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Chinese Immigration

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This is an example of Chinese immigration. This document is useful in conducting Chinese immigration.

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									Chinese immigration
 Geoffrey Blainey attacks Asian emigration 1984.
 Chinese seen as harbinger of invasion - in fact Chinese immigration was a portent
  of things to come - dilemmas over policy, over the nature of the state and its
  immigrants, about Australia’s place in Asia.
 Emigration influenced by economic and social disruption in China - men came
  especially from the south. Importance of keeping lineage intact.
 Many – but not all - came as indentured labourers.


Fears about Chinese on the goldfields
 Majority were men (so where most white miners)
 Perception that they had no right to the resources of the country.
 Easily identifiable group because of cultural unity.
 By 1855, 17000 on the goldfields - rose to about 40 000. Fluctuating populations as
  a result of legislation restricting immigration.
 1855 Victorian legislation restricts immigration.


Violence on the goldfields
 General prompted by miners rather than by officials. Chinese had protection under
  the law.
 Lambing Flat riots 1861. Martial law declared. Popular resentment led to Bill to
  Restrict Chinese Immigration being passed in NSW 1861.
 In the aftermath a drop in anti-Chinese sentiment - tended to fluctuate according to
  economic circumstances and numbers of Chinese in Australia. The 1861 Act
  repealed, 1867.

Life in the cities
 By 1878 about a 1000 Chinese in Sydney.
 1891 Royal Commission into ‘Alleged Chinese Gambling and Immorality’
   exonerated them.
 Debates over emigration the result of several fears - unionisation and the protection
   of white labour, sexual fears about immorality - sex and drugs, fears of disease.
 Elaine Thompson, Fair Enough (1994) - an egalitarianism of sameness.
 By 1888 all colonies had exclusion legislation.


Themes in European Anxiety about Chinese.
 The focus for concerns about sexuality, debauchery and drug-taking that were
  largely groundless.
 Questions of the nation – who should be let in and kept out – how should that be
  administered.
 How should egalitarianism be defined – the tension between egalitarian and ideas
  of race.
 If white Australia was the precondition around which the nation was founded – this
  ‘whiteness’ was unfounded. Around 33 000 Chinese in 1901.

								
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