Agree          Neither Agree             Disagree           Strongly
                                                                                                                                          Agree                            Nor Disagree                               Disagree
                                      5                4                   3                     2                 1
                                                                                                                                  Instructions: Add up your point values for questions
                                  Strongly          Agree          Neither Agree            Disagree           Strongly           1, 5, and 9; this total reflects your assessment of your
                                    Agree                           Nor Disagree                               Disagree           technical skills. The point total for questions 2, 6, and
                              9. I like classes that require me to “do things”—write                                              10 reflects interpersonal skills; the point total for ques-
                                 papers, solve problems, research new areas, and                                                  tions 3, 7, and 11 reflects conceptual skills; the point
                                 so forth.                                                                                        total for questions 4, 8, and 12 reflects diagnostic skills.
                                      5                4                   3                     2                 1              Higher scores indicate stronger confidence in that
                                                                                                                                  realm of management.
                                  Strongly          Agree          Neither Agree            Disagree           Strongly           Note: This brief instrument has not been scientifically
                                    Agree                           Nor Disagree                               Disagree
                                                                                                                                  validated and is to be used for classroom discussion only.
                           10. Whenever I work in a group, I can usually get others
                               to accept my opinions and ideas.
                                      5                4                   3                     2                 1

                                  Strongly          Agree          Neither Agree            Disagree           Strongly
                                    Agree                           Nor Disagree                               Disagree




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                           Chapter 1                                                                                              13 See Fremont Kast and James Rozenzweig (eds.), Contingency Views
                                                                                                                                     of Organization and Management (Chicago: SRA, 1973), for a classic
                            1 For a classic discussion of the meaning of organizational behavior,                                    overview and introduction.
                              see Larry Cummings, “Toward Organizational Behavior,” Academy of                                    14 James Terborg, “Interactional Psychology and Research on Human
                              Management Review, January 1978, pp. 90–98. See also Nigel Nicholson,                                  Behavior in Organizations,” Academy of Management Review, October
                              Pino Audia, and Madan Pillutla (eds.), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of                                   1981, pp. 569–576; Benjamin Schneider, “Interactional Psychology and
                              Management Vol. 11, Organizational Behavior (London: Blackwell                                         Organizational Behavior,” in Larry Cummings and Barry Staw (eds.),
                              Publishing, 2005).                                                                                     vol. 5, Research in Organizational Behavior (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press,
                            2 “The World’s Most Admired Companies,” Fortune, March 22, 2010,                                         1983), pp. 1–32; Daniel B. Turban and Thomas L. Keon, “Organizational
                              pp. 121–126.                                                                                           Attractiveness: An Interactionist Perspective,” Journal of Applied
                            3 Henry Mintzberg, “Rounding Out the Manager’s Job,” Sloan                                               Psychology, 1993, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 184–193.
                              Management Review, Fall 1994, pp. 11–26; see also “All in a Day’s Work,”
                              Harvard Business Review, December 2001, pp. 55–60.
                            4 “In Praise of Middle Managers,” Harvard Business Review,
                              September 2001, pp. 72–81.                                                                          Chapter 2
                            5 Mauro F. Guillen, “The Age of Eclecticism: Current Organizational                                    1 See Adrienne Fox, “At Work in 2020,” HR Magazine, January 2010,
                              Trends and the Evolution of Managerial Models,” Sloan Management                                       pp. 18–23.
                              Review, Fall 1994, pp. 75–86; see also Jason Colquitt and Cindy Zapata-                              2 M. J. Gent, “Theory X in Antiquity, or the Bureaucratization of the
                              Phelan, “Trends in Theory Building and Theory Testing: A Five-Decade                                   Roman Army,” Business Horizons, January–February 1984, pp. 53–54.
                              Study of the Academy of Management Journal,” Academy of Management                                   3 Ricky Griffin and Michael Pustay, International Business, 6th ed.
                              Journal, 2007, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1281–1303.                                                          (Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2009).
                            6 Henry Mintzberg, “The Manager’s Job: Folklore and Fact,” Harvard                                     4 Ya-Ru Chen, Kwok Leung, and Chao C. Chen, “Bringing National
                              Business Review, July–August 1975, pp. 49–61.                                                          Culture to the Table: Making a Difference with Cross-Cultural
                            7 Robert L. Katz, “The Skills of an Effective Administrator,” Harvard                                    Differences and Perspectives,” in James Walsh and Arthur Brief (eds.),
                              Business Review, September–October 1987, pp. 90–102; see also Morten                                   The Academy of Management Annals, vol. 3 (Routledge, Taylor & Francis
                              Hansen, Herminia Ibarra, and Urs Peyer, “The Best-Performing CEOs                                      Group, 2009), pp. 217–250.
                              in the World,” Harvard Business Review, January–February 2010,                                       5 Simcha Ronen and Oded Shenkar, “Clustering Countries on Attitudinal
                              pp. 104–113.                                                                                           Dimension: A Review and Synthesis,” Academy of Management Review,
                            8 “SBC Chief Says Deal Preserves an ‘Icon,’ ” USA Today, February 1, 2005,                               July 1985, pp. 435–454.
                              pp. 1B, 2B.                                                                                          6 Nancy J. Adler, Robert Doktor, and Gordon Redding, “From the Atlantic
                            9 “Most Important Qualities for a CEO,” USA Today, March 11,                                             to the Pacific Century,” Journal of Management, Summer 1986,
                              2002, p. A1.                                                                                           pp. 295–318.
                           10 Max Bazerman, “Conducting Influential Research: The Need for                                         7 Tamotsu Yamaguchi, “The Challenge of Internationalization,” Academy
                              Prescriptive Implications,” Academy of Management Review, January                                      of Management Executive, February 1988, pp. 33–36; see also Anne Tsui,
                              2005, pp. 25–31; see also Gary Latham, “A Speculative Perspective on the                               “From Homogenization to Pluralism in International Management,”
                              Transfer of Behavioral Science Findings to the Workplace: ‘The Times                                   Academy of Management Journal, 2007, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1353–1364.
                              They Are A-Changin,’ ” Academy of Management Journal, 2007, vol. 50,                                 8 Geert Hofstede, Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in
                              no. 5, pp. 1027–1032.                                                                                  Work-Related Values (Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1980).
                           11 Joseph W. McGuire, “Retreat to the Academy,” Business Horizons,                                      9 André Laurent, “The Cultural Diversity of Western Conceptions of
                              July–August 1982, pp. 31–37; Kenneth Thomas and Walter G. Tymon,                                       Management,” International Studies of Management and Organization,
                              “Necessary Properties of Relevant Research: Lessons from Recent                                        Spring–Summer 1983, pp. 75–96.
                              Criticisms of the Organizational Sciences,” Academy of Management                                   10 Michael L. Wheeler, “Diversity: Making the Business Case,” Business
                              Review, July 1982, pp. 345–353. See also Jeffrey Pfeffer, “The Theory-                                 Week, April 14, 2007; special advertising section.
                              Practice Gap: Myth or Reality?” Academy of Management Executive,                                    11 For example, see Joshua Sacco and Neal Schmitt, “A Dynamic Multilevel
                              February 1987, pp. 31–32 and R. Duane Ireland and David Ketchen,                                       Model of Demographic Diversity and Misfit Effects,” Journal of Applied
                              “Interesting Problems and Interesting Research: A Path to Effective                                    Psychology, 2005, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 203–232.
                              Exchanges Between Managers and Scholars,” Business Horizons,                                        12 See Scott Page, “Making the Difference: Applying a Logic of Diversity,”
                              January–February 2008, pp. 65–62.                                                                      Academy of Management Perspectives, 2007, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 6–20.
                           12 Fremont Kast and James Rosenzweig, “General Systems Theory:                                         13 Loden and Rosener, Workforce America!: Managing Employee Diversity as
                              Applications for Organization and Management,” Academy of                                              a Vital Resource (Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin, 1991) p. 19.
                              Management Journal, December 1972, pp. 447–465.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                          561
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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            562             Notes

            14 Howard N. Fullerton Jr. and Mitra Toossi, “Labor Force Projections                                       Schacter, and Robert Sternberg, eds., vol. 61, Annual Review of Psychology
               to 2010: Steady Growth and Changing Composition,” Monthly Labor                                          (Palo Alto: Annual Reviews, 2010), pp. 517–542.
               Review, November 2006, pp. 24–35.                                                                    6   M. R. Barrick and M. K. Mount, “The Big Five Personality Dimensions
            15 Ibid, p. 22.                                                                                             and Job Performance: A Meta-Analysis,” Personnel Psychology, 1991,
            16 Harish C. Jain and Anil Verma, “Managing Workforce Diversity for                                         Vol. 44, pp. 1–26.
               Competitiveness: The Canadian Experience” International Journal of                                   7   See Daniel Goleman, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More
               Manpower, April–May 1996, pp. 14–30.                                                                     Than IQ (New York: Bantam Books, 1995).
            17 “Plenty of Muck, Not Much Money,” Economist, May 8, 1999, p. 52.                                     8   Daniel Goleman, “Leadership That Gets Results,” Harvard Business
            18 Ron Corben, “Thailand Faces a Shrinking Work Force,” Journal of                                          Review, March–April 2000, pp. 78–90.
               Commerce and Commercial, December 26, 1996, p. 5a.                                                   9   J. B. Rotter, “Generalized Expectancies for Internal vs. External Control
            19 Susan Meisinger, “Diversity: More Than Just Representation,” HR                                          of Reinforcement,” Psychological Monographs, vol. 80, 1966, pp. 1–28;
               Magazine, January 2008, p. 8.                                                                            Bert De Brabander and Christopher Boone, “Sex Differences in
            20 Wheeler, “Diversity: Making the Business Case.”                                                          Perceived Locus of Control,” Journal of Social Psychology,
            21 Orland Richard, B. P. S. Murthi, and Kiran Ismail, “The Impact of Racial                                 vol. 130, 1990, pp. 271–276.
               Diversity on Intermediate and Long-Term Performance: The Moderating                                 10   See Jeffrey Vancouver, Kristen More, and Ryan Yoder, “Self-Efficacy and
               Role of Environmental Context,” Strategic Management Journal, 2007,                                      Resource Allocation: Support for a Nonmonotic, Discontinuous Model,”
               vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1213–1233.                                                                          Journal of Applied Psychology, 2008, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 35–47.
            22 Sujin K. Horwitz and Irwin B. Horwitz, “The Effects of Team Diversity                               11   T. W. Adorno, E. Frenkel-Brunswick, D. J. Levinson, and R. N. Sanford,
               on Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review of Team Demography,”                                            The Authoritarian Personality (New York: Harper & Row, 1950).
               Journal of Management, 2007, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 987–1015.                                          12   “The Rise and Fall of Dennis Kozlowski,” Business Week, December 23,
            23 See Adrienne Fox, “At Work in 2020,” HR Magazine, January 2010,                                          2002, pp. 64–77.
               pp. 18–23.                                                                                          13   Patricia C. Smith, L. M. Kendall, and Charles Hulin, The Measurement
            24 http://www.bls.gov/oco/oco2003.htm#industry; accessed on March 20,                                       of Satisfaction in Work and Behavior (Chicago: Rand-McNally, 1969).
               2010.                                                                                               14   Linda Grant, “Happy Workers, High Returns,” Fortune, January 12,
            25 Josh Quittner, “The Future of Reading,” Fortune, March 1, 2010, pp. 62–67.                               1998, p. 81.
            26 “How to Fix Corporate Governance,” Business Week, May 6, 2002, pp. 68–78.                           15   See Timothy Judge, Carl Thoresen, Joyce Bono, and Gregory Patton,
            27 Max Boisot, Knowledge Assets (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998).                                    “The Job-Satisfaction–Job Performance Relationship: A Qualitative and
            28 M. L. Tushman and C. A. O’Reilly, Winning Through Innovation                                             Quantitative Review,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 127, no. 3, 2001,
               (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press, 1996).                                                    pp. 376–407.
            29 M. A. Von Glinow, The New Professionals (Cambridge, MA:                                             16   James R. Lincoln, “Employee Work Attitudes and Management Practice
               Ballinger, 1988).                                                                                        in the U.S. and Japan: Evidence from a Large Comparative Study,”
            30 T. W. Lee and S. D. Maurer, “The Retention of Knowledge Workers                                          California Management Review, Fall 1989, pp. 89–106.
               with the Unfolding Model of Voluntary Turnover,” Human Resource                                     17   See Michael Riketta, “Attitudinal Organizational Commitment and Job
               Management Review, vol. 7, 1997, pp. 247–276.                                                            Performance: A Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Organizational Behavior,
            31 G. T. Milkovich, “Compensation Systems in High-Technology                                                vol. 23, no. 3, 2002, pp. 257–266; see also Omar Solinger, Woody van
               Companies,” in A. Klingartner and C. Anderson (eds.), High Technology                                    Olffen, and Robert Roe, “Beyond the Three-Component Model of
               Management (Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1987).                                                       Organizational Commitment,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 2008,
            32 http://www.hewittassociates.com/OutsourcingStudy_2009_Results.pdf,                                       vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 70–83.
               March 21, 2010                                                                                      18   Lincoln, “Employee Work Attitudes and Management Practice.”
            33 Rita Zeidner, “Heady Debate—Rely on Temps or Hire Staff?”                                           19   Leslie E. Palich, Peter W. Hom, and Roger W. Griffeth, “Managing in
               HR Magazine, February 2010, pp. 28–33.                                                                   the International Context: Testing Cultural Generality of Sources of
            34 “Harley Union Makes Concessions,” Wall Street Journal, December 3,                                       Commitment to Multinational Enterprises,” Journal of Management,
               2009, p. B3.                                                                                             vol. 21, no. 4, 1995, pp. 671–690.
            35 “Ford to Begin Hiring at New Lower Wages,” Wall Street Journal,                                     20   For an example of research in this area, see Jennifer M. George and
               January 26, 2010, p. B1.                                                                                 Gareth R. Jones, “The Experience of Mood and Turnover Intentions:
                                                                                                                        Interactive Effects of Value Attainment, Job Satisfaction, and Positive
                                                                                                                        Mood,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 81, no. 3, 1996, pp. 318–
                                                                                                                        325. For a recent review, see Arthur P. Brief and Howard M. Weiss,
            Chapter 3                                                                                                   “Organizational Behavior: Affect in the Workplace,” in vol. 53, Annual
              1 Denise M. Rousseau and Judi McLean Parks, “The Contracts of                                             Review of Psychology (Annual Reviews: Palo Alto, California, 2002),
                Individuals and Organizations,” in Larry L. Cummings and Barry M.                                       pp. 279–307.
                Staw (eds.), vol. 15, Research in Organizational Behavior (Greenwich,                              21   See Wei-Chi Tsai, Chien-Cheng Chen, and Hui-Lu Liu, “Test of a
                CT: JAI Press, 1993), pp. 1–43. See also Guillermo Dabos and Denise                                     Model Linking Employee Positive Moods and Task Performance, Journal
                Rousseau, “Mutuality and Reciprocity in the Psychological Contracts of                                  of Applied Psychology, 2007, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 1570–1583.
                Employees and Employers,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 2004, vol. 89,                            22   “One Man’s Accident Is Shedding New Light on Human Perception,”
                no. 1, pp. 52–72.                                                                                       Wall Street Journal, September 30, 1993, pp. A1, A13.
              2 Denise M. Rousseau, “Changing the Deal While Keeping the People,”                                  23   William H. Starbuck and John M. Mezias, “Opening Pandora’s
                Academy of Management Executive, February 1996, pp. 50–58; see also                                     Box: Studying the Accuracy of Managers’ Perceptions,” Journal of
                Violet Ho, “Social Influence on Evaluations of Psychological Contract                                   Organizational Behavior, vol. 17, 1996, pp. 99–117.
                Fulfillment,” Academy of Management Review, January 2005,                                          24   Mark J. Martinko and William L. Gardner, “The Leader/Member
                pp. 113–128.                                                                                            Attribution Process,” Academy of Management Review, April 1987,
              3 Richard A. Guzzo, Katherine A. Noonan, and Efrat Elron, “Expatriate                                     pp. 235–249; Jeffrey D. Ford, “The Effects of Causal Attributions on
                Managers and the Psychological Contract,” Journal of Applied Psychology,                                Decision Makers’ Responses to Performance Downturns,” Academy of
                vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 617–626.                                                                            Management Review, October 1985, pp. 770–786.
              4 Amy L. Kristof, “Person–Organization Fit: An Integrative Review of                                 25   See Peter Hom, Loriann Roberson, and Aimee Ellis, “Challenging
                Its Conceptualizations, Measurement, and Implications,” Personnel                                       Conventional Wisdom About Who Quits: Revelations From Corporate
                Psychology, Spring 1996, pp. 1–49.                                                                      America,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 2008, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 1–34;
              5 See Dan McAdams and Bradley Olson, “Personality Development:                                            see also Jean Martin and Conrad Schmidt, “How to Keep Your Top
                Continuity and Change Over the Life Course,” in Susan Fiske, Daniel                                     Talent,” Harvard Business Review, May 2010, pp. 54–61.




