Civil War and Reconstruction - Hightower Trail by xiaoyounan


									Civil War and
SS8H6 b. State the importance of key events of the Civil
War, Include Antietam, Emancipation Proclamation,
Gettysburg, Chickamauga, the Union blockade of
Georgia’s coast, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, Sherman’s
March to the Sea, and Andersonville. c. Analyze the
impact of Reconstruction on Georgia and other southern
states, emphasizing Freedmen’s Bureau, sharecropping
and tenant farming, Reconstruction plans, 13th, 14th, and
15th Amendments to the Constitution, Henry McNeal Turner
and the Ku Klux Klan.
Confederate fortifications, Yorktown, VA
   The War Begins in 1861
• In April of 1861, Confederates fire on Ft. Sumter in South
  Carolina; four more states secede from the Union, and
  the Confederate States of America (CSA) is formed.
  Lincoln tries to
  the Union
• Even though he faces opposition, Lincoln focuses
  on the preservation of the United States, (the Union).
• He does not agree with slavery but does not want
  to initially push the issue.
• He takes volunteers and also begins using a draft to
  built up the army.
• Both sides think if there is war, it will end quickly.
                The Confederacy
  • President-Jefferson Davis
  • Vice President- Alexander Stephens (from GA)

The cabinet of the
Confederate States at
1861 June 1 , Harpers
    Resources of Each Side
          North                        South
• 23 states                  • 11 states
• 22 million people          • 9 million people(about
• Trained army and navy        4 million were slaves)
• 22,000 miles of Railroad   • No standing army or
  track                        navy
• 100,000 factories with     • 9,000 miles of Railroad
  1.1 million workers          track
                             • 20,000 factories with
                               100,000 workers
Rating the North & the
Resources: North & the South
                  War Strategies
       Northern (Union)                       Southern (Confederacy)
•   Anaconda Plan (Gen Winfield           •    King Cotton Diplomacy- It was hoped
    Scott) - with a blockade of                that England and France who
    Atlantic Confederate ports                 depended on South for cotton for
    including up the Mississippi River         their textile mills would side with the
                                               Confederacy. South tried to force
    (to prevent Southern trade with            support through an embargo on
    foreign countries & isolate TX, AK,        cotton to British. British refused &
    and LA) Cut the South in half &            began to import cotton from Egypt.
    cut off all supplies… like the
    snake – suffocating the victim.       •    Wear down the invading Union and
•   Capture the Confederate capitol            weaken Northern support for the war
    of Richmond.                               through the # of casualties
•   Destroy the Confederates on the
    battlefield.                          •    Sink Union merchant ships (using
                                               Raiders – lightly armed ships) and
•   Destroy the Confederate army               evade the blockade to continue
    and lay waste (burn or destroy)            trading and keep the ports open. Use
    to the land so that Southern               “blockade runners” –fast merchant
    civilians would not support the            ships.
    war.                                  •    Win a strategic victory on Union soil.
 Civil War

        War Preparations
•   NORTH:
    o Population: 22 million
    o Strong well-trained army and navy (Experienced)
    o INDUSTRY that could readily make war supplies
    o Many miles of railroad capable of moving troops and

               12th New York Regiment
        War Preparations
•   Training and supplying
•   SOUTH:
    o Population: 9 million (4 ½
      million were slaves)
    o Did NOT have a strong
    o Did NOT have a well-
      trained army.                Gen. Stovall, GA Infantry
    o Not enough factories.
    o Railroads were too light
      to carry troops and guns
    o War fought mostly in the
      of homes and families.

                                     Alexandria Railroad
    Great Britain and the
         Civil War

                                                Wheat Harvesting

     Charles Francis Adams

•   If Great Britain had recognized the South as an independent
    country, they could have entered the war as an ally to the
     o Charles Francis Adams, Ambassador sent by Lincoln to England,
       prevented this from happening.
•   In the end, Great Britain needed northern wheat more than
    southern cotton
     o Poor wheat harvest in England.
     o Great Britain was anti-slavery-abolished in 1863!
             Famous leader from the North
                General Ulysses Grant

                                               • Became the
• Graduated West                               Commanding General
Point in 1843                                  of the United States
                                               Army from 1864 to
• Spent much of the                            1865
Civil War in the
Western Campaign                               • Lee surrenders to
                                               Grant at Appomattox
• Aggressor/victor                             • Elected the 18th
in the Battle of                               President – (1869-1877)
Shiloh and Vicksburg

