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					Multidisciplinary Showcase for Student Research

CO-SPONSORED BY THE GRADUATE SCHOO L AND THE UNIVERSITY HONORS PROGRAM

21 st Annual Stu dent Research Forum

SCHEDULE AT A GLANCE
Registration and Poster Set-Up (Rose Theatre Lobby) ...................... 9:30 – 10:00 Poster Review and Judging .............................................................. 10:00 – 11:15 (judges submit completed evaluation sheets by 11:15) Break (poster disassembly) .............................................................. 11:15 – 12:00 Welcome and Presentations (Rose Theatre Auditorium) ................. 11:45 – 12:30 Welcome Dr. Shirley Raines, President Dr. Ralph Faudree, Provost Presentations Dr. Andrew Meyers, Vice Provost for Research Ms. Rebecca L. West, ―The Role of Parent and Family Gambling in African-American Adolescent Gambling Behavior‖ Awards Dr. Ralph Faudree, Provost (Assisted by Dr. Karen Weddle-West and Dr. Melinda Jones) Dr. Donald Franceschetti, Sigma Xi Award Lunch (Rose Theatre Lobby) ................................................................12:30-1:15 Posters Picked Up ................................................................................ 1:15 – 1:45

Cynthia A. Schritz - Violinist

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21 st Annual Stu dent Research Forum

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Schedule at a Glance ........................................................................................... 1 Undergraduate Abstracts Education .......................................................................................... 7 Engineering ....................................................................................... 8 Liberal Arts and Fine Arts ................................................................ 11 Life and Health Sciences .................................................................. 11 Math and Computer Science............................................................. 13 Physical and Applied Sciences ......................................................... 14 Social and Behavioral Sciences ...................................................... 15 Graduate Abstracts Business .......................................................................................... 22 Education ........................................................................................ 23 Engineering ..................................................................................... 25 Liberal Arts and Fine Arts ................................................................ 29 Life and Health Sciences .................................................................. 32 Math and Computer Science............................................................. 36 Physical and Applied Sciences ......................................................... 39 Social and Behavioral Sciences ...................................................... 41

Index of Participants Undergraduates .............................................................................. 46 Graduates ...................................................................................... 47

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March 30, 2009

Dear Student Researchers, On behalf of students, faculty, and staff at The University of Memphis, I want to offer congratulations for the quality research you have accomplished and for your participation in the 20th Annual Student Research Forum. The reality of doing careful research leads to new discoveries and new knowledge. Your own personal joy of discovery, combined with the desire to share your knowledge, enriches us all. Our University has become a major comprehensive urban research center, focusing on basic and applied research that is directly beneficial to this region. Your research and presentations here and in other regional and national forums bring honor and recognition to The University of Memphis. Sincerely,

Shirley C. Raines, President

A Tennessee Board of Regents Institution
An Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action University A Tennessee Board of Regents Institution An Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action University

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21 st Annual Stu dent Research Forum

March 30, 2009

Dear Student Researchers, Thank you for contributing to the 21st Annual Student Research Forum. It is our pleasure to attend this event and learn of the interesting research our students are doing. One of the most critical goals of higher education is to encourage intellectual inquiry and critical thinking. Research provides significant hands-on experience in these areas as you‘ve discovered in your own projects. Whether you pursue a research-related career or not, the skills you have learned in carrying out your projects will serve you well. Research skills are valuable life skills in our increasingly information-rich world. The ability to define a question, collect and organize information relevant to that question, evaluate and ultimately use the new knowledge will be useful in many facets of your lives. Congratulations on your achievements. Your project is a testament of your hard work, determination, perseverance, and commitment, and a monument to the dedication of your faculty mentors. We hope you enjoy this year‘s research forum and best wishes for your continued success. Sincerely,

Karen Weddle-West, Ph.D. Vice Provost, Graduate Studies

Melinda Jones, Ph.D. Director, University Honors Program

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21 st Annual Stu dent Research Forum

March 30, 2009

Dear Judges, On behalf of all those involved in organizing and presenting this year‘s Student Research Forum, and on behalf of the students participating in this year‘s event, I‘d like to thank all of you for giving so graciously of your time and expertise. The judges for this forum come from a wide variety of disciplines and scholarly traditions. One of the advantages of an event such as this is the opportunity it provides for students to interact with faculty and gain valuable feedback on their projects. Hopefully this experience will also be beneficial to you by providing you with exposure to the wide range of interests pursued by students at The University of Memphis, and by giving you a preview of the future of your respective fields and disciplines. Again, thanks to each of you for participating in this year‘s Student Research Forum. Without your cooperation, support, and enthusiasm, our students would miss a wonderful opportunity to interact with and learn from the highly skilled faculty here at The University of Memphis. Sincerely,

Karen Weddle-West, Ph.D. Vice Provost, Graduate Studies

Melinda Jones, Ph.D. Director, University Honors Program

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21 st Annual Stu dent Research Forum

UNDERGRADUATE ABSTRACTS

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21 st Annual Stu dent Research Forum EDUCATION
Ordinary to Extraordinary: Learning and Leading Green Kate Bidwell (Architecture), Presenter The purpose of Ordinary to Extraordinary: Learning and Leading Green is to create a basic knowledge of sustainability in 7th grade students in Memphis City Schools through the implementation of a two-week curriculum and an experiential field trip. This project is being created by a partnership between the University of Memphis Department of Architecture and Bridges USA. The two-week curriculum was created with a basic underlying structure that references the United States Green Building Council‘s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Rating system as well at the Tennessee Department of Education‘s curriculum standards.