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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Notes              563

                           26 “Chick-fil-A Cuts Job Turnover Rates,” Houston Chronicle, January 9,                                12 See “Professionals Sick of Old Routine Find Healthy Rewards in
                              2002, p. B3.                                                                                           Nursing,” USA Today, August 16, 2004, pp. 1B, 2B.
                           27 Christine Porath and Christine Pearson, “The Cost of Bad Behavior,”                                 13 See Nancy Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior,
                              Organizational Dynamics, January–March 2010, pp. 64–71.                                                5th ed. (Cincinnati: Southwestern Publishing), 2007.
                           28 See Anne O’Leary-Kelly, Ricky W. Griffin, and David J. Glew,                                        14 Mahmond A. Wahba and Lawrence G. Bridwell, “Maslow Reconsidered:
                              “Organization-Motivated Aggression: A Research Framework,” Academy                                     A Review of Research on the Need Hierarchy Theory,” Organizational
                              of Management Review, January 1996, pp. 225–253; see also Ramona                                       Behavior and Human Performance, April 1976, pp. 212–240.
                              Paetzold, Anne O’Leary-Kelly, and Ricky W. Griffin, “Workplace                                      15 Clayton P. Alderfer, Existence, Relatedness, and Growth (New York:
                              Violence, Employer Liability, and Implications for Organizational                                      Free Press, 1972).
                              Research,” Journal of Management Inquiry, 2007, vol. 16, no. 4,                                     16 Ibid.
                              pp. 362–370.                                                                                        17 Frederick Herzberg, Bernard Mausner, and Barbara Synderman, The
                           29 See Dennis W. Organ, “Personality and Organizational Citizenship                                       Motivation to Work (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1959); Frederick
                              Behavior,” Journal of Management, vol. 20, no. 2, 1994, pp. 465–478.                                   Herzberg, “One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?”
                              For more recent information, see Jeffrey LePine, Amir Erez, and Diane                                  Harvard Business Review, January–February 1968, pp. 53–62.
                              Johnson, “The Nature and Dimensionality of Organizational Citizenship                               18 Herzberg, Mausner, and Synderman, The Motivation to Work.
                              Behavior: A Critical Review and Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Applied                                  19 Ibid.
                              Psychology, vol. 87, no. 1, 2002, pp. 52–65 and Mark Bolino and William                             20 Ibid.
                              Turnley, “Going the Extra Mile: Cultivating and Managing Employee                                   21 Ricky W. Griffin, Task Design: An Integrative Approach (Glenview, IL:
                              Citizenship Behavior,” Academy of Management Executive, 2003, vol. 17,                                 Scott, Foresman, 1982).
                              no. 3, pp. 60–70.                                                                                   22 Pinder, Work Motivation in Organizational Behavior.
                                                                                                                                  23 Frederick Herzberg, Work and the Nature of Man (Cleveland: World,
                                                                                                                                     1966); Valerie M. Bookman, “The Herzberg Controversy,” Personnel
                                                                                                                                     Psychology, Summer 1971, pp. 155–189; Benedict Grigaliunas and
                           Chapter 4                                                                                                 Frederick Herzberg, “Relevance in the Test of Motivation-Hygiene
                            1 See Craig Pinder, Work Motivation in Organizational Behavior, 2nd ed.                                  Theory,” Journal of Applied Psychology, February 1971, pp. 73–79.
                              (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2008). See also Robert Lord,                                24 Marvin Dunnette, John Campbell, and Milton Hakel, “Factors
                              James Diefendorff, Aaron Schmidt, and Rosalie Hall, “Self-Regulation at                                Contributing to Job Satisfaction and Job Dissatisfaction in Six
                              Work,” in Susan Fiske, Daniel Schacter, and Robert Sternberg, eds.,                                    Occupational Groups,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance,
                              vol. 61, Annual Review of Psychology (Palo Alto: Annual Reviews, 2010),                                May 1967, pp. 143–174; Charles L. Hulin and Patricia Smith, “An
                              pp. 543–568.                                                                                           Empirical Investigation of Two Implications of the Two-Factor Theory
                            2 Richard M. Steers, Gregory A. Bigley, and Lyman W. Porter, Motivation                                  of Job Satisfaction,” Journal of Applied Psychology, October 1967,
                              and Leadership at Work, 7th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002). See                                     pp. 396–402.
                              also Ruth Kanfer, “Motivational Theory and Industrial and Organizational                            25 Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior.
                              Psychology,” in M. D. Dunnette and L. M. Hough (eds.), vol. 1,                                      26 David McClelland, The Achieving Society (Princeton, NJ: Nostrand,
                              Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 2nd ed. (Palo                                    1961). See also David C. McClelland, Human Motivation (Cambridge,
                              Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press), pp. 75–170; and M. L. Ambrose,                                  UK: Cambridge University Press, 1988).
                              “Old Friends, New Faces: Motivation Research in the 1990s,” Journal of                              27 Michael J. Stahl, “Achievement, Power, and Managerial Motivation:
                              Management, 1999, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 110–131.                                                         Selecting Managerial Talent with the Job Choice Exercise,” Personnel
                            3 Roland E. Kidwell Jr. and Nathan Bennett, “Employee Propensity to                                      Psychology, Winter 1983, pp. 775–790.
                              Withhold Effort: A Conceptual Model to Intersect Three Avenues of                                   28 Stanley Schachter, The Psychology of Affiliation (Palo Alto: Stanford
                              Research,” Academy of Management Review, July 1993, pp. 429–456;                                       University Press, 1959).
                              see also Adam Grant, “Does Intrinsic Motivation Fuel the Prosocial                                  29 As reported in “Best Friends Good for Business,” USA Today,
                              Fire? Motivational Synergy in Predicting Persistence, Performance,                                     December 1, 2004, pp. 1B, 2B.
                              and Productivity,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 2008, vol. 93, no. 1,                             30 David McClelland and David H. Burnham, “Power Is the Great
                              pp. 48–58.                                                                                             Motivator,” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1976, pp. 100–110.
                            4 Jeffrey Pfeiffer, The Human Equation (Boston: Harvard Business School                               31 Pinder, Work Motivation in Organizational Behavior; McClelland and
                              Press, 1998).                                                                                          Burnham, “Power Is the Great Motivator.”
                            5 See Adrienne Fox, “Raising Engagement,” HR Magazine, May 2010,                                      32 J. Stacy Adams, “Toward an Understanding of Inequity,” Journal of Abnormal
                              pp. 35–40.                                                                                             and Social Psychology, November 1963, pp. 422–436. See also Richard T.
                            6 E. L. Deci and R. M. Ryan, “The ‘What’ and ‘Why’ of Goal Pursuits:                                     Mowday, “Equity Theory Predictions of Behavior in Organizations,” in
                              Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior,” Psychological                                     Richard M. Steers and Lyman W. Porter (eds.), Motivation and Work
                              Inquiry, 2000, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 227–269.                                                            Behavior, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987), pp. 89–110.
                            7 Frederick W. Taylor, Principles of Scientific Management (New York:                                 33 Priti Pradham Shah, “Who Are Employees’ Social Referents? Using
                              Harper, 1911).                                                                                         a Network Perspective to Determine Referent Others,” Academy of
                            8 Elton Mayo, The Social Problems of an Industrial Civilization (Boston:                                 Management Journal, 1998, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 249–268.
                              Harvard University Press, 1945); Fritz J. Rothlisberger and W. J. Dickson,                          34 J. Stacy Adams, “Inequity in Social Exchange,” in L. Berkowitz (ed.),
                              Management and the Worker (Boston: Harvard University Press, 1939).                                    vol. 2, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (New York: Academic
                            9 Gerald R. Salancik and Jeffrey Pfeiffer, “An Examination of                                            Press, 1965), pp. 267–299.
                              Need-Satisfaction Models of Job Attitudes,” Administrative Science                                  35 Craig Pinder, Work Motivation in Organizational Behavior.
                              Quarterly, September 1977, pp. 427–456.                                                             36 See Kerry Sauler and Arthur Bedeian, “Equity Sensitivity: Construction
                           10 Teresa Amabile and Steven Kramer, “What Really Motivates Workers,”                                     of a Measure and Examination of Its Psychometric Properties,” Journal
                              Harvard Business Review, January–February 2010, pp. 44–45.                                             of Management, 2000, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 885–910; Mark Bing and Susan
                           11 Abraham H. Maslow, “A Theory of Human Motivation,” Psychological                                       Burroughs, “The Predictive and Interactive Effects of Equity Sensitivity in
                              Review, 1943, vol. 50, pp. 370–396; Abraham H. Maslow, Motivation                                      Teamwork-Oriented Organizations,” Journal of Organizational Behavior,
                              and Personality (New York: Harper & Row, 1954). Maslow’s most famous                                   2001, vol. 22, pp. 271–290.
                              works includes Abraham Maslow, Deborah C. Stephens, and Gary Heil,                                  37 Victor Vroom, Work and Motivation (New York: John Wiley and Sons,
                              Maslow on Management (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1998); and                                        1964).
                              Abraham Maslow and Richard Lowry, Toward a Psychology of Being                                      38 Lyman W. Porter and Edward E. Lawler, Managerial Attitudes and
                              (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1999).                                                                 Performance (Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press, 1968).




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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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            564             Notes

            39 See Terence R. Mitchell, “Expectancy Models of Job Satisfaction,                                     8 R. N. Ford, “Job Enrichment Lessons from AT&T,” Harvard Business
               Occupational Preference, and Effort: A Theoretical, Methodological,                                    Review, January–February 1973, pp. 96–106.
               and Empirical Appraisal,” Psychological Bulletin, 1974, vol. 81,                                     9 E. D. Weed, “Job Enrichment ’Cleans Up’ at Texas Instruments,” in
               pp. 1096–1112; and John P. Campbell and Robert D. Pritchard,                                           J. R. Maher (ed.), New Perspectives in Job Enrichment (New York:
               “Motivation Theory in Industrial and Organizational Psychology,” in                                    Van Nostrand, 1971).
               Marvin D. Dunnette (ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational                                 10 Griffin, Task Design; Griffin and McMahan, “Motivation Through Job
               Psychology (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976), pp. 63–130, for reviews.                                     Design.”
            40 Pinder, Work Motivation and Organizational Behavior.                                                11 J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham, “Motivation Through the
            41 Ibid.                                                                                                  Design of Work: Test of a Theory,” Organizational Behavior and Human
            42 Campbell and Pritchard, “Motivation Theory in Industrial and                                           Performance, 1976, vol. 16, pp. 250–279. See also Michael A. Campion and
               Organizational Psychology.”                                                                            Paul W. Thayer, “Job Design: Approaches, Outcomes, and Trade-Offs,”
            43 Nancy Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior.                                      Organizational Dynamics, Winter 1987, pp. 66–78.
            44 David A. Nadler and Edward E. Lawler, “Motivation: A Diagnostic                                     12 J. Richard Hackman, “Work Design,” in J. Richard Hackman and J. L.
               Approach,” in J. Richard Hackman, Edward E. Lawler, and Lyman W.                                       Suttle (eds.), Improving Life at Work: Behavioral Science Approaches to
               Porter (eds.), Perspectives on Behavior in Organizations, 2nd ed.                                      Organizational Change (Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear, 1977).
               (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), pp. 67–78; see also Anne Fisher,                                     13 Griffin, Task Design.
               “Turning Clock-Watchers into Stars,” Fortune, March 22, 2004, p. 60.                                14 Griffin, Task Design. See also Karlene H. Roberts and William Glick,
            45 Ivan P. Pavlov, Conditional Reflexes (New York: Oxford University Press,                               “The Job Characteristics Approach to Task Design: A Critical Review,”
               1927).                                                                                                 Journal of Applied Psychology, 1981, vol. 66, pp. 193–217; and Ricky W.
            46 Albert Bandura, “Social Cognitive Theory: An Agentic Perspective,”                                     Griffin, “Toward an Integrated Theory of Task Design,” in Larry L.
               Annual Review of Psychology, 2001, vol. 52, pp. 1–26.                                                  Cummings and Barry M. Staw (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior
            47 B. F. Skinner, Science and Human Behavior (New York: Macmillian,                                       (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1987), vol. 9, pp. 79–120.
               1953), and Beyond Freedom and Dignity (New York: Knopf, 1972).                                      15 Ricky W. Griffin, M. Ann Welsh, and Gregory Moorhead, “Perceived
            48 Fred Luthans and Robert Kreitner, Organizational Behavior Modification                                 Task Characteristics and Employee Performance: A Literature Review,”
               and Beyond (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1985).                                                      Academy of Management Review, October 1981, pp. 655–664.
            49 Telis Demos, “Motivate Without Spending Millions,” Fortune, April 12,                               16 For a recent discussion of these issues, see Timothy Butler and James
               2010, pp. 37–38.                                                                                       Waldroop, “Job Sculpting,” Harvard Business Review, September–October
            50 See Richard Arvey and John M. Ivancevich, “Punishment in                                               1999, pp. 144–152; see also the recent special issue of the Journal of
               Organizations: A Review, Propositions, and Research Suggestions,”                                      Organizational Behavior (vol. 31, no. 2–3, February 2010) devoted
               Academy of Management Review, April 1980, pp. 123–132 for a review of                                  entirely to job design.
               the literature on punishment; see also Leanne Atwater, Joan Brett, and                              17 David J. Glew, Anne M. O’Leary-Kelly, Ricky W. Griffin, and David
               Atira Cherise Charles, “The Delivery of Workplace Discipline: Lessons                                  D. Van Fleet, “Participation in Organizations: A Preview of the Issues
               Learned,” Organizational Dynamics, 2007, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 392–403.                                  and Proposed Framework for Future Analysis,” Journal of Management,
            51 Fred Luthans and Robert Kreitner, Organizational Behavior Modification                                 1995, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 395–421; for a recent update, see Russ Forrester,
               (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1975); Luthans and Kreitner,                                           “Empowerment: Rejuvenating a Potent Idea,” Academy of Management
               Organizational Behavior Modification and Beyond.                                                       Executive, 2002, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 67–78.
            52 Alexander D. Stajkovic, “A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Organizational                           18 John A. Wagner III, “Participation’s Effects of Performance and
               Behavior Modification on Task Performance, 1975–95,” Academy of                                        Satisfaction: A Reconsideration of Research Evidence,” Academy of
               Management Journal, 1997, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 1122–1149.                                               Management Review, 1994, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 312–330.
            53 “At Emery Air Freight: Positive Reinforcement Boosts Performance,”                                  19 “9 to 5 Isn’t Working Anymore,” Business Week, September 20, 1999,
               Organizational Dynamics, Winter 1973, pp. 41–50; W. Clay Hamner and                                    pp. 94–98.
               Ellen P. Hamner, “Organizational Behavior Modification on the Bottom                                20 A. R. Cohen and H. Gadon, Alternative Work Schedules: Integrating
               Line,” Organizational Dynamics, Spring 1976, pp. 3–21.                                                 Individual and Organizational Needs (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1978).
            54 Hamner and Hamner, “Organizational Behavior Modification on the                                     21 See Barbara Rau and MaryAnne Hyland, “Role Conflict and Flexible
               Bottom Line.”                                                                                          Work Arrangements: The Effects on Applicant Attraction,” Personnel
            55 Edwin Locke, “The Myths of Behavior Mod in Organizations,” Academy                                     Psychology, 2002, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 111–136.
               of Management Review, 1977, vol. 2, pp. 543–553.                                                    22 “Working 9-to-5 No Longer,” USA Today, December 6, 2004, pp. 1B, 2B.
                                                                                                                   23 See Carolyn Hirschman, “Share and Share Alike,” HR Magazine,
                                                                                                                      September 2005, pp. 52–57.
                                                                                                                   24 For a recent analysis, see Sumita Raghuram, Raghu Garud, Batia
            Chapter 5                                                                                                 Wiesenfeld, and Vipin Gupta, “Factors Contributing to Virtual Work
             1 Ricky W. Griffin and Gary C. McMahan, “Motivation Through Job                                          Adjustment,” Journal of Management, 2001, vol. 27, pp. 383–405.
               Design,” in Jerald Greenberg (ed.), Organizational Behavior: State of the                           25 See Ravi Gajendran and David Harrison, “The Good, the Bad, and
               Science (New York: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates, 1994), pp. 23–44.                                  the Unknown About Telecommuting: Meta-Analysis of Psychological
             2 Frederick W. Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management (New York:                                Mediators and Individual Consequences,” Journal of Applied Psychology,
               Harper & Row, 1911).                                                                                   2007, vol. 92, no. 6, pp. 1524–1541.
             3 C. R. Walker and R. Guest, The Man on the Assembly Line (Cambridge,
               MA: Harvard University Press, 1952).
             4 Jia Lin Xie and Gary Johns, “Job Scope and Stress: Can Job Scope Be Too                             Chapter 6
               High?” Academy of Management Journal, 1995, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 1288–1309.                           1 Jon R. Katzenbach and Jason A. Santamaria, “Firing Up the Front Line,”
             5 Ricky W. Griffin, Task Design: An Integrative Approach (Glenview, IL:                                  Harvard Business Review, May–June 1999, pp. 107–117.
               Scott, Foresman, 1982).                                                                              2 A. Bandura, Social Learning Theory (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,
             6 H. Conant and M. Kilbridge, “An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Job                                      1977).
               Enlargement: Technology, Cost, Behavioral Implications,” Industrial and                              3 See Edwin A. Locke, “Toward a Theory of Task Performance and
               Labor Relations Review, 1965, vol. 18, no. 7, pp. 377–395.                                             Incentives,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 1968,
             7 Frederick Herzberg, “One More Time: How Do You Motivate                                                vol. 3, pp. 157–189.
               Employees?” Harvard Business Review, January–February 1968,                                          4 Gary P. Latham and Gary Yukl, “A Review of Research on the Application
               pp. 53–62; Frederick Herzberg, “The Wise Old Turk,” Harvard Business                                   of Goal Setting in Organizations,” Academy of Management Journal,
               Review, September–October 1974, pp. 70–80.                                                             1975, vol. 18, pp. 824–845.



