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					                                                      EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                      EU GHG Monitoring
                          Mechanism
CLIMATE CHANGE UNIT




                           Hartmut Behrend
                         European Commission
                           DG ENV.C.2, Brussels




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                                                                                     EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                  Questions to be answered:

                      • What is our legal basis?
                      • What are we doing? Who does it? And what happens by
                        when?
                        Institutional arrangements and working procedure
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                      • What are the products?
                      • Where do we stand today?
                        Where do we expect to go?
                      • What are the methodologies to prepare inventories from
                        bunkers?
                      • How much are the emissions from international bunkers
                        increasing?


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                                                                                    EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                             Legal basis
                      • UNFCCC (in future KP)
                        – Revised 1996 IPCC Manual on Inventories
                        – Good Practise Guidance on Reporting and Uncertainty
                          assessment
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                        – Guidelines on National Communications and annual
                          inventories (FCCC/CP/2002/8, decision 18/CP.8)
                      • EU
                        – Council Decision on GHG Monitoring (Decision
                          389/93/EEC as amended by decision 296/99/EC)
                        – (internal) guidelines


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                                                                                                                       EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                              Sharing the EC target of –8%
                                                                                                Spain +15%
                                                                                         Greece +25%
                                                                                      Portugal +27%
                                                                                    Ireland +13%
                                                                                   Sw eden +4%
                                                                                   France 0%
                                                                                   Finland 0%
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                                                             Luxembourg -28%
                                                                Austria -13%
                                                               Belgium -7.5%
                                                            Netherlands -6%
                                                              Denmark -21%
                                                             Italy -6.5%
                                       United Kingdom -
                                            12.5%
Germany -21%

       -300           -250   -200      -150         -100          -50          0                50           100
                                    GHG emissions (million tonnes CO2-eq.)
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                                                                             EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                   Summary of current EC Council
                                             decision
                      • Monitoring the emissions of the six Kyoto greenhouse
                        gases and removals by sinks,
                      • Annual GHG inventory reporting by MS to the
                        European Commission
                      • Implementation and annual reporting of national
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                        programmes (including policies and measures) and
                        emission projections to the Commission and
                      • Evaluation of progress and reporting to the European
                        Parliament and Council by the Commission


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                                                                                  EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                        Data flow EC GHG inventory

                                    Austria                   UNFCCC
                          UK
                               Sweden
            Belgium
                                  Finland
      Germany                                                   European
                                  Luxembourg                   Commission
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                       Italy
                                             EU             (ENV, ESTAT, JRC)
                         Greece                                 and EEA
                                     Denmark
                       France
                      Netherlands     Ireland

                          Spain                        Parliament   Council
                                  Portugal
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                                                                                    EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                     EC GHG inventory institutional
                                           arrangements
                      • Member states prepare inventory according to UNFCCC
                        Guidelines and participate in EC Monitoring mechanism
                        committee, assisted by two working groups
                      • European Commission (DG ENV) responsible for submission to
                        UNFCCC, assisted by EEA (and European Topic Centre Air and
                        Climate Change, ETC/ACC) and Eurostat and JRC
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                      • Working group I promotes improvement of all GHG inventory
                        quality aspects (transparency, consistency, comparability,
                        completeness, accuracy and use of good practices)
                      • Working group II promotes improvement of quality of reporting
                        on GHG emission projections (transparency, consistency,
                        comparability, completeness)
                      • EC “National Inventory Report” follows UNFCCC Guidelines

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                                                                            EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                       Preparation EC inventory
                        MS submission of
                      1                                31 December
                        inventory to Commission
                        Initial check of submission
                      2                                     Jan
                        by Commission
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                          Compilation and
                      3   circulation of draft EC         1 March
                          inventory
                          Submission of updated od
                      4   additional data to            Up to 1 April
                          commission
                      5   Submission to UNFCCC            15 April
                          EC internal review and
                      6                               May to December   8
                          improvement of inventory
                                                                                                                                 EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                               Annual process of submission and review of MS
                               inventories and compilation of the EC inventory

   Element                   Who                   When            What
   1. Submission of          Member States         31 December     Anthropogenic CO2 emissions and CO2 removals by sinks, for
   annual inventory by                             annually        the year n-1
   MS to Commission                                                Emissions by source and removals by sinks of the other
                                                                   greenhouse gases;
                                                                                                                                                       2)
                                                                   Final data for the year n-2 and provisional data for the year n-1

