Chapter 14 Civil War PPT

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Chapter 14 Civil War PPT Powered By Docstoc
					The Civil War
    Chapter 14
Why were plantation owners ready
 to defend slavery and the
 southern way of life?
              A Divided Nation
 The Civil War had a profound
 impact on daily life in South
• Before the Civil War,
  plantation owners had
  made a good living on cash
• Slave labor made the
  plantation owners wealthy
  and gave them social and
  political status
• Therefore the plantation
  owners defended slavery and
  the southern way of life.
A Divided Nation
       When Lincoln was
       elected President
       ~Plantation owners
       were afraid that they
       were going to lose
       ~S C’s legislative
       meeting voted to break
       away from the Union
       and form their own
Why did South Carolina decide to break
 away from the Union and form their
 own country?
            A Divided Nation
 The Confederate States
       of America
Why? To protect
slavery and state’s
 Richmond, Virginia
  became the
                          The solid color red states were the
  Confederate’s capital   slave states that seceded and
Jefferson Davis became    formed the Confederate States of
the Confederate’s         The striped states are slave states
president.                that remained part of the Union.
Washington DC & Lincoln
              A Divided Nation
   The North (the Union)
1. Didn’t see the South as
   a new nation
2. Saw the South as being
   states in rebellion &
   fought to keep the
   Union together
 The South (the Confederacy)
1. Saw themselves as           The solid color red states were the slave states
                                 that seceded and formed the Confederate
   independent                 States of America. The striped states are slave
                                   states that remained part of the Union.
2. Fought to get the
   invading Northern army
   off of their land.
In what areas was the North better
  prepared for war?

In what areas was the South better
  prepared for war?
In what areas was the North better
  prepared for war?

In what areas was the South better
  prepared for war?
A Divided Nation
      The North was better
      prepared for war in terms
      Population., number of
      states, weapons, money,
      railroads, factories (to make
      weapons and supplies), and
      having a working monetary
      system in place
      The South had…
      A strong military tradition &
      A cause for which they were
      willing to fight
What were the four parts of the
 Northern military strategy?
                Battle Strategies
The military strategy of the
North was fourfold:
1. To blockade Southern ports
   to cut off supplies from
2. To break the Confederacy in
   two at the Mississippi River
3. To destroy communication
   and transportation systems
4. To attack the Confederate
   capital at Richmond,                      The Anaconda Plan
   Virginia                       Designed to squeeze the South the way an
                                     Anaconda snake squeezes it’s prey.
    This was known as the
         Anaconda Plan
What was the South’s military
Why didn’t the Southern military
strategy of withholding cotton
                      Battle Strategies
                                        The Southern Strategy
                                 • Fight a defensive war, using
                                   supplies from Europe gained from
                                   the sale of cotton
                                     Until the Northern forces tired
                                      of the war
                                 • Eventually, the South quit selling
                                   cotton to European countries to
Cotton was so important to the
   South that there was no         get them to enter the war
 question in their minds’ that
       cotton was king.          This plan didn’t work because…
                                 • European countries started to
                                   buy cotton from other countries
                                 • The South ended up with no
                                   supplies & a lot of unusable
What did the South use to get
 around the Northern blockade?

What was the northern blockade in
             Battle Strategies
The Northern blockade was
effective in South Carolina
 Despite the efforts of
  blockade runners and…
The use of a new technology
 Such as the submarine the
  H.L. Hunley
The blockade was
devastating to the South
It kept the Confederate
Army from receiving supplies
                               A map of the Union barricade, and The Hunley
Where were the first shots of the
 civil war fired? (Be sure to include
 the location of the fort)
The Civil War Begins
         Most of the fighting of the Civil War
          took place in northern Virginia &
             along the Mississippi River
        There were several battles that
        took place in South Carolina.
        The first shots of the war were
        fired at Fort Sumter when
        northern ships attempted to re-
        supply the federal fort in
        Charleston Harbor.
        This and the Battle of 1st Manassas
        in Virginia were major victories for
        the South and made them hopeful
        of winning the war.
What was the first major setback
 for the Confederate Army?

How did the continued presence of
 the Union troops in Port Royal
 affect South Carolina’s shipping?
          The Battle Continues
  The 1st major setback for
    the Confederate Army
 Union troops captured the
   areas surrounding Port
   Royal Sound along the
   coast near Hilton Head
These areas remained under
Union control throughout
the Civil War
 The Union prevented
   ships from importing or       The Port Royal
   exporting from South           Sound battle
                                 ground across
   Carolina ports                the river from
                                  the soldiers.
Port Royal was used as a base to
 attack which South Carolina city?