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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Notes              565

                            5 Gary P. Latham and J. J. Baldes, “The Practical Significance of Locke’s                              5 For example, see Steve M. Jex and Paul D. Bliese, “Efficacy Beliefs as a
                              Theory of Goal Setting,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 1975, vol. 60,                                 Moderator of the Impact of Work-Related Stressors: A Multilevel Study,”
                              pp. 187–191.                                                                                           Journal of Applied Psychology, 1999, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 349–361.
                            6 Gary P. Latham, “The Importance of Understanding and Changing                                        6 Meyer Friedman and Ray H. Rosenman, Type A Behavior and Your Heart
                              Employee Outcome Expectancies for Gaining Commitment to an                                             (New York: Knopf, 1974).
                              Organizational Goal,” Personnel Psychology, 2001, vol. 54, pp. 707–720.                              7 “Prognosis for the ‘Type A’ Personality Improves in a New Heart Disease
                            7 See Anthea Zacharatos, Julian Barling, and Roderick Iverson, “High-                                    Study,” Wall Street Journal, January 14, 1988, p. 27.
                              Performance Work Systems and Occupational Safety,” Journal of Applied                                8 Susan C. Kobasa, “Stressful Life Events, Personality, and Health: An
                              Psychology, vol. 90, no. 1, January 2005, pp. 77–94.                                                   Inquiry Into Hardiness,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
                            8 H. John Bernardin and Richard W. Beatty, Performance Appraisal:                                        January 1979, pp. 1–11; Susan C. Kobasa, S. R. Maddi, and S. Kahn,
                              Assessing Human Behavior at Work (Boston: Kent, 1984).                                                 “Hardiness and Health: A Prospective Study,” Journal of Personality and
                            9 See Bruce Pfau and Ira Kay, “Does 360-Degree Feedback Negatively                                       Social Psychology, January 1982, pp. 168–177.
                              Affect Company Performance?” HR Magazine, June 2002, pp. 54–59.                                      9 Findings reported by Carol Kleiman, Chicago Times, March 31, 1988,
                           10 Joan Brett and Leanne Atwater, “360° Feedback: Accuracy, Reactions,                                    p. B1.
                              and Perceptions of Usefulness,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 2001,                                10 Todd D. Jick and Linda F. Mitz, “Sex Differences in Work Stress,”
                              vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 930–942; Terry Beehr, Lana Ivanitskaya, Curtiss                                    Academy of Management Review, October 1985, pp. 408–420; Debra
                              Hansen, Dmitry Erofeev, and David Gudanowski, “Evaluation of                                           L. Nelson and James C. Quick, “Professional Women: Are Distress and
                              360-Degree Feedback Ratings: Relationships with Each Other and                                         Disease Inevitable?” Academy of Management Review, April 1985,
                              with Performance and Selection Predictors,” Journal of Organizational                                  pp. 206–218.
                              Behavior, 2001, vol. 22, pp. 775–788.                                                               11 “Complex Characters Handle Stress Better,” Psychology Today,
                           11 Vanessa Urch Druskat and Steven B. Wolff, “Effects and Timing of                                       October 1987, p. 26.
                              Developmental Peer Appraisals in Self-Managing Work Groups,” Journal                                12 Robert L. Kahn, D. M. Wolfe, R. P. Quinn, J. D. Snoek, and
                              of Applied Psychology, 1999, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 58–74.                                                R. A. Rosenthal, Organizational Stress: Studies in Role Conflict and
                           12 Joanne Sammer, “Calibrating Consistency,” HR Magazine, January 2008,                                   Role Ambiguity (New York: Wiley, 1964).
                              pp. 73–78.                                                                                          13 David R. Frew and Nealia S. Bruning, “Perceived Organizational
                           13 See Edward E. Lawler, Pay and Organization Development (Reading,                                       Characteristics and Personality Measures as Predictors of Stress/Strain
                              MA: Addison-Wesley, 1981).                                                                             in the Work Place,” Academy of Management Journal, December 1987,
                           14 Brian Boyd and Alain Salamin, “Strategic Reward Systems: A                                             pp. 633–646.
                              Contingency Model of Pay System Design,” Strategic Management                                       14 Thomas H. Holmes and Richard H. Rahe, “The Social Readjustment
                              Journal, 2001, vol. 22, pp. 777–792.                                                                   Rating Scale,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1967, vol. 11,
                           15 Alfred Rappaport, “New Thinking on How to Link Executive Pay with                                      pp. 213–218.
                              Performance,” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1999, pp. 91–99;                                 15 Evelyn J. Bromet, Mary A. Dew, David K. Parkinson, and Herbert C.
                                                                                                                                     Schulberg, “Predictive Effects of Occupational and Marital Stress on the
                              see also Cynthia Devers, Albert Cannella, Jr., Gregory Reilly, and
                                                                                                                                     Mental Health of a Male Workforce,” Journal of Organizational Behavior,
                              Michele Yoder, “Executive Compensation: A Multidisciplinary Review of
                                                                                                                                     1988, vol. 9, pp. 1–13.
                              Recent Developments,” Journal of Management, 2007, vol. 33, no. 6,
                                                                                                                                  16 Thomas Wright, “The Role of Psychological Well-Being in Job
                              pp. 1016–1072.
                                                                                                                                     Performance, Employee Retention, and Cardiovascular Health,”
                           16 Steve Bates, “Piecing Together Executive Compensation,” HR Magazine,
                                                                                                                                     Organizational Dynamics, January–March 2010, pp. 13–23.
                              May 2002, pp. 60–69.
                                                                                                                                  17 “I Can’t Sleep,” Business Week, January 26, 2004, pp. 66–74.
                           17 “Rich Benefit Plan Gives GM Competitors Cost Edge,” Wall Street
                                                                                                                                  18 Edward Hallowell, “Why Smart People Underperform,” Harvard Business
                              Journal, March 21, 1996, pp. B1, B4.
                                                                                                                                     Review, January 2005, pp. 54–62.
                           18 “Painless Perks,” Forbes, September 6, 1999, p. 138. See also “Does Rank
                                                                                                                                  19 “Employers on Guard for Violence,” Wall Street Journal, April 5, 1995,
                              Have Too Much Privilege?” The Wall Street Journal, February 26, 2002,
                                                                                                                                     p. 3A; Joel H. Neuman and Robert A. Baron, “Workplace Violence and
                              pp. B1, B4.
                                                                                                                                     Workplace Aggression: Evidence Concerning Specific Forms, Potential
                           19 Charlotte Garvey, “Meaningful Tokens of Appreciation,” HR Magazine,
                                                                                                                                     Causes, and Preferred Targets,” Journal of Management, 1998, vol. 24,
                              August 2004, pp. 101–106.
                                                                                                                                     no. 3, pp. 391–419
                           20 John R. Deckop, Robert Mangel, and Carol C. Cirka, “Getting More
                                                                                                                                  20 Raymond T. Lee and Blake E. Ashforth, “A Meta-Analytic Examination
                              Than You Pay For: Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Pay-for-
                                                                                                                                     of the Correlates of the Three Dimensions of Job Burnout,” Journal of
                              Performance Plans,” Academy of Management Journal, 1999, vol. 42,
                                                                                                                                     Applied Psychology, 1996, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 123–133.
                              no. 4, pp. 420–428.
                                                                                                                                  21 For a recent update, see Iain Densten, “Re-thinking Burnout,” Journal of
                           21 “How Much is a CEO Worth?” Bloomberg Businessweek, May 10–May
                                                                                                                                     Organizational Behavior, 2001, vol. 22, pp. 833–847.
                              16, 2010, pp. 70–72.
                                                                                                                                  22 John M. Kelly, “Get a Grip on Stress,” HR Magazine, February 1997,
                           22 Charlotte Garvey, “Steering Teams with the Right Pay,” HR Magazine,
                                                                                                                                     pp. 51–57.
                              May 2002, pp. 70–80.                                                                                23 John W. Lounsbury and Linda L. Hoopes, “A Vacation from Work:
                           23 Andrea Poe, “Selection Savvy,” HR Magazine, April 2002, pp. 77–80.                                     Changes in Work and Nonwork Outcomes,” Journal of Applied
                           24 Ricky W. Griffin and Michael W. Pustay, International Business—A                                       Psychology, 1986, vol. 71, pp. 392–401.
                              Managerial Perspective, 7th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2011).                            24 “Overloaded Staffers Are Starting to Take More Time Off Work,” Wall
                                                                                                                                     Street Journal, September 23, 1998, p. B1.
                                                                                                                                  25 “Eight Ways to Help You Reduce the Stress in Your Life,” Business Week

                           Chapter 7                                                                                                 Careers, November 1986, p. 78. See also Holly Weeks, “Taking the Stress
                                                                                                                                     out of Stressful Conversations,” Harvard Business Review, July–August 2001,
                             1 For a recent review, see Richard S. DeFrank and John M. Ivancevich,                                   pp. 112–116.
                               “Stress on the Job: An Executive Update,” Academy of Management                                    26 See Marilyn Macik-Frey, James Campbell Quick, and Debra Nelson,
                               Executive, 1998, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 55–65.                                                           “Advances in Occupational Health: From a Stressful Beginning to a
                             2 See James C. Quick and Jonathan D. Quick, Organizational Stress and                                   Positive Future,” Journal of Management, 2007, vol. 33. no. 6,
                               Preventive Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984), for a review.                                    pp. 809–840 for a recent review.
                             3 “Job Stress Beginning to Take Toll on Some Airline Workers,” USA                                   27 Richard A. Wolfe, David O. Ulrich, and Donald F. Parker, “Employee
                               Today, November 30, 2004, pp. 1B, 2B.                                                                 Health Management Programs: Review, Critique, and Research Agenda,”
                             4 Hans Selye, The Stress of Life (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1976).                                         Journal of Management, Winter 1987, pp. 603–615.



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            566             Notes

            28 “Workplace Hazard Gets Attention,” USA Today, May 5, 1998, pp. 1B, 2B.                              22 Charles P. Wallace, “Adidas—Back in the Game,” Fortune, August 18,
            29 “Recession Plans: More Benefits,” Time, May 10, 2010, p. Global 8.                                     1997, pp. 176–182.
            30 See Sonya Premeaux, Cheryl Adkins, and Kevin Mossholder, “Balancing                                 23 Barry M. Staw and Jerry Ross, “Good Money After Bad,” Psychology
               Work and Family: A Field Study of Multi-Dimensional, Multi-Role, and                                   Today, February 1988, pp. 30–33 and D. Ramona Bobocel and
               Work-Family Conflict,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2007, vol. 28,                              John Meyer, “Escalating Commitment to a Failing Course of Action:
               pp. 705–727.                                                                                           Separating the Roles of Choice and Justification,” Journal of Applied
            31 “Work and Family,” Business Week, September 15, 1997, pp. 96–99.                                       Psychology, 1994, vol.79, pp. 360–363.
            32 Samuel Aryee, E. S. Srinivas, and Hwee Hoon Tan, “Rhythms of Life:                                  24 Mark Keil and Ramiro Montealegre, “Cutting Your Losses: Extricating
               Antecedents and Outcomes of Work-Family Balances in Employed                                           Your Organization When a Big Project Goes Awry,” Sloan Management
               Parents,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 2005, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 132–146.                            Review, Spring 2000, pp. 55–64.
                                                                                                                   25 Gerry McNamara and Philip Bromiley, “Risk and Return in
                                                                                                                      Organizational Decision Making,” Academy of Management Journal,
                                                                                                                      1999, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 330–339.
            Chapter 8                                                                                              26 See Brian O’Reilly, “What it Takes to Start a Startup,” Fortune, June 7,
             1 Herbert Simon, The New Science of Management Decision (New York:                                       1999, pp. 135–140 for an example.
               Harper & Row, 1960), p. 1.                                                                          27 See Richard W. Woodman, John E. Sawyer, and Ricky W. Griffin,
             2 See Noel Tichy and Warren Bennis, Judgement—How Winning Leaders                                        “Toward a Theory of Organizational Creativity,” Academy of Management
               Make Great Calls (New York: Penguin Group), 2007.                                                      Review, April 1993, pp. 293–321; see also Beth Henessey and Teresa
             3 Nandini Rajagopalan, Abdul M. A. Rasheed, and Deepak K. Datta,                                         Amabile, “Creativity,” in Susan Fiske, Daniel Schacter, and Robert
               “Strategic Decision Processes: Critical Review and Future Directions,”                                 Sternberg, eds., vol. 61, Annual Review of Psychology (Palo Alto: Annual
               Journal of Management, Summer 1993, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 349–384.                                       Reviews, 2010), pp. 569–598.
             4 See George P. Huber, Managerial Decision Making (Glenview, IL: Scott,                               28 John Simons, “The $10 Billion Pill,” Fortune, January 20, 2003,
               Foresman, 1980), pp. 90–115, for a discussion of decision making under                                 pp. 58–68.
               conditions of certainty, risk, and uncertainty.                                                     29 Christina E. Shalley, Lucy L. Gilson, and Terry C. Blum, “Matching
             5 See David Garvin and Michael Roberto, “What You Don’t Know About                                       Creativity Requirements and the Work Environment: Effects on
               Making Decisions,” Harvard Business Review, September 2001, pp. 108–115.                               Satisfaction and Intentions to Leave,” Academy of Management Journal,
             6 “’90s Style Brainstorming,” Forbes ASAP, October 25, 1993, pp. 44–61.                                  2000, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 215–223; see also Filiz Tabak, “Employee
             7 Henry Mintzberg, Duru Raisinghani, and Andre Thoret, “The Structure                                    Creative Performance: What Makes it Happen?” The Academy of
               of ‘Unstructured’ Decision Processes,” Administrative Science Quarterly,                               Management Executive, vol. 11, no. 1, 1997, pp. 119–122.
               June 1976, pp. 246–275; Milan Zeleny, “Descriptive Decision Making
               and Its Application,” Applications of Management Science, 1981, vol. 1,
               pp. 327–388.
             8 See E. Frank Harrison, The Managerial Decision-Making Process,                                      Chapter 9
               5th ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999), pp. 55–60, for more on                                     1 See John J. Gabarro, “The Development of Working Relationships,” in
               choice processes.                                                                                      Jay W. Lorsch, ed., Handbook of Organizational Behavior (Englewood
             9 Ari Ginsberg and N. Ventrakaman, “Contingency Perspectives of                                          Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1987), pp. 172–189; see also “Team Efforts,
               Organizational Strategy: A Critical Review of the Empirical Research,”                                 Technology, Add New Reasons to Meet,” USA Today, December 8, 1997,
               Academy of Management Review, July 1985, pp. 412–434; Donald C.                                        pp. 1A, 2A.
               Hambrick and David Lei, “Toward an Empirical Prioritization of                                       2 See Emily Heaphy and Jane Dutton, “Positive Social Interactions and the
               Contingency Variables for Business Strategy,” Academy of Management                                    Human Body at Work: Linking Organizations and Physiology,” Academy
               Journal, December 1985, pp. 763–788.                                                                   of Management Review, 2008, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 137–162.
            10 Leon Festinger, A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Palo Alto, CA:                                     3 See Richard McDermott and Douglas Archibald, “Harnessing Your
               Stanford University Press, 1957).                                                                      Staff’s Informal Networks,” Harvard Business Review, March 2010,
            11 Patricia Sellers, “The Dumbest Marketing Ploys,” Fortune, October 5,                                   pp. 82–89.
               1992, pp. 88–94.                                                                                     4 Marvin E. Shaw, Group Dynamics: The Psychology of Small Group
            12 See Harrison, The Managerial Decision-Making Process, pp. 74–100, for                                  Behavior, 3rd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1991), p. 11.
               more on the rational approach to decision making.                                                    5 Francis J. Yammarino and Alan J. Dubinsky, “Salesperson Performance
            13 Craig D. Parks and Rebecca Cowlin, “Group Discussion as Affected by                                    and Managerially Controllable Factors: An Investigation of Individual
               Number of Alternatives and by a Time Limit,” Organizational Behavior                                   and Work Group Effects,” Journal of Management, 1990, vol. 16,
               and Human Decision Processes, 1995, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 267–275.                                       pp. 97–106.
            14 See James G. March and Herbert A. Simon, Organizations (New York:                                    6 Rob Cross and Laurence Prusak, “The People Who Make Organizations
               Wiley, 1958), for more on the concept of bounded rationality.                                          Go—Or Stop,” Harvard Business Review, June 2002, pp. 104–114.
            15 Herbert A. Simon, Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision Making                                7 William L. Sparks, Dominic J. Monetta, and L. M. Simmons Jr., “Affinity
               Processes in Administrative Organizations, 3rd ed. (New York: Free                                     Groups: Developing Complex Adaptive Organizations,” working paper,
               Press, 1976).                                                                                          The PAM Institute, Washington, D.C., 1999.
            16 Richard M. Cyert and James G. March, A Behavioral Theory of the                                      8 Shawn Tully, “The Vatican’s Finances,” Fortune, December 21, 1997, pp.
               Firm (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1963), p. 113; Simon,                                       29–40.
               Administrative Behavior.                                                                             9 Bernard M. Bass and Edward C. Ryterband, Organizational Psychology,
            17 Kathleen M. Eisenhardt, “Making Fast Strategic Decisions in                                            2nd ed. (Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1979), pp. 252–254. See also Scott
               High-Velocity Environments,” Academy of Management Journal,                                            Lester, Bruce Meglino, and M. Audrey Korsgaard, “The Antecedents and
               September 1989, pp. 543–576.                                                                           Consequences of Group Potency: A Longitudinal Investigation of Newly
            18 Irving L. Janis and Leon Mann, Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis                               Formed Work Groups,” Academy of Management Journal, 2002, vol. 45,
               of Conflict, Choice, and Commitment (New York: Free Press, 1977).                                      no. 2, pp. 352–369.
            19 Hoover’s Handbook of American Business 2010 (Austin, TX: Hoover’s                                   10 Susan Long, “Early Integration in Groups: A Group to Join and a Group
               Business Press, 2010), pp. 893–895.                                                                    to Create,” Human Relations, April 1994, pp. 311–332.
            20 Kimberly D. Elsbach and Greg Elofson, “How the Packaging of Decision                                11 For example, see Mary Waller, Jeffrey Conte, Cristina Gibson, and
               Explanations Affects Perceptions of Trustworthiness,” Academy of                                       Mason Carpenter, “The Effect of Individual Perceptions of Deadlines on
               Management Journal, 2000, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 80–89.                                                   Team Performance,” Academy of Management Review, 2001, vol. 26,
            21 Tichy and Bennis, Judgment.                                                                            no. 4, pp. 596–600.