   2. Initial check of MS    European Commission   up to 1 March   Initial checks (by EEA)
   submissions               (incl. Eurostat),                     Comparison of energy data in MS IPCC Reference Approach with
                             assisted by EEA                       Eurostat energy data (by Eurostat and MS)
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   3. Compilation and        European Commission   1 March         Draft EC inventory (by EEA), based on MS inventories and
   circulation of draft EC   (incl. Eurostat),                     additional information where needed
   inventory                 assisted by EEA                       Circulation of the draft EC inventory on 1 March

   4. Submission of          Member States         up to 1 April   Updated or additional data submitted by MS 3)
   updated or additional
   data by MS to
   Commission
   5. Final annual EC        European Commission   15 April        Submission to UNFCCC of the final annual EC inventory. This
   inventory to UNFCCC       (incl. Eurostat),                     inventory will also be used to evaluate progress as part of the
                             assisted by EEA                       Monitoring Mechanism

   6. Additional review of   European Commission   June to         Additional review aimed at improving the next annual MS and EC
   MS submissions and        (incl. Eurostat),     December        inventories
   EC inventory              assisted by EEA                       In November Eurostat makes available to MS energy balance data
                                                                   (1990 to inventory year)

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                                                                                       EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                    EC GHG inventory improvement
                      • Eurostat improvement project for national energy balances and
                        annual estimation of EC CO2 emissions (IPCC Reference
                        Approach)
                      • JRC compares national estimates for carbon sinks (focus on
                        forests) and coordinates a project for improving GHG emissions
                        from agriculture (focus on N2O from soils)
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                      • QA/QC of EC inventory depends on QA/QC systems for
                        national GHG inventories
                      • Data gap filling to achieve complete EC inventory is limited to
                        few countries
                      • Minor differences between EC and Member States’ inventories,
                        which are further being reduced through the UNFCCC review
                        process (centralised review of EC inventory, Sep. 2003)

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                                                                                                                                EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                                   Annual procedure for the EU
                                                      Progress Assessment
                1. Drafting of technical reports on      15 April until Emission/removal trends for key source sectors at EU
                Trends in emissions / projections and    15 July        level and also for each MS./ information on policies
                policies and measures                                   and measures, their effects, and the projected
                                                                        emissions/removals at EU level and for each MS
                2. Drafting of Commission Monitoring     15 June until Evaluation of actual and projected progress, based on
                Mechanism progress report                5 Sept.        MS information. Extended analyses, comparison with
                                                                        Community wide projections; Community policies and
                                                                        measures based on first draft EEA technical reports
                3. Circulation of final draft of         15 July        Final draft of technical reports circulated to Member
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                technical reports on GHG emission                       States on 15 July. Drafting of the Commission’s
                (and sinks) trends and on projections                   progress report continues in parallel to technical
                and policies and measures                               review of the EEA technical reports.
                4. Review by MS of (EEA) technical       15 July until Member States checking data and the various
                reports. Comments by MS.                 29 August      analyses in the reports.
                5. Revision of (EEA) technical reports   30 Aug. until Revision of EEA technical reports according to Member
                                                         5 Sept.        States comments
                6. Draft Circulation to MS /             5 September Evaluation of actual and projected progress, based on
                Committee Members                                       MS and Community policies and measures.
                7. Monitoring Mechanism committee        15 Sept.       Inclusion of conclusions and comments by Member
                decision on draft progress report                       States; adoption of draft Commission progress report
                8. Adoption by European Com. and         Until end of   Final Commission progress report, formal adoption
                submission to Parliament and Council     November       translation and publication


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                                                                                                      EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                      New Monitoring decision (Proposal COM(2003) 51 final)
                      • CO-decision Procedure – in the moment in COREPER to reach 1st
                        reading aggreement
                      • Basic in decision - further implementing in implementing provision to
                        be adopted
                      • Greenhouse gas inventory system (KP Art. 5.1)
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                      • Procedures for the review process and adjustments (KP Art. 5.2 and
                        Art. 8)
                      • Reporting on accounting of assigned amounts and national registries
                        (KP Art. 7.1, 7.2 and 7.4)
                      • Information to be incorporated in the periodic communications to the
                        UNFCCC
                      • Policies and measures and Projections
                      • details yet to be decided (ongoing procedure in Council and Parliament


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                                                                                   EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                         Most important changes of new Monitoring
                                   Mechanism Decison
                      • Deadlines of MSs
                        - 15 January: for national inventories
                        - 15 March (biannual): for projected progress
                      • Reporting on flexible mechanisms (JI, CDM, IET) and
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                        sinks
                      • Additional Reports
                        - Report on demonstrable progress
                        - 4th National Communication
                        - Report on assigned amounts
                      • Establishment of
                        - national systems (incl. Report) and
                        - registries

