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pigeon courtship behaviour in response to live birds ... - BioMotionLab by ajizai


									                                               PIGEON COURTSHIP BEHAVIOUR IN RESPONSE TO
                                                   LIVE BIRDS AND VIDEO PRESENTATIONS
                                                                                      Barrie J. Frost, Nikolaus F. Troje and Sharon David
                                                                         Department of Psychology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6, Canada

1 INTRODUCTION                                2   METHODS continued                               3                  RESULTS
                                                                                                                   300                                                                                   350                                                                                                             200
Over the past decade several studies          Apparatus: Experiments were conducted
have demonstrated the utility of video        in an arena measuring 1.25 m wide x 1.25                             250                                                                                   300

                                                                                              Duration (seconds)

                                                                                                                                                                             Duration (seconds)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Duration (seconds)
based technologies for presenting             m long x 1.25 m high, with a TV set which
                                                                                                                                                                                                         250                                                                                                             140
stimulus patterns for studies of animal       displayed stimulus conditions, positioned                            200
behaviour (Swartz and Rosenbaum, 1980;        so that it was flush with one wall. A Sony                                                                                                                 200
                                                                                                                   150                                                                                                                                                                                                   100
Cook and Mineka, 1990; Clark and Uetz,        8mm VHS Handycam recorded both audio                                                                                                                       150                                                                                                             80
1990; Evans and Marler, 1991; Evans et        and video behaviour of the subjects.
                                                                                                                   100                                                                                   100                                                                                                             60
al., 1993; McQuoid and Galef, 1994). In a
recent experiment Shimizu (1997) found        Stimuli in Experiment 1 consisted of video-                           50                                                                                   50
that male pigeons ( Columba livia)            recordings of, (1) a sexually receptive
                                                                                                                                                                                                         0                                                                                                                0
exhibited courtship displays to video         female pigeon, (2) a non-sexually                                     0
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Live Pigeon     Video Pigeon        Empty Room                                                                   Live Pigeon     Video Pigeon       Empty Room
                                                                                                                         Receptive   Non-Receptive   Receptive   Duck
images of female pigeons that were            receptive female pigeon, (3) a sexually                                     Female        Female         Male
similar to their responses to live females,   receptive male pigeon, and (4) a non-
                                                                                                                    Figure 1: Male Recognition Experiment 1 -                                             Figure 3: Arena Experiment - Total                                                                             Figure 5: Runway Experiment - Total
while exhibiting no courtship behaviour to    conspecific (a domestic mallard duck).
                                                                                                                    Total Courtship Duration.                                                             Courtship Duration.                                                                                            Courtship Duration.
video images of a non-conspecific             For experiment 2, similar sets of stimuli
(parrot). In the experiments reported here    were made but males were the models,                                 300                                                                                   0.7                                                        350                                                  0.7                                                        100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Proportion of Coos                                                                                                      Proportion of Coos
we carried out initial studies to ascertain   and females the subjects.                                                                                                                                                                 Proportion of Tail Drags                                                                                                Propt. of Tail Drags 90

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Proportion of Responses
                                                                                                                                                                                                         0.6                                                                                                             0.6
whether both male and female pigeons

                                                                                                                                                                             Proportion of Responses

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Duration (seconds)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Duration (seconds)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Waltzing Duration                                                                                                       Waltzing Duration