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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Notes              567

                           12 Steven L. Obert, “Developmental Patterns of Organizational Task Groups:                             38 Irving L. Janis, Victims of Groupthink (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972),
                              A Preliminary Study,” Human Relations, January 1993, pp. 37–52.                                        pp. 197–198.
                           13 Bass and Ryterband, Organizational Psychology, pp. 252–254.                                         39 Janis, Groupthink.
                           14 Bernard M. Bass, “The Leaderless Group Discussion,” Psychological                                   40 Janis, Groupthink, pp. 193–197; Gregory Moorhead, “Groupthink:
                              Bulletin, September 1954, pp. 465–492.                                                                 Hypothesis in Need of Testing,” Group & Organization Studies,
                           15 Jill Lieber, “Time to Heal the Wounds,” Sports Illustrated, November 2,                                December 1982, pp. 429–444.
                              1997, pp. 96–91.                                                                                    41 Gregory Moorhead and John R. Montanari, “Empirical Analysis
                           16 Connie J. G. Gersick, “Marking Time: Predictable Transitions in Task                                   of the Groupthink Phenomenon,” Human Relations, May 1986,
                              Groups,” Academy of Management Journal, 1999, vol. 32, pp. 274–309.                                    pp. 399–410; John R. Montanari and Gregory Moorhead, “Development
                           17 James H. Davis, Group Performance (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley,                                        of the Groupthink Assessment Inventory,” Educational and Psychological
                              1964), pp. 92–96.                                                                                      Measurement, Spring 1989, pp. 209–219.
                           18 Shaw, Group Dynamics; see also Sujin K. Horwitz and Irwin B. Horwitz,                               42 Frederick W. Taylor, The Principles of Scientific Management (New York:
                              “The Effects of Team Diversity on Team Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic                                       Harper & Row, 1911).
                              Review of Team Demography,” Journal of Management, 2007, vol. 33,                                   43 Chris Argyris, Personality and Organization (New York: Harper & Row,
                              no. 6, pp. 987–1015.                                                                                   1957); Rensis Likert, New Patterns of Management (New York:
                           19 Charles A. O’Reilly III, David F. Caldwell, and William P. Barnett,                                    McGraw-Hill, 1961).
                              “Work Group Demography, Social Integration, and Turnover,”                                          44 Lester Coch and John R. P. French, “Overcoming Resistance to Change,”
                              Administrative Science Quarterly, March 1999, vol. 34, pp. 21–37.                                      Human Relations, 1948, vol. 1, pp. 512–532; N. C. Morse and E. Reimer,
                           20 See Sheila Simsarian Webber and Lisa Donahue, “Impact of Highly and                                    “The Experimental Change of a Major Organizational Variable,” Journal
                              Less Job-Related Diversity on Work Group Cohesion and Performance:                                     of Abnormal and Social Psychology, January 1956, pp. 120–129.
                              A Meta-Analysis,” Journal of Management, 2001, vol. 27, pp. 141–162.                                45 Victor Vroom, “Leadership and the Decision-Making Process,”
                           21 Nancy Adler, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior,                                      Organizational Dynamics, Spring 2000, pp. 82–94.
                              4th ed. (Cincinnati: Thomson Learning, 2002), Chapter 5.                                            46 For a recent example, see Carsten K. W. De Dreu and Michael West,
                           22 Shaw, Group Dynamics, pp. 173–177.                                                                     “Minority Dissent and Team Innovation: The Importance of Participation
                           23 See Jennifer Chatman and Francis Flynn, “The Influence of                                              in Decision Making,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 2001, vol. 86, no. 6,
                              Demographic Heterogeneity on the Emergence and Consequences of                                         pp. 1191–1201.
                              Cooperative Norms in Work Teams,” Academy of Management Journal,
                              2001, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 956–974.
                           24 Daniel C. Feldman, “The Development and Enforcement of Group
                              Norms,” Academy of Management Review, January 1994, pp. 47–53.                                      Chapter 10
                           25 William E. Piper, Myriam Marrache, Renee Lacroix, Astrid M.                                          1 Eric L. Trist and K. W. Bamforth, “Some Social and Psychological
                              Richardson, and Barry D. Jones, “Cohesion as a Basic Bond in Groups,”                                  Consequences of the Longwall Method of Coal-Getting,” Human
                              Human Relations, February 1993, pp. 93–109.                                                            Relations, February 1951, pp. 3–38; Jack D. Orsburn, Linda Moran, and
                           26 Daniel Beal, Robin Cohen, Michael Burke, and Christy McLendon,                                         Ed Musselwhite, with John Zenger, Self-Directed Work Teams: The New
                              “Cohesion and Performance in Groups: A Meta-Analytic Clarification of                                  American Challenge (Homewood, IL: Business One Irwin, 1990).
                              Construct Relations,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 2003, vol. 88, no. 6,                           2 See Jon R. Katzenbach and Douglas K. Smith, The Wisdom of Teams:
                              pp. 989–1004.                                                                                          Creating the High-Performance Organization (Boston: Harvard Business
                           27 Robert T. Keller, “Predictors of the Performance of Project Groups in                                  School Press, 1993), p. 45.
                              R & D Organizations,” Academy of Management Journal, December                                        3 See Ruth Wageman, “How Leaders Foster Self-Managing Team
                              1996, pp. 715–726.                                                                                     Effectiveness: Design Choices Versus Hands-on Coaching,” Organization
                           28 Irving L. Janis, Groupthink, 2nd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), p. 9.                           Science, 2001, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 559–577.
                           29 Blake E. Ashforth and Fred Mael, “Social Identity Theory and the                                     4 See Michelle Marks, John Mathieu, and Stephen Zaccaro, “A Temporally
                              Organization,” Academy of Management Review, January 1999, pp. 20–39.                                  Based Framework and Taxonomy of Team Processes,” Academy of
                           30 Reed E. Nelson, “The Strength of Strong Ties: Social Networks and                                      Management Review, 2001, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 356–376.
                              Intergroup Conflict in Organizations,” Academy of Management Journal,                                5 Michele Williams, “In Whom We Trust: Group Membership as an
                              June 1999, pp. 377–401.                                                                                Affective Context for Trust Development,” Academy of Management
                           31 M. A. Wallach, N. Kogan, and D. J. Bem, “Group Influence on                                            Review, 2001, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 377–396.
                              Individual Risk Taking,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology,                                  6 Katzenbach and Smith, The Wisdom of Teams, p. 3.
                              August 1962, pp. 75–86; James A. F. Stoner, “Risky and Cautious Shifts                               7 See Michelle Marks, Mark Sabella, C. Shawn Burke, and Stephen
                              in Group Decisions: The Influence of Widely Held Values,” Journal of                                   Zaccaro, “The Impact of Cross-Training on Team Effectiveness,” Journal
                              Experimental Social Psychology, October 1968, pp. 442–459.                                             of Applied Psychology, 2002, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 3–13.
                           32 Dorwin Cartwright, “Risk Taking by Individuals and Groups: An                                        8 See Ramon Rico, Miriam Sanchez-Manzanares, Francisco Gil, and
                              Assessment of Research Employing Choice Dilemmas,” Journal of                                          Christina Gibson, “Team Implicit Knowledge Coordination Processes:
                              Personality and Social Psychology, December 1971, pp. 361–378.                                         A Team Knowledge-Based Approach,” Academy of Management Review,
                           33 S. Moscovici and M. Zavalloni, “The Group as a Polarizer of Attitudes,”                                2008, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 163–184.
                              Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, June 1969, pp. 125–135.                                9 Orsburn, Moran, Musselwhite, and Zenger, Self-Directed Work Teams,
                           34 Irving L. Janis, Groupthink, 2nd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin,                                        p. 15.
                              1982), p. 9.                                                                                        10 Manz and Sims, Business Without Bosses, pp. 10–11.
                           35 Gregory Moorhead, Christopher P. Neck, and Mindy West, “The                                         11 See Deborah Ancona, Henrik Bresman, and Katrin Kaeufer, “The
                              Tendency Toward Defective Decision Making Within Self-Managing                                         Competitive Advantage of X-Teams,” Sloan Management Review, Spring
                              Teams: Relevance of Groupthink for the 21st Century,” Organizational                                   2002, pp. 33–42.
                              Behavior and Human Decision Processes, February–March 1998,                                         12 Katzenbach and Smith, The Wisdom of Teams, pp. 184–189.
                              pp. 327–351.                                                                                        13 Manz and Sims, Business Without Bosses, pp. 74–76.
                           36 Gregory Moorhead, Richard Ference, and Chris P. Neck, “Group                                        14 Jason Colquitt, Raymond Noe, and Christine Jackson, “Justice in Teams:
                              Decision Fiascoes Continue: Space Shuttle Challenger and a Revised                                     Antecedents and Consequences of Procedural Justice Climate,” Personnel
                              Groupthink Framework,” Human Relations, 1991, vol. 44, pp. 539–550.                                    Psychology, 2002, vol. 55, pp. 83–95.
                           37 See Robert Cross and Susan Brodt, “How Assumptions of Consensus                                     15 Nigel Nicholson, Pino Audia, and Madan Pillutla (eds.), Encyclopedic
                              Undermine Decision Making,” Sloan Management Review, Winter 2001,                                      Dictionary of Organizational Behavior, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, MA:
                              pp. 86–95.                                                                                             Blackwell, 2005), pp. 337–338.




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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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            568             Notes

            16   Brian Dumaine, “The Trouble with Teams,” Fortune, September 5, 1994.                              17 David Krackhardt and Lyman W. Porter, “The Snowball Effect: Turnover
            17   Ibid.                                                                                                Embedded in Communication Networks,” Journal of Applied Psychology,
            18   Ibid.                                                                                                February 1986, pp. 50–55.
            19   Ibid.                                                                                             18 See “Did You Hear the Story About Office Gossip?” USA Today,
            20   Ellen Hart, “Top Teams,” Management Review, February 1996,                                           September 10, 2007, p. 1B, 2B.
                 pp. 43–47.                                                                                        19 “Has Coke Been Playing Accounting Games?” Business Week, May 13,
            21   Dan Dimancescu and Kemp Dwenger, “Smoothing the Product                                              2002, pp. 98–99.
                 Development Path,” Management Review, January 1996, pp. 36–41;                                    20 See “E-mail’s Limits Create Confusion, Hurt Feelings,” USA Today,
                 see also “The World’s 50 Most Innovative Companies,” Fast Company,                                   February 5, 2002, pp. 1B, 2B.
                 March 2008, pp. 72–117                                                                            21 “Talk of Chapter 11 Bruises Kmart Stock,” USA Today, January 3, 2002,
            22   Ibid.                                                                                                p. 1B.
            23   Manz and Sims, Business Without Bosses, pp. 27–28.                                                22 Thomas J. Peters and Robert H. Waterman Jr., In Search of Excellence:
            24   Ibid., pp. 29–31.                                                                                    Lessons from America’s Best-Run Companies (New York: Harper & Row,
            25   Ibid., p. 130.                                                                                       1982), p. 121.
            26   Manz and Sims, Business Without Bosses, p. 200; see also Sujin K.                                 23 Shari Caudron, “Monsanto Responds to Diversity,” Personnel Journal,
                 Horwitz and Irwin B. Horwitz, “The Effects of Team Diversity on Team                                 November 1990, pp. 72–78; “Trading Places at Monsanto,” Training and
                 Outcomes: A Meta-Analytic Review of Team Demography,” Journal of                                     Development Journal, April 1993, pp. 45–49.
                 Management, 2007, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 987–1015.
            27   Manz and Sims, Business Without Bosses, p. 200