Who were the 54th Massachusetts
 and what did they do?
                 The Battle Continues
                         Union forces laid siege to
                         Charleston attacking from
                         Port Royal
                          Bombarding the city for
                           over a year
                         During this campaign, the
                         54th Massachusetts regiment
      The 54th
                         African American soldiers
regiment and Colonel
                          along with their Colonel
 Robert Gould Shaw         Robert Gould Shaw
                         Led the charge on Fort
                         Wagner at the mouth of
                         Charleston Harbor
Robert Smalls
The Battle Continues
               Robert Smalls
        • A 23 year old harbor pilot
          •Had knowledge of navigating
          the harbor
        •Piloted a Confederate, ship
        while the white crew was
        ashore, through the harbor.
          •Giving the appropriate signals
          to the confederate forts
        •Surrendered the ship to the
        Union at the blockade
        •Provided the Union with
        valuable information about
        the Confederate fortifications
           The Battle Continues
                             Robert Smalls
                     After the Civil War:
                     •Served as an officer in the
                     State Militia
                     •Served as a state legislator
                     •Helped to draft the
                     Constitution of SC
                     •Served as a 5 term
                     Congressman from SC
Congressman Smalls
What two ways were wealthy slave
 owners involved in the Civil War
 military service?
                The Poor Man’s Fight
                                        Many of the wealthiest
                                        slave owners volunteered
                                        and served as officers in the
                                        Confederate army.
                                        Others were exempt from
                                        service under the “20 slave”
                                        The war became known as
                                        “the rich man’s war, the
                                        poor man’s fight” when…
                                        Many rich got out of
An unnamed private in the Union Army.   military service, while the
                                        poorer could not
Describe the typical Confederate

Describe the typical Union soldier.
          The Poor Man’s War
 Most Confederate soldiers
• Grew up on farms in the
  rural areas
• Had experience with guns
  for hunting
• They had little formal
  military training
    Many Union soldiers
• From cities such as New
  York, Boston & Philadelphia
• Many had worked in
  factories & manufacturing     New York’s 71st Infantry Regiment

• Some were recent
  immigrants to the U S
The Poor Man’s Fight
       Soldiers on both sides
       experienced the devastation of
       Disease spread rapidly through
       military camps because …
       Unsanitary practices and close
       •Soldiers on both sides were
       tired, sick, hungry, wet, scared,
       and lonely.
        No matter which side, the
        soldiers fought bravely to
           defend their cause.
When the men left for war, what
 did women do?

Why were women’s lives difficult
 during the war?
              Civil War Living
Were left behind to tend
to the farms and run the
The lives of women were
made especially difficult
because of shortages of
supplies such as clothes and
food needed by the             Clothing was often patched to make it last so
southern soldiers.                that soldiers could have the use of new
Why did women need to find substitutes
 for products or go without products?

What did women do to help the war’s

As Union forces advanced, what did
 women do?
Civil War Living
             Women found
          substitutes for many
        products or did without
       Inflation made
       Confederate money
       Some women served as
       nurses to the wounded
       or raised money for the
       Many were forced to
       flee their homes as Union
       forces advanced, only to
       return to ruins.
What did both slave and free
 children do during the war?

What roles did children have in the
 armed forces?
               Civil War Living
Civil War also had an impact on
Both slave and free children
assisted around the farm or
They suffered the same
hardships and shortages as
everyone else during the war.
Some boys as young as 10
enlisted in the armed forces,
served as drummer boys and           Johnny Shiloh was only 10 years-old
                                       when he joined the Union army.
standard (flag) bearers, were
sometimes caught in the
crossfire and died for their cause
What two ways did slaves receive their
 freedom during the war?

What did the Emancipation Proclamation

What was the effect of the
 Emancipation Proclamation in the
 Confederate states?
                           Civil War Living
                                             Slaves & the War
                                    oFled to nearby Union lines to
                                    claim their freedom
                                    oStayed on the plantation and
                                    waited for the Union army to free
                                        Emancipation Proclamation
                                               President Lincoln
                                    All slaves in areas that had not
                                    yet been captured by the Union
Henry Louis Stephens’ painting of
  a man reading a newspaper         army were free.
      entitled “Presidential
     Proclamation/Slavery”          These states, still under the
                                    control of the Confederacy, did not
                                    obey the Union president.
When African Americans joined the
 Union Army, how were they
                 Civil War Living
Unoccupied Confederate
states ignored Lincoln
  •The Emancipation Proclamation
  never actually freed a single
It did allow African
Americans to fight for the
Union Army and many
volunteered immediately.
Although African American
troops served as well as any
other soldier, they were
often discriminated against.
When General William Sherman
 marched to the sea, what was his

How did Sherman’s march affect
 South Carolina?
      Sherman’s March to the Sea
                                      Union General William
                                      Sherman marched into South
                                      Carolina after his capture of
                                      Atlanta and his march-to-the-
                                      Sherman’s goal was to
                                      make “total war”, bringing
                                      the war home to civilians to
                                      convince the South to
Map of the route taken by Sherman &   This had a direct impact on
             his troops               the civilians in SC
                                      Destroying homes,
                                      plantations, railroads and
                                      towns along the way.
What happened to Columbia when
 Sherman’s troops reached it?

Why did Sherman want to convince
 South Carolina to surrender?
    Sherman’s March to the Sea
The state house in Columbia
was under construction as
Sherman marched through
state’s capital.
The capital building was
shelled by Sherman’s
troops and the city was set
on fire
                                 “Sherman's March of 1865 burned the majority
  Even though there is some      of downtown Columbia to the ground. This is
  controversy over who started   a view down Main Street, taken from the
  the fire
Sherman especially
wanted to convince SC to
surrender since it was the
first state to secede from
the Union.
When the war was over, what
 happened to South Carolina’s
 plantation owners?
The Aftermath
       When the Civil War
       ended, many plantations
       had been destroyed.
       War brought an end to
       slavery and the
       plantation owners lost
       the fortunes that had
       been tied up in slave
       The difficult period of
       rebuilding had just begun
       for South Carolina and
       other Southern states.

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