                                                                                              Duration (seconds)
would produce courtship behaviour to          Procedure: The stimulus conditions were                                                                                                                    0.5                                                        250                                                  0.5                                                        70
video images of the opposite gender birds.    counterbalanced across subjects using 4 x                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             60
                                                                                                                                                                                                         0.4                                                        200                                                  0.4
In a second set of experiments we             4 Latin Squares. Each test trial was                                 150                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              50
investigated how similar male courtship       scored on a number of courtship                                                                                                                            0.3                                                        150                                                  0.3                                                        40
behaviour was when live models were           dimensions,        including frequency of                            100
                                                                                                                                                                                                         0.2                                                        100                                                  0.2                                                        30
compared with videotaped sequences.           'Courtship Cooing', 'Tail Dragging',
                                                                                                                    50                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              20
Since these experiments form a part of a      'Driving' and 'Displacement Preening'. In                                                                                                                  0.1                                                        50                                                   0.1
larger program we also investigated how       addition, the duration of 'Parading',
                                                                                                                    0                                                                                    0                                                          0                                                    0                                                          0
automated computer scoring compares           'Inflation/Erection of feathers', and 'Total                               Receptive   Non-Receptive   Receptive   Duck                                          Live Pigeon     Video Pigeon       Empty Room                                                                     Live Pigeon    Video Pigeon       Empty Room
with hand scoring of video records.           Courtship Duration' were scored. The                                         Male          Male         Female
                                              video tapes of a random sample of test                                Figure 2: Female Recognition Experiment 2 -                                           Figure 4: Arena Experiment - Proportion                                                                        Figure 6: Runway Experiment - Proportion
                                              trials were scored twice, once by one of                              Total Courtship Duration.                                                             of Cooing and Tail Drags, and Duration of                                                                      of Cooing and Tail Drags, and Duration of
                                              the experimenters and also "blindly" by                                                                                                                     Waltzing.                                                                                                      Waltzing.
2 METHODS                                     another person, yielding an r = 0.996.
Experiments 1 and 2: Subjects were 8          Experiments 3 and 4: Experiment 3 was
                                                                                                                   4 CONCLUSION                                                                          100                                                                                                             0.4

                                                                                                                                                                             Average Velocity (mm/sec)
experimentally naive, sexually mature,        essentially similar to experiment 1 except
                                                                                                                                                                                                         90                                                                                                              0.35
male Homing Pigeons (Columba livia).                                                                               1. Both male and female pigeons exhibit robust                                        80

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Frequency (1/sec)
                                              that 5 male subjects were used, and three                            courtship behaviour to video images of                                                                                                                                                                0.3
They were first adapted to the arena, and                                                                                                                                                                70
                                              experimental conditions. These consisted                             conspecifics of the opposite gender, that is                                          60                                                                                                              0.25
tested to see if they were attracted to the   of (1) a live female bird model, (2) a video-
live female model used to produce the                                                                              essentially similar to that exhibited to live models.                                 50                                                                                                              0.2
                                              taped version of the same female model,                              2. The courtship behaviour contains all of the                                        40
videotaped stimuli. In experiment 2, 4        and (3) a video of an empty room. In
female birds were tested using equivalent                                                                          elements seen in natural courtship, "bowing",                                         30
                                              Experiment 4 a narrow walkway was                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0.1
conditions to the males.                                                                                           "cooing", "waltzing", "tail-dragging" and                                             20
                                              substituted for the open arena, so that                              "charging".                                                                           10                                                                                                              0.05
                                              videotaped records of the male birds                                 3. The same courtship behaviour is exhibited in                                        0                                                                                                               0
                                              behaviour could be "standardized" for                                an arena and runway.                                                                        Live Pigeon     Video Pigeon        Empty Room                                                                     Live Pigeon    Video Pigeon         Empty Room
                                              easy automatic computer analysis of                                  4. Automated computer scoring of courtship
                                              records. The same three stimulus                                     responses is feasible and reliable.                                                    Figure 7: Automated Scoring in the Arena                                                                       Figure 8: Automated Scoring in the Arena
                                              conditions used in Experiment 3 were                                 5. These data, together with our detailed                                              Experiment - Average Velocity of Movement                                                                      Experiment - Frequency of Half Circles
                                                                                                                   ethograms (see poster ...) will be critical for the                                    of the Pigeon's Path.                                                                                          (Waltzing).
                                                                                                                   construction of our virtual pigeon for future
                                                                                                                   "neuroethological studies".

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