                                                                                                                   Chapter 12
                                                                                                                    1 Ralph M. Stogdill, Handbook of Leadership (New York: Free Press, 1974).
            Chapter 11                                                                                                See also Bernard Bass and Ruth Bass, Handbook of Leadership: Theory,
             1 Otis W. Baskin and Craig E. Aronoff, Interpersonal Communication in                                    Research, and Application, 4th ed. (Riverside, NJ: Free Press, 2008). See
               Organizations (Santa Monica, CA: Goodyear, 1980), p. 2.                                                also Noel Tichy and Warren Bennis, Judgment: How Winning Leaders
             2 See Bruce Barry and Ingrid Smithey Fulmer, “The Medium and the                                         Make Great Calls (New York: Portfolio Press, 2007).
               Message: The Adaptive Use of Communication Media in Dyadic Influence,”                               2 See Gary Yukl and David D. Van Fleet, “Theory and Research on
               Academy of Management Review, 2004, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 272–292.                                       Leadership in Organizations,” in M. D. Dunnette and L. M. Hough
             3 Jeanne D. Maes, Teresa G. Weldy, and Marjorie L. Icenogle, “A                                          (eds.), vol. 3, Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
               Managerial Perspective: Oral Communication Competency Is Most                                          (Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1992), pp. 148–197.
               Important for Business Students in the Workplace,” Journal of Business                               3 Arthur G. Jago, “Leadership: Perspectives in Theory and Research,”
               Communication, January 1997, pp. 67–80.                                                                Management Science, March 1982, pp. 315–336.
             4 Melinda Knight, “Writing and Other Communication Standards in                                        4 Melvin Sorcher and James Brant, “Are You Picking the Right Leaders?”
               Undergraduate Business Education: A Study of Current Program                                           Harvard Business Review, February 2002, pp. 78–85.
               Requirements, Practices, and Trends,” Business Communication                                         5 See John P. Kotter, “What Leaders Really Do,” Harvard Business Review,
               Quarterly, March 1999, p. 10.                                                                          May–June 1990, pp. 103–111. See also Abraham Zaleznik, “Managers
             5 Robert Nurden, “Graduates Must Master the Lost Art of                                                  and Leaders: Are They Different?” Harvard Business Review, March–April
               Communication,” The European, March 20, 1997, p. 24.                                                   1992, pp.126–135; and John Kotter, “What Leaders Really Do,” Harvard
             6 See Everett M. Rogers and Rekha Agarwala-Rogers, Communication in                                      Business Review, December 2001, pp. 85–94.
               Organizations (New York: Free Press, 1976), for a brief review of the                                6 Ronald Heifetz and Marty Linsky, “A Survival Guide for Leaders,”
               background and development of the source-message-channel-receiver                                      Harvard Business Review, June 2002, pp. 65–74.
               model of communication.                                                                              7 Frederick Reichheld, “Lead for Loyalty,” Harvard Business Review,
             7 Charles A. O’Reilly III, “Variations in Decision Makers’ Use of Information                            July–August 2001, pp. 76–83.
               Sources: The Impact of Quality and Accessibility of Information,” Academy                            8 David D. Van Fleet and Gary A. Yukl, “A Century of Leadership
               of Management Journal, December 1982, pp. 756–771.                                                     Research,” in D. A. Wren and J. A. Pearce II (eds.), Papers Dedicated
             8 See Jerry C. Wofford, Edwin A. Gerloff, and Robert C. Cummins,                                         to the Development of Modern Management (Chicago: The Academy
               Organizational Communication (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1977), for a                                      of Management, 1986), pp. 12–23.
               discussion of channel noise.                                                                         9 Shelly A. Kirkpatrick and Edwin A. Locke, “Leadership: Do Traits
             9 Charlie Feld and Donna Stoddard, “Getting IT Right,” Harvard Business                                  Matter?” Academy of Management Executive, May 1991, pp. 48–60;
               Review, February 2005, pp. 72–81.                                                                      see also Robert J. Sternberg, “Managerial Intelligence: Why IQ Isn’t
            10 Kym France, “Computer Commuting Benefits Companies,” Arizona                                           Enough,” Journal of Management, 1997, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 475–493.
               Republic, August 16, 1993, pp. E1, E4.                                                              10 Philip M. Podsakoff, Scott B. MacKenzie, Mike Ahearne, and William H.
            11 “The FedEx Edge,” Fortune, April 3, 2006, pp. 77–84.                                                   Bommer, “Searching for a Needle in a Haystack: Trying to Identify the
            12 Paul S. Goodman and Eric D. Darr, “Exchanging Best Practices                                           Illusive Moderators of Leadership Behaviors,” Journal of Management,
               Through Computer-Aided Systems,” Academy of Management Executive,                                      1995, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 422–470.
               May 1996, pp. 7–18.                                                                                 11 Rensis Likert, New Patterns of Management (New York: McGraw-Hill,
            13 Jenny C. McCune, “The Intranet: Beyond E-Mail,” Management Review,                                     1961).
               November 1996, pp. 23–27.                                                                           12 Edwin Fleishman, E. F. Harris, and H. E. Burtt, Leadership and
            14 See Daniel Katz and Robert L. Kahn, The Social Psychology of                                           Supervision in Industry (Columbus, Ohio: Bureau of Educational
               Organizations, 2nd ed. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1978),                                          Research, Ohio State University, 1955).
               for more about the role of organizational communication networks.                                   13 See Edwin A. Fleishman, “Twenty Years of Consideration and Structure,”
            15 For good discussions of small-group communication networks                                             in Edward A. Fleishman and James G. Hunt (eds.), Current Developments
               and research on this subject, see Wofford, Gerloff, and Cummins,                                       in the Study of Leadership (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University
               Organizational Communication; and Marvin E. Shaw, Group Dynamics:                                      Press, 1973), pp. 1–40.
               The Psychology of Small Group Behavior, 3rd ed. (New York:                                          14 Fleishman, Harris, and Burtt, Leadership and Supervision in Industry.
               McGraw-Hill, 1981), pp. 150–161.                                                                    15 For a recent update, see Timothy Judge, Ronald Piccolo, and Remus
            16 See R. Wayne Pace, Organizational Communication: Foundations for                                       Ilies, “The Forgotten Ones? The Validity of Consideration and Initiating
               Human Resource Development (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1983),                                Structure in Leadership Research,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 2004,
               for further discussion of the development of communication networks.                                   vol. 89, no. 1, pp. 36–51.




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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Notes              569

                           16 Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton, The Managerial Grid (Houston:                                    6 Francis J. Yammarino and Alan J. Dubinsky, “Transformational Leadership
                              Gulf Publishing, 1964); Robert R. Blake and Jane S. Mouton, The                                        Theory: Using Levels of Analysis to Determine Boundary Conditions,”
                              Versatile Manager: A Grid Profile (Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Irwin,                                      Personnel Psychology, 1994, vol. 47, pp. 787–800. See also A. N. Pieterse,
                              1981).                                                                                                 D. van Knippenberg, M. Schippers, and D. Stam, “Transformational and
                           17 Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt, “How to Choose a                                              Transactional Leadership and Innovative Behavior: The Role of Psychological
                              Leadership Pattern,” Harvard Business Review, March–April 1958,                                        Empowerment,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, May 2010, pp. 609–623.
                              pp. 95–101.                                                                                          7 Vicki Goodwin, J. C. Wofford, and J. Lee Whittington, “A Theoretical
                           18 From Fred E. Fiedler, A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness (New York:                                  and Empirical Extension to the Transformational Leadership Construct,”
                              McGraw-Hill, 1967). Reprinted by permission of the author.                                             Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2001, vol. 22, pp. 759–774; see also
                           19 See Fred E. Fiedler, “Engineering the Job to Fit the Manager,” Harvard                                 Amy Colbert, Amy Kristof-Brown, Bret Bradley, and Murray Barrick,
                              Business Review, September–October 1965, pp. 115–122.                                                  “CEO Transformational Leadership: The Role of Goal Congruence in
                           20 See Fred E. Fiedler, Martin M. Chemers, and Linda Mahar, Improving                                     Top Management Teams,” Academy of Management Journal, 2008,
                              Leadership Effectiveness: The Leader Match Concept (New York:                                          vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 81–96.
                              John Wiley and Sons, 1976).                                                                          8 Hoover’s Handbook of American Business 2010 (Austin: Hoover’s Business
                           21 Chester A. Schriesheim, Bennett J. Tepper, and Linda A. Tetrault,                                      Press, 2010, pp. 354–355.
                              “Least Preferred Co-Worker Score, Situational Control, and Leadership                                9 Juan-Carlos Pastor, James Meindl, and Margarita Mayo, “A Network
                              Effectiveness: A Meta-Analysis of Contingency Model Performance                                        Effects Model of Charisma Attributions,” Academy of Management
                              Predictions,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 1994, vol. 79, no. 4,                                     Journal, 2002, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 410–420.
                              pp. 561–573.                                                                                        10 See Robert J. House, “A 1976 Theory of Charismatic Leadership,” in
                           22 See Martin G. Evans, “The Effects of Supervisory Behavior on the Path-                                 J. G. Hunt and L. L. Larson (eds.), Leadership: The Cutting Edge
                              Goal Relationship,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance,                                     (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1977), pp. 189–207.
                              May 1970, pp. 277–298; Robert J. House, “A Path-Goal Theory of                                         See also Jay A. Conger and Rabindra N. Kanungo, “Toward a Behavioral
                              Leadership Effectiveness,” Administrative Science Quarterly, September                                 Theory of Charismatic Leadership in Organizational Settings,” Academy
                              1971, pp. 321–339; Robert J. House and Terence R. Mitchell, “Path-Goal                                 of Management Review, October 1987, pp. 637–647.
                              Theory of Leadership,” Journal of Contemporary Business, Autumn 1974,                               11 “Play Hard, Fly Right,” Time, Bonus Section: Inside Business, June 2002,
                              pp. 81–98.                                                                                             pp. Y15–Y22.
                           23 See Victor H. Vroom and Philip H. Yetton, Leadership and Decision                                   12 David A. Nadler and Michael L. Tushman, “Beyond the Charismatic
                              Making (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1973); Victor H.                                   Leader: Leadership and Organizational Change,” California Management
                              Vroom and Arthur G. Jago, The New Leadership (Englewood Cliffs, NJ:                                    Review, Winter 1990, pp. 77–97.
                              Prentice-Hall, 1988).                                                                               13 David A. Waldman and Francis J. Yammarino, “CEO Charismatic
                           24 Victor Vroom, “Leadership and the Decision-Making Process,”                                            Leadership: Levels-of-Management and Levels-of-Analysis Effects,”
                              Organizational Dynamics, Spring 2000.                                                                  Academy of Management Review, 1999, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 266–285.
                           25 Vroom and Jago, The New Leadership.                                                                 14 Jane Howell and Boas Shamir, “The Role of Followers in the Charismatic
                           26 See Madeline E. Heilman, Harvey A. Hornstein, Jack H. Cage, and Judith                                 Leadership Process: Relationships and Their Consequences,” Academy of
                              K. Herschlag, “Reaction to Prescribed Leader Behavior as a Function                                    Management Review, January 2005, pp. 96–112.
                              of Role Perspective: The Case of the Vroom-Yetton Model,” Journal of                                15 See Steven Kerr and John M. Jermier, “Substitutes for Leadership: Their
                              Applied Psychology, February 1984, pp. 50–60; R. H. George Field, “A                                   Meaning and Measurement,” Organizational Behavior and Human
                              Test of the Vroom-Yetton Normative Model of Leadership,” Journal of                                    Performance, 1978, vol. 22, pp. 375–403. See also Charles C. Manz and
                              Applied Psychology, February 1982, pp. 523–532.                                                        Henry P. Sims Jr., “Leading Workers to Lead Themselves: The External
                                                                                                                                     Leadership of Self-Managing Work Teams,” Administrative Science
                                                                                                                                     Quarterly, March 1987, pp. 106–129.
                                                                                                                                  16 Jon P. Howell, David E. Bowen, Peter W. Dorfman, Steven Kerr, and
                           Chapter 13                                                                                                Philip Podsakoff, “Substitutes for Leadership: Effective Alternatives to
                             1 George Graen and J. F. Cashman, “A Role-Making Model of Leadership                                    Ineffective Leadership,” Organizational Dynamics, Summer 1990,
                               in Formal Organizations: A Developmental Approach,” in J. G. Hunt                                     pp. 20–38. See also Philip M. Podsakoff, Scott B. Mackenzie, and
                               and L. L. Larson (eds.), Leadership Frontiers (Kent, OH: Kent State                                   William H. Bommer, “Transformational Leader Behaviors and
                               University Press, 1975), pp. 143–165; Fred Dansereau, George Graen, and                               Substitutes for Leadership as Determinants of Employee Satisfaction,
                               W. J. Haga, “A Vertical Dyad Linkage Approach to Leadership Within                                    Commitment, Trust, and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors,” Journal
                               Formal Organizations: A Longitudinal Investigation of the Role-Making                                 of Management, 1996, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 259–298.
                               Process,” Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 1975, vol. 15,                            17 Tamara Erickson, “The Leaders We Need Now,” Harvard Business
                               pp. 46–78.                                                                                            Review, May 2010, pp. 62–67.
                             2 See Charlotte R. Gerstner and David V. Day, “Meta-Analytic Review of                               18 J. Richard Hackman and Ruth Wageman, “A Theory of Team Coaching,”
                               Leader-Member Exchange Theory: Correlates and Construct Issues,”                                      Academy of Management Review, April 2005, pp. 269–287.
                               Journal of Applied Psychology, 1997, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 827–844;                                  19 Russell L. Kent and Sherry E. Moss, “Effects of Sex and Gender Role of
                               John Maslyn and Mary Uhl-Bien, “Leader-Member Exchange and Its                                        Leader Emergence,” Academy of Management Journal, 1994, vol. 37,
                               Dimensions: Effects of Self-Effort and Others’ Effort on Relationship                                 no. 5, pp. 1335–1346.
                               Quality,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 2001, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 697–708.                        20 A. H. Eagly, M. G. Makhijani, and R. G. Klonsky, “Gender and the Evaluation
                             3 Paul Hersey and Kenneth H. Blanchard, Management of Organizational                                    of Leaders: A Meta-Analysis,” Psychological Bulletin, vol. 111, 1992, pp. 3–22.
                               Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources, 3rd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ:                                21 Cynthia Montgomery, “Putting Leadership Back Into Strategy,” Harvard
                               Prentice Hall, 1977).                                                                                 Business Review, January 2008, pp. 54–61.
                             4 See Fred Fiedler and Joe Garcia, New Approaches to Effective Leadership:                           22 “The Best (& Worst) Managers of the Year,” Business Week, January 10,
                               Cognitive Resources and Organizational Performance (New York: Wiley, 1987).                           2005, p. 55.
                             5 See James MacGregor Burns, Leadership (New York: Harper & Row,                                     23 See Kurt Dirks and Donald Ferrin, “Trust in Leadership,” Journal
                               1978), and Karl W. Kuhnert and Philip Lewis, “Transactional and                                       of Applied Psychology, 2002, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 611–628; see also
                               Transformational Leadership: A Constructive/Developmental Analysis,”                                  Christopher Meyer and Julia Kirby, “Leadership in the Age of
                               Academy of Management Review, October 1987, pp. 648–657. See                                          Transparency,” Harvard Business Review, April 2010, pp. 38–46.
                               also Nick Turner, Julian Barling, Olga Epitropaki, Vicky Butcher, and                              24 See John Cordery, Christine Soo, Bradley Kirkman, Benson Rosen, and
                               Caroline Milner, “Transformational Leadership and Moral Reasoning,”                                   John Mathieu, “Leading Parallel Global Virtual Teams,” Organizational
                               Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 304–311.                                           Dynamics, July–September 2009, pp. 204–216.