                       U.S. Grant gen. U.S.A
       Major General William Tecumseh Sherman

Maj. Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman, after capturing
      Atlanta in 1864, led his “March to the Sea”
• Served under Ulysses S. Grant in 1862-63
• Succeeded Grant as the Union commander in the
  western theater of the war in 1864
• Known for “Scorched earth” policy
• 1864 - Union troops laid waste (destroyed/burned)
  to Atlanta destroying businesses, farms, homes and
  transportation—stayed for 2 months
• 1864 - Sherman’s “March to the Sea” destroyed
  everything in a 60 mile wide path 300 miles to the
  Atlantic…$100 million damage
General Robert E. Lee –           Brady, Mathew B., ca. 1823-1896,photographer

• Graduated top in his class from
West Point and served on its faculty
• Spent 32 years in the U.S. Army
• Asked by Lincoln to serve as
Commander of the Union Army
• Declined this offer when his home
State of VA seceded
• Became senior military advisor to
President Davis of the CSA
• Later became the commander of the
Confederate eastern army or “The
Army of Northern Virginia”
• Loved by his troops and considered
one of the best military minds of his
• Surrendered to Grant at Appomattox
Court House on April 9, 1865
Lieutenant General “Stonewall” Jackson

           • Graduated from West Point in 1846,
           and served in the U.S. Army with
           Robert E. Lee.
           • Corp commander of the Amy of
           Northern Virginia.
           • Gifted and brilliant military mind -
           became part of the faculty of VA
           Military Institute.
           • Led many successful Civil War battles.
           • Shot (friendly fire) at the Battle of
           Chancellorsville &died eight days later of
           pneumonia (May 1863).
The Progress of War: 1861-1865

• 1st Manassas/ 1st Bull Run: July 1861- Thinking an
  invasion of Richmond would bring a quick end to
  the war, the Union marches into VA. Victory – CSA.
• Jackson received his famous nickname “Stonewall”
  from this battle because he stood his ground like a
  stone wall.
  Battle of Antietam
Creek/Sharpsburg, MD
         • First battle on Union soil
         • Bloodiest single day of fighting
           in all of US history
         • Three phases of fighting: corn
           field, sunken road and
           Antietam Creek bridge
         • McClellan fails to destroy Lee's
         • Tactically inconclusive but
           Lincoln sees it as a positive
           event because Lee retreats
           back to VA so he issues his
           Emancipation Proclamation
 Emancipation Proclamation,
    September 22, 1862
• This document ultimately discouraged the British
  and French governments from helping the
• Lincoln uses his power as “Commander-in-Chief” to
  free the slaves in the Confederate States; he issued
  the executive order that the slaves of any state that
  did not return to the Union would be free
• Slavery, not preserving the Union, is now a primary
  reason for fighting the war
The Battle of the Ironclads,
                March, 1862

               The Monitor vs.
                the Merrimac
• Second battle on Union soil
• Battle lasted three days, July 1-3, 1963
• During the first day of fighting the Confederates
  were very successful, on the second the Union held
  their ground and on the third “Pickets Charge” was
  repulsed leaving Lee no other option but to retreat
  back to Virginia
• Major turning point in the war due to heavy
  casualties, the Confederacy never regained
  enough replacements while the Union had many
  more men to draft
The Road to Gettysburg: 1863
Gettysburg Casualties
• Gettysburg, Pa. Confederate dead gathered for
  burial at the edge of the Rose woods, July 5, 1863
       Chickamauga, GA
• September 19–20, 1863
• One of the most significant Union defeats
• Gen. Braxton Bragg should have followed the Union
  retreat to Chattanooga

          Federal camp by the
          Tennessee River,
    Kennesaw Mt. and the
     Atlanta Campaign
• Battle of Kennesaw Mt. was the last Confederate
  victory before Atlanta falls
• fought on June 27, 1864
• Johnston blocked Sherman’s path to Atlanta with
  fortifications on Kennesaw Mt.
• The Union army eventually went around the Mt. and
  headed toward Atlanta, an important railroad and
  supply center for the Confederacy
• September 2,1864, Atlanta falls to Union forces and
  this politically helps Lincoln get re-elected
    Sherman’s March to the Sea