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                                                                                                                                           EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                                               EU greenhouse gas emissions in relation to
                                                                    the Kyoto target (excl. LUCF)
                                                120
                      Index (base year = 100)




                                                110


                                                                                                101,6
                                                100
                                                                                                97,7
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                                                90
                                                                                                                             92,0

                                                80
                                                      1990   1992   1994   1996   1998   2000   2002    2004   2006   2008   2010   2012

                                                                    Greenhouse gas emissions              Target path 2010


                                                                    GHG target 2010                       CO2 emissions



                                                                                                                                      14
                                                                                                                         EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                          Greenhouse gas emission targets and
                                            changes from base year to 2001

                           Spain
                          Greece
                         Portugal                GHG targets
                          Ireland
                                                 Change base year -
                         Sw eden
                                                 2001
                          France
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                          Finland
                      Luxembourg
                          Austria

                         Belgium
                      Netherlands
                         Denmark
                             Italy

        United Kingdom
                        Germany
                                   -300   -250     -200        -150   -100      -50       0        50   100   150

                                                          GHG emissions (million tonnes CO2-eq.)                    16
                                                                                                             EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                  Good Practice in Reporting on aviation fuels 1
                      Tier 1: top-down method
                         Emissions = fuel consumption * emission factor
                         10 % of emissions for LTO-cycle
                      Tier 2: bottom-up method
                         Distinction between LTO emissions (below 3000 ft) and cruise emissions, only
                         jet kerosene
                        Tier 2 a:   aggregated LTO-data
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                        Tier 2 b:   detailed LTO-data
                      Other approaches:
                         possible if peer reviewed and well documented


                      Emission factors
                      Hardly any national differences
                      - CO2 +/- 5 %, aggregated or per aircraft type
                      - CH4 factor 2, only depending on fuel consumption
                      - N2O factor 100, only depending on fuel consumption
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                                                                                                    EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                  Good Practice in Reporting on aviation fuels 2


                      Disaggregation International – domestic
                        Domestic: Every flight inside of the boarder of one country, if
                                    passengers and / or fright are dropped at the destination
                         International: All other flights in CRF only as memo item
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                      Activity Data
                        - Delivery of kerosene to airports
                        - fuel suppliers
                        - refineries (production + import – export)
                         - individual LTO-data from EUROCONTROL

                      Military aviation
                         Inventory in CRF 1 A 5 ‘Others’
                         Emission factors: the same as civil aviation unless better data are
                         known                                                                 18
                                                                         EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                      Changes in GHG emissions from international
                              bunkers, 1990 to latest year
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                                                                    19
                                                                        EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                      Trends in GHG emissions from international
                                 bunkers 1990 – 2000
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                                                                                                                                                  EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                            Comparison of aviation data from Eurocontrol and
                                                          national inventories


                      CO2 emissions from aviation for EU-15 (in t CO2-equivqlent)

                                                       1996            1997          1998                1999          2000           2001

                      Domestic aviation                                                     tonnes CO2

                          Eurocontrol                18.415.864       19.240.431     19.731.081      20.652.900        21.207.390    19.277.218

                          CRF                        19.663.047       20.300.838     23.940.818      25.658.623        26.010.991    25.537.715

                          CRF/Eurocontrol                 107%             106%          121%               124%           123%          132%
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                      International aviation

                          Eurocontrol                81.558.247       85.483.967     92.832.199      99.625.723       102.360.940    93.902.916

                          CRF                        74.989.327       80.096.663     86.320.263      92.177.774        97.267.687   102.220.542

                          CRF/Eurocontrol                  92%                94%           93%                 93%           95%        109%



                      Total

                          Eurocontrol                99.974.111      104.724.398    112.563.280     120.278.623       123.568.330   113.180.134

                          CRF                        94.652.374      100.397.501    110.261.081     117.836.397       123.278.678   127.758.258

                          CRF/Eurocontrol                  95%                96%           98%                 98%        100%          113%



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                                                                                                                                        EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                          EU-aggregated international bunker emissions
                                                       EU aggregated International bunker emissions

                                 160000


                                 140000


                                 120000
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                                 100000
                      tCO2-eq.




                                  80000


                                  60000


                                  40000


                                  20000


                                      0
                                          1    2   3       4        5        6          7     8          9       10     11    12

                                                                                 year                 aviation   navigation




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                                                                            EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                         For further information you may look at:

   www.europa.eu.int/comm/environment/climate/home_en.htm
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                                           and
                      themes.eea.eu.int/Environmental_issues/climate


                                     THANK YOU !


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EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                 24
                CLIMATE CHANGE UNIT

				
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