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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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            570             Notes

            Chapter 14                                                                                              5 Bruce Barry and Greg L. Stewart, “Composition, Process, and
                                                                                                                      Performance in Self-Managed Groups: The Role of Personality,” Journal
             1 Robert W. Allen and Lyman W. Porter (eds.), Organizational Influence                                   of Applied Psychology, vol. 82, no. 1, 1997, pp. 62–78.
               Processes (Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman, 1983).                                                     6 “Rumsfeld’s Abrasive Style Sparks Conflict With Military Command,”
             2 Alan L. Frohman, “The Power of Personal Initiative,” Organizational                                    USA Today, December 10, 2002, pp. 1A, 2A.
               Dynamics, Winter 1997, pp. 39–48; see also James H. Dulebohn and                                     7 “Delta CEO Resigns After Clashes With Board,” USA Today, May 13,
               Gerald R. Ferris, “The Role of Influence Tactics in Perceptions of                                     1997, p. B1.
               Performance Evaluations’ Fairness,” Academy of Management Journal,                                   8 “Why Boeing’s Culture Breeds Turmoil,” Business Week, March 21, 2005,
               1999, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 288–303.                                                                     pp. 34–36.
             3 For reviews of the meaning of power, see Henry Mintzberg, Power In and                               9 James Thompson, Organizations in Action (New York: McGraw-Hill,
               Around Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1983); Jeffrey                              1967). For a more recent discussion, see Bart Victor and Richard S.
               Pfeffer, Power in Organizations (Marshfield, MA: Pitman Publishing,                                    Blackburn, “Interdependence: An Alternative Conceptualization,”
               1981); John Kenneth Galbraith, The Anatomy of Power (Boston:                                           Academy of Management Review, July 1987, pp. 486–498.
               Houghton Mifflin, 1983); Gary A. Yukl, Leadership in Organizations,                                 10 Kenneth Thomas, “Conflict and Conflict Management,” in Marvin
               3rd ed. (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1994).                                                   Dunnette (ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
             4 John R. P. French and Bertram Raven, “The Bases of Social Power,”                                      (Chicago: Rand McNally, 1976), pp. 889–935.
               in Darwin Cartwright (ed.), Studies in Social Power (Ann Arbor, MI:                                 11 Alfie Kohn, “How to Succeed Without Even Vying,” Psychology Today,
               University of Michigan Press, 1959), pp. 150–167. See also Philip M.                                   September 1986, pp. 22–28.
               Podsakoff and Chester A. Schriesheim, “Field Studies of French and                                  12 See Carsten K. W. De Dreu and Annelies E. M. Van Vianen, “Managing
               Raven’s Bases of Power: Critique, Reanalysis, and Suggestions for Future                               Relationship Conflict and the Effectiveness of Organizational Teams,”
               Research,” Psychological Bulletin, 1985, vol. 97, pp. 387–411.                                         Journal of Organizational Behavior, 2001, vol. 22, pp. 309–328; see
             5 See Sze-Sze Wong, Violet Ho, and Chay Hoon Lee, “A Power Perspective                                   also Kristin Behfar, Randall Peterson, Elizabeth Mannix, and William
               to Interunit Knowledge Transfer: Linking Attributes to Knowledge Power                                 Trochim, “The Critical Role of Conflict Resolution in Teams: A Close
               and the Transfer of Knowledge,” Journal of Management, 2008, vol. 34,                                  Look at the Links Between Conflict Type, Conflict Management
               no. 1, pp. 127–150.                                                                                    Strategies, and Team Outcomes,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 2008,
             6 Yukl, Leadership in Organizations, Chapter X.                                                          vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 170–188.
             7 See Darren Treadway, Wayne Hochwarter, Charles Kacmar, and Gerald                                   13 “Memo To the Team: This Needs Salt!” The Wall Street Journal, April 4,
               Ferris, “Political Will, Political Skill, and Political Behavior,” Journal of                          2000, pp. B1, B14.
               Organizational Behavior, 2005, vol. 26, pp. 229–245.                                                14 See Kimberly Wade-Benzoni, Andrew Hoffman, Leigh Thompson, Don
             8 Victor Murray and Jeffrey Gandz, “Games Executives Play: Politics at                                   Moore, James Gillespie, and Max Bazerman, “Barriers to Resolution in
               Work,” Business Horizons, December 1980, pp. 11–23. See also Jeffrey                                   Ideologically Based Negotiations: The Role of Values and Institutions,”
               Gandz and Victor Murray, “The Experience of Workplace Politics,”                                       Academy of Management Review, 2002, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 41–57; see also
               Academy of Management Journal, June 1980, pp. 237–251.                                                 Leigh Thompson, Jiunwen Wang, and Brian Gunia, “Negotiation,” in
             9 Gerald F. Cavanaugh, Dennis J. Moberg, and Manuel Valasquez,                                           Susan Fiske, Daniel Schacter, and Robert Sternberg, (eds.), vol. 61, Annual
               “The Ethics of Organizational Politics,” Academy of Management Review,                                 Review of Psychology (Palo Alto: Annual Reviews, 2010), pp. 491–516.
               July 1981, pp. 363–374.                                                                             15 J. Z. Rubin and B. R. Brown, The Social Psychology of Bargaining and
            10 Pfeffer, Power in Organizations; Mintzberg, Power In and Around                                        Negotiation (New York: Academic Press, 1975).
               Organizations.                                                                                      16 R. J. Lewicki and J. A. Litterer, Negotiation (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1985).
            11 The techniques are based on Pfeffer, Power in Organizations; Mintzberg,                             17 Howard Raiffa, The Art and Science of Negotiation (Cambridge, MA:
               Power In and Around Organizations; and Galbraith, Anatomy of Power.                                    Belknap, 1982).
            12 “How the 2 Top Officials of Grace Wound Up in a Very Dirty War,” Wall                               18 K. H. Bazerman and M. A. Neale, Negotiating Rationally (New York:
               Street Journal, May 18, 1995, pp. Al, A8.                                                              Free Press, 1992).
            13 See Jerald Greenberg and Jason Colquitt, Handbook of Organizational                                 19 Ross R. Reck and Brian G. Long, The Win-Win Negotiator (Escondido,
               Justice (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004) for a                                          CA: Blanchard Training and Development, 1985).
               comprehensive discussion and review of the literature on justice in
               organizations. See also James Lavelle, Deborah Rupp, and Joel Brockner,
               “Taking a Multifoci Approach to the Study of Justice, Social Exchange,
               and Citizenship Behavior,” Journal of Management, 2007, vol. 33, no. 6,                             Chapter 16
               pp. 841–866, and Joel Brockner, A Contemporary Look at Organizational                                1 See Richard L. Daft, Organization Theory and Design, 8th ed. (Mason,
               Justice (New York: Routledge, 2010), for recent updates.                                               OH: South-Western, 2004), p.11, for further discussion of the definition
            14 See Russell Cropanzano, David Bowen, and Stephen Gilliland, “The                                       of organization.
               Management of Organizational Justice,” Academy of Management                                         2 Gareth R. Jones, Organizational Theory, Design, and Change, 9th ed.
               Perspectives, 2007, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 34–48.                                                         (Upper Saddle River, New Jersey; Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007), p. 4.
                                                                                                                    3 Brayden G. King, Teppo Felin, and David A. Whetten,
                                                                                                                      “Perspective—Finding the Organization in Organizational Theory:
            Chapter 15                                                                                                A Meta-Theory of the Organization as a Social Actor.” Organization
              1 See Stephen P. Robbins, Managing Organizational Conflict (Englewood                                   Science, January–February 2010, pp. 290–305, ©2010 INFORMS
                Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1974), for a classic review.                                             4 Charles W. L. Hill and Gareth R. Jones, Strategic Management: An
              2 Charles R. Schwenk, “Conflict in Organizational Decision Making:                                      Integrated Approach, 9th ed. (Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage
                An Exploratory Study of Its Effects in For-Profit and Not-for-Profit                                  Learning, 2010), p. 12. See also John R. Montanari, Cyril P. Morgan, and
                Organizations,” Management Science, April 1990, pp. 436–448.                                          Jeffrey S. Bracker, Strategic Management (Hinsdale, IL: Dryden Press,
              3 See Carsten K.W. De Dreu, “The Virtue and Vice of Workplace Conflict:                                 1990), pp. 1–2.
                Food for (Pessimistic) Thought,” Journal of Organizational Behavior,                                5 “Intel Aligns Around Platforms,” “Intel Corporation in Summary,” Intel
                2008, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 5–18 and Dean Tjosvold, “The Conflict-Positive                              website, appzone.intel.com on February 8, 2005.
                Organization: It Depends on Us,” Journal of Organizational Behavior,                                6 A. Bryman, A. D. Beardworth, E. T. Keil, and J. Ford, “Organizational Size
                2008, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 19–28 for discussions of negative and positive                              and Specialization,” Organization Studies, September 1983, pp. 271–278.
                perspectives on conflict.                                                                           7 Joseph L. C. Cheng, “Interdependence and Coordination in Organizations:
              4 “How 2 Computer Nuts Transformed Industry Before Messy Breakup,”                                      A Role System Analysis,” Academy of Management Journal, March 1983,
                The Wall Street Journal, August 27, 1996, pp. A1, A10.                                                pp. 156–162.



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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Notes              571

                            8 Henry Mintzberg, The Structuring of Organizations (Englewood Cliffs,                                32 John R. Montanari and Philip J. Adelman, “The Administrative
                              NJ: Prentice Hall, 1979), for further discussion of the basic elements                                 Component of Organizations and the Rachet Effect: A Critique of
                              of structure.                                                                                          Cross-Sectional Studies,” Journal of Management Studies, March 1987,
                            9 Max Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization, trans.                                      pp. 113–123.
                              A. M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons (New York: Free Press, 1947).                                   33 D. A. Heenan, “The Downside of Downsizing,” Journal of Business
                           10 For more discussion of these alternative views, see John B. Miner,                                     Strategy, November–December 1989, pp. 18–23.
                              Theories of Organizational Structure and Process (Hinsdale, IL: Dryden                              34 Wayne F. Cascio, “Downsizing: What Do We Know? What Have We
                              Press, 1982), p. 386.                                                                                  Learned?” Academy of Management Executive, February 1993,
                           11 Paul S. Adler, “Building Better Bureaucracies,” Academy of Management                                  pp. 95–104.
                              Executive, November 1999, pp. 36–46.                                                                35 James P. Guthrie and Deepak K. Datta: “The Impact of Downsizing on
                           12 This summary of the classic principles of organizing is based on Henri Fayol,                          Firm Performance,” Organization Science, January–February 2008,
                              General and Industrial Management, trans. Constance Storrs (London:                                    pp. 108–123, ©2008 INFORMS
                              Pittman, 1949); Miner, Theories of Organizational Structure and Process,                            36 Dalton et al., “Organization Structure and Performance.”
                              pp. 358–381; and the discussions in Arthur G. Bedeian, Organizations:                               37 See John Child, Organization: A Guide to Problems and Practice, 2nd ed.
                              Theory and Analysis, 2nd ed. (Chicago: Dryden, 1984), pp. 58–59.                                       (New York: Harper & Row, 1984), pp. 145–153, for a detailed discussion
                           13 Miner, Theories of Organizational Structure and Process, pp. 358–381.                                  of centralization.
                           14 See Rensis Likert, New Patterns of Management (New York:                                            38 Richard H. Hall, Organization: Structure and Process, 3rd ed. (Englewood
                              McGraw-Hill, 1961), and Rensis Likert, The Human Organization: Its                                     Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1982), pp. 87–96.
                              Management and Value (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967), for a complete                                  39 “Can Jack Smith Fix GM?” Business Week, November 1, 1993,
                              discussion of the human organization.                                                                  pp. 126–131; John McElroy, “GM’s Brand Management Might Work,”
                           15 Miner, Theories of Organizational Structure and Process, pp. 17–53.                                    Automotive Industries, September 1996, p. 132.
                           16 Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization.                                              40 Daniel R. Denison, “Bringing Corporate Culture to the Bottom Line,”
                           17 Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of                                     Organizational Dynamics, Autumn 1984, pp. 4–22.
                              Nations (London: Dent, 1910).                                                                       41 Leonard W. Johnson and Alan L. Frohman, “Identifying and Closing the
                           18 Nancy M. Carter and Thomas L. Keon, “The Rise and Fall of the Division                                 Gap in the Middle of Organizations,” Academy of Management Executive,
                              of Labour, the Past 25 Years,” Organization Studies, 1986, pp. 54–57.                                  May 1989, pp. 107–114.
                           19 Glenn R. Carroll, “The Specialist Strategy,” California Management                                  42 Michael Schrage, “I Know What You Mean, and I Can’t Do Anything
                              Review, Spring 1984, pp. 126–137.                                                                      About It,” Fortune, April 2, 2001, p. 186.
                           20 “Management Discovers the Human Side of Automation,” Business Week,                                 43 Mintzberg, The Structuring of Organizations, pp. 83–84.
                              September 29, 1986, pp. 70–75.                                                                      44 Arthur P. Brief and H. Kirk Downey, “Cognitive and Organizational
                           21 See Robert H. Miles, Macro Organizational Behavior (Santa Monica,                                      Structures: A Conceptual Analysis of Implicit Organizing Theories,”
                              CA: Goodyear, 1980), pp. 28–34, for a discussion of departmentalization                                Human Relations, December 1983, pp. 1065–1090.
                              schemes.                                                                                            45 Jerald Hage, “An Axiomatic Theory of Organizations,” Administrative
                           22 Mintzberg, The Structuring of Organizations, p. 125.                                                   Science Quarterly, December 1965, pp. 289–320.
                           23 Miles, Macro Organizational Behavior, pp. 122–133.                                                  46 Gregory Moorhead, “Organizational Analysis: An Integration of the Macro
                           24 “Big Blue Wants to Loosen Its Collar,” Fortune, February 29, 1988, p. 8;                               and Micro Approaches,” Journal of Management Studies, April 1981,
                              “Inside IBM: Internet Business Machines,” Business Week, December 13,                                  pp. 191–218.
                              1999, pp. EB20– EB28.                                                                               47 J. Daniel Sherman and Howard L. Smith, “The Influence of
                           25 “Performance Inside: 2007 Annual Report,” “Intel Aligns Around                                         Organizational Structure on Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic Motivation,”
                              Platforms,” “Intel Corporation in Summary,” Intel website, www.intel.                                  Academy of Management Journal, December 1984, pp. 877–885.
                              com on April 21, 2008; Ephraim Schwartz, “The Age of the Industry-                                  48 John A. Pearce II and Fred R. David, “A Social Network Approach to
                              Specific PC,” InfoWorld, January 28, 2005, www.infoworld.com on                                        Organizational Design-Performance,” Academy of Management Review,
                              February 8, 2005; Gary Rivlin and John Markoff, “Can Mr. Chips                                         July 1983, pp. 436–444.
                              Transform Intel?” New York Times, September 12, 2004, pp. BU1, BU4                                  49 Eileen Farihurst, “Organizational Rules and the Accomplishment of
                              (quote); “Intel Corporation,” Hoover’s, www.hoovers.com on March 6,                                    Nursing Work on Geriatric Wards,” Journal of Management Studies,
                              2005; “Intel Shuffles Key Management Roles,” TechWeb, October 10,                                      July 1983, pp. 315–332.
                              2000, www.techweb.com on February 8, 2005.                                                          50 “Chevron Corp. Has Big Challenge Coping with Worker Cutbacks,” Wall
                           26 Peggy Leatt and Rodney Schneck, “Criteria for Grouping Nursing                                         Street Journal, November 4, 1986, pp. 1, 25.
                              Subunits in Hospitals,” Academy of Management Review, March 1984,                                   51 Neil F. Brady, “Rules for Making Exceptions to Rules,” Academy of
                              pp. 150–165.                                                                                           Management Review, July 1987, pp. 436–444.
                           27 “Fact Sheets,”“Organizational Structure,” Deutsche Bank website, group.                             52 See Jeffrey Pfeiffer, Power in Organizations (Boston: Pittman, 1981),
                              deutsche-bank.de on June 7, 2002; Marcus Walker, “Lean New Guard                                       pp. 4–6, for a discussion of the relationship between power and authority.
                              at Deutsche Bank Sets Global Agenda—But Cultural Rifts Prevent                                      53 John B. Miner, Theories of Organizational Structure and Process, p. 360.
                              More-Aggressive Cost Cuts—The Traditionalists Haven’t Gone Quietly,”                                54 Chester Barnard, The Functions of the Executive (Cambridge, MA:
                              Wall Street Journal, February 14, 2002. www.wsj.com on April 4, 2002;                                  Harvard University Press, 1938), pp. 161–184.
                              Stephen Graham, “Deutsche Bank Says 2001 Profit Plummeted, Proceeds                                 55 Pfeiffer, Power in Organizations, pp. 366–367.
                              with Management Shake-Up,” National Business Stream, January 31,
                              2002; “Deutsche Bank Names Next CEO, Continuity Seen,” National
                              Business Stream, September 21, 2000.
                           28 Lyndall F. Urwick, “The Manager’s Span of Control,” Harvard Business                                Chapter 17
                              Review, May–June 1956, pp. 39–47.                                                                    1 Lex Donaldson, “Strategy and Structural Adjustment to Regain Fit
                           29 Dan R. Dalton, William D. Tudor, Michael J. Spendolini, Gordon                                         and Performance: In Defense of Contingency Theory,” Journal of
                              J. Fielding, and Lyman W. Porter, “Organization Structure and                                          Management Studies, January 1987, pp. 1–24.
                              Performance: A Critical Review,” Academy of Management Review,                                       2 John R. Montanari, Cyril P. Morgan, and Jeffrey Bracker, Strategic
                              January 1980, pp. 49–64.                                                                               Management (Hinsdale, IL: Dryden Press, 1990), p. 114.
                           30 Mintzberg, The Structuring of Organizations, pp. 133–147.                                            3 See Arthur A. Thompson Jr. and A. J. Strickland III, Strategic
                           31 See David Van Fleet, “Span of Management Research and Issues,”                                         Management, 3rd ed. (Plano, TX: Business Publications, 1984),
                              Academy of Management Journal, September 1983, pp. 546–552, for an                                     pp. 19–27.
                              example of research on span of control.                                                              4 David Stires, “Fallen Arches,” Fortune, April 26, 1999, pp. 146–152.