•   After Sherman captured Atlanta
    he sent his troops through GA to
    Savannah, Nov.-Dec. 1864
•   He operated without supply lines
    and took what he needed along
    the way, resulting in complete
    destruction of industry,
    infrastructure and civilian property
    (Total War)
  to the
Sea, 1864
      A Prisoner of War Camp
• Andersonville was a Confederate POW camp that
  was overcrowded with too many prisoners and
  extremely undersupplied which caused many to
  Inventions/ Innovations
• Telegraph
  o Davis uses it to gather forces for Shiloh.
  o Fredericksburg sees first extensive use on the
• Railway
  o Greatly changes logistics and strategic
  o North had good system; South had acceptable
    quantity, but no standardized track width and
    poor bedding for the rails.
• Rifle (muzzle loader) greatly changes tactics,
  although most leaders are slow to grasp its impact.
   o Cold Harbor
      • 2k dead in twenty minutes, another 5k wounded.

• Calvary is not used to charge/exploit, but to
   o reconnaissance
Casualties on Both Sides
Civil War Deaths in Comparison
        to Other Wars
                  Reconstruction Era
• Lincoln had a plan to rebuild the south and restore it to the
   o It was to be quick and easy
   o Everyone would be pardoned(except high ranking officials) and when
     10% of the voters take a loyalty oath the state would be permitted back
     into the Union
• Johnson takes over when Lincoln is assassinated
   o His plan was much like Lincoln’s but expanded the group that would not
     be granted the general pardon
   o In this group he included large property owners and they had to apply to
     the president for their pardon
   o Declared that Reconstruction was complete because the war goals
     were met, national unity and an end to slavery
• Congress and the Radical Republicans take over in 1866,
  (felt it was their job to be in control Reconstruction)
   o They returned the south to military control, and overruled Johnson veto’s
   o Passed the 14th and 15th Amendments
   o By 1877 Army intervention in the South ceases and Republican control
         Freedman’s Bureau
• Key agency during
  Reconstruction; Bureau of
  Refugees, Freedman, and
  Abandoned Lands
• Initiated by President Lincoln in
  March of 1865 and intended to
  last for one year
• Was part of the War Dept.
• Designed to help former slaves
  and poor whites cope with their
  everyday problems
• Main job was to help set up
  work opportunities and supervise
  labor contracts, as well as help
  with education and other daily
  necessities like food and
    Making a living doing
      what they know
     Sharecropping               Tenant Farming
• Landowners provide        • Landowners provide
  the land for farming,       the land for farming
  the tools, the shelter,     and the shelter, the
  the seed, the animals       tenant usually owns his
                              own tools and animals
  and the fertilizers
                            • Worker agrees to share
• Worker agrees to share      the harvest for the use
  the harvest for the use     of the land and usually
  of the land and the         makes a little more
  credit of supplies          than a sharecropper
                              because less us credit
                              in needed
      Opposition to the
     Reconstruction Plans
• This opposition sometimes took violent measures
• Ku Klux Klan was a secret organization that tried to
  prevent the newly freed slaves from exercising their
  new rights
• They did this through intimidation, beatings, and
• This appeared in Harper's Weekly
  January 27, 1872
• Three Ku Klux Klan members
  arrested in Mississippi, September
  1871, for the attempted murder
  of an entire family.
            New Amendments
• 13th Amendment: makes slavery illegal

• 14th Amendment: granted citizenship to the
  freedmen (remember the Dred Scott decision) and
  forbade any state from discrimination, states could
  not deny anyone “equal protection of the law”

• 15th Amendment: gave all male citizens the right to
  vote (The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or
   abridged by the U.S or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of
    Henry McNeal Turner
• Elected to the Georgia Legislature in 1868, part of
  the new legislators elected during Reconstruction
• The War began in April of 1861 and ends in April of
• Each side creates strategies and the CSA has to
  create their own government and army
• Most battles are fought on Confederate soil, many
  in VA
• Following the war there is a turbulent period known
  as Reconstruction
• The newly freed slaves begin adjusting to freedom
  with the help of the Freedmen’s Bureau
• New amendments are passed to enable the freed
  slaves the ability to enjoy Constitutional Rights

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