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            572             Notes

             5 Alfred D. Chandler, Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the                          27 John E. Prescott, “Environments as Moderators of the Relationship
               American Industrial Enterprise (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1962).                                       Between Strategy and Performance,” Academy of Management Journal,
             6 John R. Kimberly, “Organizational Size and the Structuralist Perspective:                              June 1986, pp. 329–346.
               A Review, Critique, and Proposal,” Administrative Science Quarterly,                                28 Timothy M. Stearns, Alan N. Hoffman, and Jan B. Heide, “Performance
               December 1976, pp. 571–597.                                                                            of Commercial Television Stations as an Outcome of Interorganizational
             7 Peter M. Blau and Richard A. Schoenherr, The Structure of Organizations                                Linkages and Environmental Conditions,” Academy of Management
               (New York: Basic Books, 1971).                                                                         Journal, March 1987, pp. 71–90.
             8 The results of these studies are thoroughly summarized in Richard H.                                29 Thompson, Organizations in Action, pp. 51–82.
               Hall, Organizations: Structure and Process, 3rd ed. (Englewood Cliffs,                              30 Lori Ioannou, “American Invasion,” Fortune, May 13, 2002, www.fortune.
               NJ: Prentice Hall, 1982), pp. 89–94. For another study in this area, see                               com on June 12, 2002; Jesse Wong, “How to Start a Business Without a
               John H. Cullen and Kenneth S. Anderson, “Blau’s Theory of Structural                                   Road Map,” Fortune, April 1, 2002, www.fortune.com on June 12, 2002;
               Differentiation Revisited: A Theory of Structural Change or Scale?”                                    Camilla Ojansivu, “Strategy for a Stronger Market Economy: Corporate
               Academy of Management Journal, June 1986, pp. 203–229.                                                 Restructuring the PRC,” Business Beijing, November, 2001, pp. 38–39.
             9 “Small Is Beautiful Now in Manufacturing,” Business Week, October 22,                               31 For more information on managerial choice, see John Child,
               1984, pp. 152–156.                                                                                     “Organizational Structure, Environment, and Performance: The Role of
            10 Richard H. Hall, J. Eugene Haas, and Norman Johnson, “Organizational                                   Strategic Choice,” Sociology, January 1972, pp. 1–22; John R. Montanari,
               Size, Complexity, and Formalization,” American Sociological Review,                                    “Managerial Discretion: An Expanded Model of Organizational Choice,”
               December 1967, pp. 903–912.                                                                            Academy of Management Review, April 1978, pp. 231–241.
            11 Catherine Arnst, “Downsizing: Out One Door and In Another,” Business                                32 H. Randolph Bobbitt and Jeffrey D. Ford, “Decision Maker Choice as
               Week, January 22, 1996, p. 41; Peter Elstrom, “Dial A for Aggravation,”                                a Determinant of Organizational Structure,” Academy of Management
               Business Week, March 11, 1996, p. 34; Alex Markels and Matt Murray,                                    Review, January 1980, pp. 13–23.
               “Call It Dumbsizing: Why Some Companies Regret Cost-Cutting,” Wall                                  33 James W. Frederickson, “The Strategic Decision Process and
               Street Journal, May 14, 1996, pp. A1, A5.                                                              Organization Structure,” Academy of Management Review, April 1986,
            12 James P. Guthrie and Deepak K. Datta: “The Impact of Downsizing on                                     pp. 280–297.
               Firm Performance,” Organization Science, January–February 2008,                                     34 Herman L. Boschken, “Strategy and Structure: Reconceiving the
               pp. 108–123, ©2008 INFORMS; and Robert I. Sutton and Thomas                                            Relationship,” Journal of Management, March 1990, pp. 135–150.
               D’Anno, “Decreasing Organizational Size: Untangling the Effects of Money                            35 “Kerkorian Sues Daimler,” CNN Money, November 28, 2000, cnnmoney.
               and People,” Academy of Management Review, May 1989, pp. 194–212.                                      com on March 10, 2005; Stephen Graham, “DaimlerChrysler to Trim
            13 Scott Thurm, “Recalculating the Cost of Big Layoffs,” Wall Street Journal,                             Management,” Detroit Free Press, February 1, 2003, www.freep.com on
               May 5, 2010, accessed online, May 6, 2010.                                                             March 10, 2005; Danny Hakim, “You Say ‘Takeover.’ I Say ‘Merger of
            14 Joan Woodward, Management and Technology: Problems of Progress in                                      Equals.’” New York Times, December 21, 2003, pp. BU 1, BU10; Jeffrey
               Industry, no. 3 (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1958); Joan                                  K. Liker, “What Was Daimler Thinking?” Across the Board, January/
               Woodward, Industrial Organizations: Theory and Practice (London:                                       February 2005, pp. 12–13.
               Oxford University Press, 1965).                                                                     36 Jerry Flint, “Is Fiat Helping Chrysler—Or Fiat,” Forbes.com, November 3,
            15 Tom Burns and George M. Stalker, The Management of Innovation                                          2009, http://www.forbes.com/2009/11/02/chrysler-fiat-automobiles-jerry-
               (London: Tavistock, 1961).                                                                             flint-business-autos-backseat.html on May 2, 2010.
            16 Charles B. Perrow, “A Framework for the Comparative Analysis                                        37 Elton Mayo, The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization (New York:
               of Organizations,” American Sociological Review, April 1967,                                           Macmillan, 1933); F. J. Roethlisberger and W. J. Dickson, Management
               pp. 194–208.                                                                                           and the Worker (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1939).
            17 James D. Thompson, Organizations in Action (New York: McGraw-Hill,                                  38 Eric L. Trist and K. W. Bamforth, “Some Social and Psychological
               1967).                                                                                                 Consequences of the Longwall Method of Coal-Getting,” Human
            18 David J. Hickson, Derek S. Pugh, and Diana C. Pheysey, “Operations                                     Relations, February 1951, pp. 3–38.
               Technology and Organization Structure: An Empirical Reappraisal,”                                   39 Richard E. Walton, “How to Counter Alienation in the Plant,” Harvard
               Administrative Science Quarterly, September 1969, pp. 378–397.                                         Business Review, November–December 1972, pp. 70–81; Pehr G.
            19 Diane E. Bailey, Paul M. Leonardi, and Jan Chong, “Minding the                                         Gyllenhammar, “How Volvo Adapts Work to People,” Harvard Business
               Gaps: Understanding Technology Interdependence and Coordination                                        Review, July–August 1977, pp. 102–113; Richard E. Walton, “Work
               in Knowledge Work,” Organization Science, Articles in Advance,                                         Innovations at Topeka: After Six Years,” Journal of Applied Behavioral
               September 25, 2009, pp. 1–18. INFORMS.                                                                 Science, July–August–September 1977, pp. 422–433.
            20 Ibid.                                                                                               40 Henry Mintzberg, The Structuring of Organizations: A Synthesis of the
            21 Andrew Kupfer, “How to Be a Global Manager,” Fortune, March 14,                                        Research (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1979).
               1988, pp. 52–58.                                                                                    41 See Harold C. Livesay, American Made: Men Who Shaped the American
            22 “Going Crazy in Japan—In a Break from Tradition, Tokyo Begins                                          Economy (Boston: Little, Brown, 1979), pp. 215–239, for a discussion
               Funding a Program for Basic Research,” Wall Street Journal,                                            of Alfred Sloan and the development of the divisionalized structure at
               November 10, 1986, p. D20.                                                                             General Motors.
            23 “About Wal-Mart,” “Wal-Mart Stores, Inc., at a Glance,” Wal-Mart                                    42 Anne B. Fisher, “GM Is Tougher Than You Think,” Fortune, November 10,
               website, www.walmartstores.com on June 12, 2002; “Dell at a Glance,”                                   1986, pp. 56–64.
               “Dell Worldwide,” Dell website, www.dell.com on June 12, 2002; Brian                                43 Thompson and Strickland, Strategic Management, p. 212.
               Dumaine, “What Michael Dell Knows That You Don’t,” Fortune,                                         44 Gary Hamel with Bill Breen, The Future of Management (Boston: Harvard
               June 3, 2002. www.fortune.com on June 12, 2002; Andy Serwer, “Dell                                     Business School Press, 2007).
               Does Domination,” Fortune, January 21, 2002, pp. 71–75; Eryn Brown,                                 45 Henry Mintzberg, “Organization Design: Fashion or Fit,” Harvard
               “America’s Most Admired Companies,” Fortune, March 1, 1999,                                            Business Review, January–February 1981, pp. 103–116.
               pp. 68–73 (quotation p. 70).                                                                        46 Harvey F. Kolodny, “Managing in a Matrix,” Business Horizons,
            24 Richard L. Daft, Organization Theory and Design, 8th ed.                                               March–April 1981, pp. 17–24.
               (South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning, 2004), p. 141.                                      47 Stanley M. Davis and Paul R. Lawrence, Matrix (Reading, MA:
            25 “Toy Makers Lose Interest in Tie-Ins with Cartoons,” Wall Street Journal,                              Addison-Wesley, 1977), pp. 11–36.
               April 28, 1988, p. 29.                                                                              48 Lawton R. Burns, “Matrix Management in Hospitals: Testing Theories of
            26 Masoud Yasai-Ardekani, “Structural Adaptations to Environments,”                                       Matrix Structure and Development,” Administrative Science Quarterly,
               Academy of Management Review, January 1986, pp. 9–21.                                                  September 1989, pp. 355–358.




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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Notes              573

                           49 Ibid., pp. 129–154.                                                                                  7 Thomas J. Peters and Robert H. Waterman Jr., In Search of Excellence:
                           50 “The Virtual Corporation,” Business Week, February 8, 1993, pp. 98–102;                                Lessons from America’s Best-Run Companies (New York: Harper & Row,
                              William H. Carlile, “Virtual Corporation a Real Deal,” Arizona Republic,                               1982), p. 103.
                              August 2, 1993, pp. E1, E4.                                                                          8 See M. Polanyi, Personal Knowledge (Chicago: University of Chicago
                           51 Max Chafkin, “The Case, and the Plan, for the Virtual Company,” Inc.                                   Press, 1958); E. Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (New
                              com, April 1, 2010, accessed online April 25, 2010 at http://www.inc.com/                              York: Doubleday, 1959); and P. L. Berger and T. Luckman, The Social
                              magazine/20100401/the-case-and-the-plan-for-the-virtual-company.html.                                  Construction of Reality (Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1967).
                              See the following website for a more complete listing of the pros and cons                           9 “Declaration of Interdependence,” Whole Foods Market website,
                              of teleworking: http://www.teleworker.com/pro-con.html.                                                www.wholefoodsmarket.com on May 1, 2005; “David B. Dillon,”
                           52 Thomas A. Stewart, “Reengineering: The Hot New Managing Tool,”                                         Forbes, www.forbes.com on April 29, 2005; “The Kroger Co.,” Hoover’s,
                              Fortune, August 23, 1993, pp. 41–48.                                                                   www.hoovers.com on April 29, 2005; Charles Fischman, “The Anarchist’s
                           53 James A. Champy, “From Reengineering to X-Engineering,” in                                             Cookbook,” Fast Company, July 2004, pp. 70–78; Evan Smith, “John
                              Organization 21C: Someday All Organizations Will Lead This Way, Subir                                  Mackey,” Texas Monthly, March 2005, pp. 122–132 (quotation); Amy
                              Chowdhury, ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall,                                 Tsao, “Whole Foods’ Natural High,” Business Week, July 17, 2003,
                              2003), pp. 93–95.                                                                                      www.businessweek.com on April 30, 2005.
                           54 Robert Tomasko, Rethinking the Corporation (New York: AMA-COM,                                      10 Eric Ransdell, “The Nike Story? Just Tell It!” Fast Company,
                              1993).                                                                                                 January–February 2000, pp. 44–46 (quotation on p. 46); Claude Solnik,
                           55 Rahul Jacob, “The Struggle to Create an Organization for the 21st                                      “Co-Founder of Nike Dies Christmas Eve,” Footwear News, January 3,
                              Century,” Fortune, April 3, 1995, pp. 90–99; Gene G. Marcial, “Don’t                                   2000, p. 2; Rosemary Feitelberg, “Bowerman’s Legacy Runs On,” WWD,
                              Leave Your Broker Without It?” Business Week, February 5, 1996, p. 138;                                December 30, 1999, p. 8.
                              Jeffrey M. Laderman, “Loading Up on No-Loads,” Business Week,                                       11 Louise Lee, “Tricks of E*Trade,” Business Week E.Biz, February 7, 2000,
                              May 27, 1996, p. 138.                                                                                  pp. EB18–EB31.
                           56 James R. Lincoln, Mitsuyo Hanada, and Kerry McBride, “Organizational                                12 A. L. Kroeber and C. Kluckhohn, “Culture: A Critical Review of
                              Structures in Japanese and U.S. Manufacturing,” Administrative Science                                 Concepts and Definitions,” in Papers of the Peabody Museum of American
                              Quarterly, September 1986, pp. 338–364.                                                                Archaeology and Ethnology, vol. 47, no. 1 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard
                           57 “The Inscrutable West,” Newsweek, April 18, 1988, p. 52.                                               University Press, 1952).
                           58 Michael W. Morris, Joel Podolny, and Bilian Ni Sullivan, “Culture                                   13 C. Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic Books, 1973).
                              and Coworker Relations: Interpersonal Patterns in American, Chinese,                                14 See, for example, B. Clark, The Distinctive College (Chicago: Aldine, 1970).
                              German, and Spanish Divisions of a Global Retail Bank,” Organization                                15 E. Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life, trans. J. Swain
                              Science,” July–August 2008, pp. 517–532.                                                               (New York: Collier, 1961), p. 220.
                           59 Richard I. Kirkland Jr., “Europe’s New Managers,” Fortune, September 29,                            16 See William G. Ouchi, Theory Z: How American Business Can Meet the
                              1980, pp. 56–60; Shawn Tully, “Europe’s Takeover Kings,” Fortune, July                                 Japanese Challenge (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1981); and Peters
                              20, 1987, pp. 95–98.                                                                                   and Waterman, In Search of Excellence.
                           60 Henry W. Lane and Joseph J. DiStefano, International Management                                     17 See Ouchi, Theory Z; Deal and Kennedy, Corporate Cultures; and Peters
                              Behavior (Ontario: Nelson, 1988).                                                                      and Waterman, In Search of Excellence.
                           61 William H. Davison and Philippe Haspeslagh, “Shaping a Global Product                               18 E. Borgida and R. E. Nisbett, “The Differential Impact of Abstract
                              Organization,” Harvard Business Review, July–August 1982, pp. 125–132.                                 vs. Concrete Information on Decisions,” Journal of Applied Social
                           62 John Child, Organizations: A Guide to Problems and Practice (New York:                                 Psychology, July–September 1977, pp. 258–271.
                              Harper & Row, 1984), p. 246.                                                                        19 J. Martin and M. Power, “Truth or Corporate Propaganda: The Value of a
                           63 Thomas J. Peters and Robert H. Waterman Jr., In Search of Excellence:                                  Good War Story,” in Pondy et al., Organizational Symbolism (Greenwich,
                              Lessons from America’s Best-Run Companies (New York: Harper & Row,                                     CT: JAI), 1983, pp. 93–108.
                              1982), pp. 235–278.                                                                                 20 W. G. Ouchi, “Markets, Bureaucracies, and Clans,” Administrative
                           64 Thomas J. Peters and Nancy K. Austin, “A Passion for Excellence,”                                      Science Quarterly, March 1980, pp. 129–141; A. Wilkins and
                              Fortune, May 13, 1985, pp. 20–32.                                                                      W. G. Ouchi, “Efficient Cultures: Exploring the Relationship Between
                           65 Michael Beer, “Building Organizational Fitness” in Organization 21C:                                   Culture and Organizational Performance,” Administrative Science
                              Someday All Organizations Will Lead This Way, Subir Chowdhury,                                         Quarterly, September 1983, pp. 468–481.
                              ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2003),                                  21 Peters and Waterman, In Search of Excellence.
                              pp. 311–312.                                                                                        22 J. B. Barney, “Organizational Culture: Can It Be a Source of Sustained
                                                                                                                                     Competitive Advantage?” Academy of Management Review, July 1986,
                                                                                                                                     pp. 656–665.
                                                                                                                                  23 Michelle Conlin, “Is Wal-Mart Hostile to Women?” Business Week,
                           Chapter 18                                                                                                July 16, 2001. www.businessweek.com on June 21, 2002.
                             1 See “Corporate Culture: The Hard-to-Change Values That Spell Success                               24 Kate Linebaugh, Dionne Searcey and Norihiko Shirouzu, “Secretive
                               or Failure,” Business Week, October 27, 1980, pp. 148–160; Charles G.                                 Culture Led Toyota Astray,” The Wall Street Journal, February 8, 2010,
                               Burck, “Working Smarter,” Fortune, June 15, 1981, pp. 68–73.                                          accessed online, February 13, 2010.
                             2 Charles A. O’Reilly and Jennifer A. Chatman, “Culture as Social                                    25 Daniel R. Denison, “What Is the Difference Between Organizational Culture
                               Control: Corporations, Cults, and Commitment,” in vol. 18, Research                                   and Organizational Climate? A Native’s Point of View on a Decade of
                               in Organizational Behavior, Barry M. Staw and L. L. Cummings, eds.,                                   Paradigm Wars,” Academy of Management Review, July 1996, pp. 619–654.
                               pp. 157–200 (Stamford, CT: JAI Press, 1996).                                                       26 S. G. Isaksen and G. Ekvall, Assessing the Context for Change: A
                             3 J. P. Kotter and J. L. Heskett, Corporate Culture and Performance (New                                Technical Manual for the Situational Outlook Questionnaire (Orchard
                               York: Free Press, 1992).                                                                              Park, NY: The Creative Problem Solving Group, 2007).
                             4 Michael Tushman and Charles A. O’Reilly, Staying on Top: Managing                                  27 O’Reilly and Chatman, “Culture as Social Control.”
                               Strategic Innovation and Change for Long-Term Success (Boston: Harvard                             28 Richard L. Osborne, “Strategic Values: The Corporate Performance
                               Business School Press, 1996).                                                                         Engine,” Business Horizons, September–October 1996, pp. 41–47.
                             5 T. E. Deal and A. A. Kennedy, Corporate Cultures: The Rites and Rituals                            29 See Osborne, “Strategic Values: The Corporate Performance Engine”;
                               of Corporate Life (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1982), p. 4.                                          and Gary McWilliams, “Dell’s Profit Rises Slightly, As Expected,” Wall
                             6 E. H. Schein, “The Role of the Founder in Creating Organizational                                     Street Journal, February 11, 2000, p. A3.
                               Culture,” Organizational Dynamics, Summer 1983, p. 14.                                             30 “The Jack and Herb Show,” Fortune, January 11, 1999, p. 166.




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            574             Notes

            31 Max Chafkin, “The Zappos Way of Managing,” Inc.com, May 1, 2009,                                     4 Geoffrey Colvin, “What the Baby Boomers Will Buy Next,” Fortune,
               accessed online www.inc.com, April 25, 2010.                                                           October 15, 1984, pp. 28–34.
            32 Ibid.                                                                                                5 Lev Grossman, “Grow Up? Not So Fast,” Time, January 24, 2005, p. 42.
            33 Ibid.                                                                                                6 Diane Thielfoldt and Devon Scheef, “Generation X and The Millennials:
            34 Ouchi, Theory Z.                                                                                       What You Need to Know About Mentoring the New Generations,” Law
            35 Catherine Reagor, “Wells Fargo Riding Roughshod in State, Some Say,”                                   Practice Today, August 2004, www.abanet.org/lm/lpt/articles/nosearch/
               Arizona Republic, September 8, 1996, pp. D1, D4; Catherine Reagor,                                     mgt08044_print.html on March 11, 2008.
               “Wells Fargo to Cut 3,000 Additional Jobs,” Arizona Republic,                                        7 John Huey, “Managing in the Midst of Chaos,” Fortune, April 5, 1993,
               December 20, 1996, pp. E1, E2.                                                                         pp. 38–48.
            36 O’Reilly and Chatman, “Culture as Social Control.”                                                   8 “DuPont Adopts New Direction in China,” Xinhua News Agency,
            37 John E. Sheridan, “Organizational Culture and Employee Retention,”                                     September 7, 1999, p. 1008250h0104; Alex Taylor III, “Why DuPont Is
               Academy of Management Journal, December 1992, pp. 1036–1056; Lisa                                      Trading Oil for Corn,” Fortune, April 26, 1999, pp. 154–160; Jay Palmer,
               A. Mainiero, “Is Your Corporate Culture Costing You?” Academy of                                       “New DuPont: For Rapid Growth, an Old-Line Company Looks to
               Management Executive, November 1993, pp. 84–85.                                                        Drugs, Biotechnology,” Barron’s, May 11, 1998, p. 31.
            38 Peters and Waterman, In Search of Excellence.                                                        9 “Toyota to Employ Robots,” News24.com website, January 6, 2005,
            39 Watts S. Humphrey, Managing for Innovation: Leading Technical People                                   www.news24.com on May 4, 2005; “Toyota’s Global New Body Line,”
               (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1987).                                                           Toyota Motor Manufacturing website, www.toyotageorgetown.com on
            40 Brian O’Reilly, “Secrets of the Most Admired Corporations: New Ideas                                   May 4, 2005; Burritt Sabin, “Robots for Babies—Toyota at the Leading
               and New Products,” Fortune, March 3, 1997, pp. 60–64.                                                  Edge,” Japan.com website, www.japan.com on May 5, 2005.
            41 Laurie K. Lewis and David R. Seibold, “Innovation Modification During                               10 Stephanie Schomer, “Body Language,” Fast Company,” May 2010,
               Intraorganizational Adoption,” Academy of Management Review, April                                     pp. 61–66.
               1993, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 322–354.                                                                  11 Tarmo Virki, “Professional Social Networking Booming,”
            42 Brian Hindo, “3M’s Culture of Innovation, “Business Week,” June 11,                                    bx.businessweek.com, May 18, 2010; and Eric Tsai, “How to Integrate
               2007, www.businessweek.com on April 25, 2008; Brian Hindo, “At 3M, A                                   Email Marketing, SEO, and Social Media,” bx.businessweek.com,
               Struggle Between Efficiency and Creativity,” Business Week, June 11,                                   May 20, 2010, accessed May 24, 2010.
               2007, www.businessweek.com on January 18, 2008; Brian Hindo,                                        12 Thomas A. Stewart, “Welcome to the Revolution,” Fortune,
               “3M Chief Plants a Money Tree,” Business Week, June 11, 2007,                                          December 13, 1993, pp. 66–80.
               www.businessweek.com on April 25, 2008.                                                             13 Max Chafkin, “The Zappos Way of Managing,” Inc.com, May 1, 2009,
            43 For more discussion of W. L. Gore & Associates, see Gary Hamel (with                                   www.inc.com, accessed online April 25, 2010.
               Bill Breen) The Future of Management (Boston: Harvard Business School                               14 See Thomas L. Friedman, The World Is Flat 3.0, A Brief History of the
               Press, 2007), pp. 83–100.                                                                              Twenty-First Century (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2007), for an
            44 Oren Harari, “Stop Empowering Your People,” Management Review,                                         excellent account of the impact of globalization and technology.
               November 1993, pp. 26–29.                                                                           15 Kurt Lewin, Field Theory in Social Science (New York: Harper & Row, 1951).
            45 Rob Goffee and Gareth Jones, “Organizational Culture,” in Organization                              16 W. Warner Burke, “Leading Organizational Change,” in Organization 21C:
               21C: Someday All Organizations Will Lead This Way, Subir Chowdhury,                                    Someday All Organizations Will Lead This Way, Subir Chowdhury, ed.
               ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2003),                                     (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2003), pp. 291–310.
               pp. 273–290.                                                                                        17 Mitchell Lee Marks, “In With the New,” Wall Street Journal, May 24,
            46 “Declaration of Interdependence,” Whole Foods Market website,                                          2010, online.wsj.com, accessed online May 24, 2010.
               www.wholefoodsmarket.com on May 1, 2005 ; Amy Tsao, “Whole Foods’                                   18 Linda S. Ackerman, “Transition Management: An In-Depth Look at
               Natural High,” Business Week, July 18, 2003, www.businessweek.com                                      Managing Complex Change,” Organizational Dynamics, Summer 1982,
               on April 30, 2005; Charles Fischman, “The Anarchist’s Cookbook,”                                       pp. 46–66; David A. Nadler, “Managing Transitions to Uncertain Future
               Fast Company, July 2004, pp. 70–78; “David B. Dillon,” Forbes,                                         States,” Organizational Dynamics, Summer 1982, pp. 37–45.
               www.forbes.com on April 29, 2005; Evan Smith, “John Mackey,” Texas                                  19 Burke, “Leading Organizational Change.”
               Monthly, March 2005, pp. 122–132.                                                                   20 Noel M. Tichy and David O. Ulrich, “The Leadership Challenge—A
            47 See Warren Wilhelm, “Changing Corporate Culture—Or Corporate                                           Call for the Transformational Leader,” Sloan Management Review, Fall
               Behavior? How to Change Your Company,” Academy of Management                                           1984, pp. 59–68.
               Executive, November 1992, pp. 72–77.                                                                21 W. Warner Burke, Organization Development: Principles and Practices
            48 “Socialization” has also been defined as “the process by which culture                                 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1982).
               is transmitted from one generation to the next.” See J. W. M. Whiting,                              22 Michael Beer, Organization Change and Development (Santa Monica,
               “Socialization: Anthropological Aspects,” in vol. 14, International Encyclopedia                       CA: Goodyear, 1980); Burke, Organization Development.
               of the Social Sciences, D. Sils, ed. (New York: Free Press, 1968), p. 545.                          23 Cummings and Worley, Organization Development and Change, 6th ed.
            49 J. E. Hebden, “Adopting an Organization’s Culture: The Socialization of                                (South-Western Publishing, 1997), p. 2.
               Graduate Trainees,” Organizational Dynamics, Summer 1986, pp. 54–72.                                24 Noel M. Tichy and Christopher DeRose, “The Death and Rebirth
            50 J. B. Barney, “Organizational Culture: Can It Be a Source of Sustained                                 of Organizational Development,” in Organization 21C: Someday All
               Competitive Advantage?” Academy of Management Review, July 1986,                                       Organizations Will Lead This Way, Subir Chowdhury, ed. (Upper Saddle
               pp. 656–665.                                                                                           River, NJ: Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2003), pp. 155–177.
            51 Brian Hindo, “3M’s Culture of Innovation.”                                                          25 Danny Miller and Peter H. Friesen, “Structural Change and
            52 James R. Norman, “A New Teledyne,” Forbes, September 27, 1993,                                         Performance: Quantum Versus Piecemeal-Incremental Approaches,”
               pp. 44–45.                                                                                             Academy of Management Journal, December 1982, pp. 867–892.
                                                                                                                   26 Sharon Silke Carty, “Bill Ford Carries on Family Name with Grace,”
                                                                                                                      USA Today, February 27, 2005, http://www.usatoday.com/money/
                                                                                                                      autos/2005-02-27-ford-ceo-usat_x.htm on March 12, 2008; “Ford Enters
            Chapter 19                                                                                                New Era of E-Communication: New Web Sites Connect Dealers,
              1 “Baby Boomers Push for Power,” Business Week, July 2, 1984, pp. 52–56.                                Consumer, Suppliers,” PR Newswire, January 24, 2000, p. 7433; Suzy
              2 “Americans’ Median Age Passes 32,” Arizona Republic, April 6, 1988,                                   Wetlaufer, “Driving Change,” Harvard Business Review, March–April
                pp. A1, A5.                                                                                           1999, pp. 77–85; “Ford’s Passing Fancy,” Business Week, March 15,
              3 “Population Estimates Program,” Population Division, U.S. Census                                      1999, p. 42; Bill Saporito, “Can Alan Mulally Keep Ford in the Fast
                Bureau, Washington, DC, (www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/                                         Lane?” Time, August 9, 2010, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/
                NC-EST2008-sa May 23, 2010).                                                                          article/0,9171,2007401,00.html, August 19, 2010.




   Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Notes              575

                           27 J. Lloyd Suttle, “Improving Life at Work—Problems and Prospects,” in                                     Evaluations: A Status Report,” Group & Organization Studies, June 1984,
                              Improving Life at Work: Behavioral Science Approaches to Organizational                                  pp. 177–188.
                              Change, J. Richard Hackman and J. Lloyd Suttle, eds. (Santa Monica,                                 38   Beer, Organization Change and Development.
                              CA: Goodyear, 1977), p. 4.                                                                          39   Jerome L. Franklin, “Improving the Effectiveness of Survey Feedback,”
                           28 Richard E. Walton, “Quality of Work Life: What Is It?” Sloan                                             Personnel, May–June 1978, pp. 11–17.
                              Management Review, Fall 1983, pp. 11–21.                                                            40   Paul R. Lawrence, “How to Deal with Resistance to Change,” Harvard
                           29 DISA website, www.disa.mil/careers/worklife, on May 23, 2010.                                            Business Review, May–June 1954, reprinted in Organizational Change
                           30 Daniel A. Ondrack and Martin G. Evans, “Job Enrichment and                                               and Development, Gene W. Dalton, Paul R. Lawrence, and Larry E.
                              Job Satisfaction in Greenfield and Redesign QWL Sites,” Group &                                          Greiner, eds. (Homewood, IL: Irwin, 1970), pp. 181–197.
                              Organization Studies, March 1987, pp. 5–22.                                                         41   Jeffrey D. Ford, Laurie W. Ford, and Angelo D’Amelio, “Resistance to
                           31 Ricky W. Griffin, Task Design: An Integrative Framework (Glenview, IL:                                   Change: The Rest of the Story,” Academy of Management Review, 2008,
                              Scott, Foresman, 1982).                                                                                  pp. 362–377.
                           32 Gregory Moorhead, “Organizational Analysis: An Integration of the Macro                             42   Daniel Katz and Robert L. Kahn, The Social Psychology of Organizations,
                              and Micro Approaches,” Journal of Management Studies, April 1981,                                        2nd ed. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1978), pp. 36–68.
                              pp. 191–218.                                                                                        43   See Michael T. Hannah and John Freeman, “Structural Inertia and
                           33 James C. Quick and Jonathan D. Quick, Organizational Stress and                                          Organizational Change,” American Sociological Review, April 1984,
                              Preventive Management (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1984).                                                     pp. 149–164, for an in-depth discussion of structural inertia.
                           34 Tichy and DeRose, “The Death and Rebirth of Organizational                                          44   Moorhead, “Organizational Analysis: An Integration of the Macro and
                              Development.”                                                                                            Micro Approaches.”
                           35 Kenneth N. Wexley and Timothy T. Baldwin, “Management                                               45   G. Zaltman and R. Duncan, Strategies for Planned Change (New York:
                              Development,” 1986 Yearly Review of Management of the Journal                                            John Wiley and Sons, 1977); David A. Nadler, “Concepts for the
                              of Management, in the Journal of Management, Summer 1986,                                                Management of Organizational Change,” Perspectives on Behavior in
                              pp. 277–294.                                                                                             Organizations, 2nd ed., J. Richard Hackman, Edward E. Lawler III, and
                           36 Richard Beckhard, “Optimizing Team-Building Efforts,” Journal of                                         Lyman W. Porter, eds. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), pp. 551–561.
                              Contemporary Business, Summer 1972, pp. 23–27, 30–32.                                               46   Alfred M. Jaeger, “Organization Development and National Culture:
                           37 Bernard M. Bass, “Issues Involved in Relations Between Methodological                                    Where’s the Fit?” Academy of Management Review, January 1986,
                              Rigor and Reported Outcomes in Evaluations of Organizational                                             pp. 178–190.
                              Development,” Journal of Applied Psychology, February 1983,                                         47   Alan M. Webber, “Learning for a Change,” Fast Company, May 1999,
                              pp. 197–201; William M. Vicars and Darrel D. Hartke, “Evaluating OD                                      pp. 178–188.




   Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

				
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