High Protein Smoothies for Weight Loss Surgery Patients Jacqueline Hamilton (Health and Sports Sciences), Presenter In the United States a common solution to obesity is weight loss surgery (WLS) that results in decreased stomach capacity and possibly causes protein deficiency. To help address protein deficiency among WLS patients, an undergraduate student researcher developed three high protein smoothies. To evaluate the experimental formulas and standard formula, the researcher recruited twelve University of Memphis students who rated the products for sweetness; consistency, flavor intensity, and acceptability on a line attribute scale. The data was statistically evaluated using means and standard error of the means. Significant differences in the data are located between the standard and experimental formulas.

Research on Organizational Justice in Division 1 College Football Timothy Maxwell (Health and Sport Sciences), Presenter Many organizations have individuals that are treated unfair and unjust every day, and most do nothing about it. As a result, research was obtained confidentially from Walk on players and Scholarship players at the University of Memphis. The questions ask players if they were a walk-on who become a scholarship player later, determine if the player as a former it the player was a current or former scholarship player. Other q uestions ask if the player thinks that non scholarship players have chances to become a scholarship player or if they think scholarship players get special treatment from coaches/personnel. The results indicate that only 1 out of 40 players have walkedon to the team later earned a scholarship, 26 players are/were on the football team with a scholarship, and 14 players were walk-ons.

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21 st Annual Stu dent Research Forum ENGINEERING
Release of Adenosine from Chitosan Films to Promote Healing of Diabetic Foot Ulce rs Jennifer Baldwin (Biome dical Engineering), Presenter Diabetic foot ulcers can lead to serious can lead to serious complications, including amputation or even death. Recent studies have suggested adenosine to be an effective and less expensive alternative to growth factor application for wound healing. To improve availability of adenosine, chitosan, which has been found to be an effective and biodegradable vehicle for drug delivery, was used. Elution of adenosine from chitosan films made with different solvent acids was measured with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and biological activit y was tested in cell culture. Results indicated elution of active compounds with dose-dependent increases in fibroblast proliferation in concentrations up to 500 µM.

Intrinsic Determinants of Sex-based Bias of Pelvic Fractures: Structure Egleide Elenes (Biomedical Engineering), Presenter Pelvic fractures, caused mainly by motor vehicle crashes (MVC), account for approximately 3% of all skeletal injuries. Females are two or three times more susceptible than males to pelvic fracture due to MVC, however studies that explore intrinsic factors to explain this phenomenon are limited. This study explores any sex-based variations in fractures due to structural differences in male and female pelves. Computer generated 3D models of cadaveric male and female hemi-pelves were created. Finite element analyses were performed on the models to determine their mechanical response to a lateral impact load. Higher stresses were shown in the female hemi-pelves.

Parameter Optimization of Helix Antenna for Wi-MAX Application Anthony Estrella (Engineering Technology), Presenter Helix radiators are commonly used today in the wireless communications arena, line of sight transmission of data, and satellite communication applications. This antenna has two characteristics that make it especially interesting and useful in many applications, the helix is circularly polarized, and has a predictable pattern, gain, and impedance characteristics over a wide frequency range. This is one of the few antennas that have broad bandwidth a nd high gain. The Helix beam can be applied to 4th generation wireless applications with increased beamforming pattern and gain.

Simulation of Thermal Scenes to Enhance Detection Using Infrared Sensors Katye Graves (Mechanical Engineering), Presenter If an object is at a different temperature than its surroundings, it will emit radiation in the infrared (IR) spectrum of the electromagnetic spectrum. The amount of infrared radiation emitted

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depends on the emissivity of the object. Experiments are performed to determine the feasibility of reducing the thermal signature of heated objects in a natural environment. A computer simulation is also developed and validated for use in modeling thermal scenes of interest. Results are presented which demonstrate that the simulation is capable of accurately simulating the conduction and turbulent convection that occur in natural environments.

Simulation of On-Orbit Magnetic Phase Separation Josh Harpole (Mechanical Engineering), Presenter A computational simulation is used to model phase separation using magnetic positive positioning (MP2 ). Previous studies have determined that a magnetically susceptible fluid can be significantly influenced by a magnetic field of sufficient strength in reduced gravity. A magnetic force and magnetic field model were developed for a commercially available CFD simulation in a previous effort to simulate magnetic positive positioning of fluids in reduced gravity. Evidence is presented to support the continued use of the computatio nal simulation for predicting magnetic phase separation in reduced gravity. Several simulations were performed in an effort to model both paramagnetic and diamagnetic cases.

Large-Scale Laboratory Testing of Geosynthetic Aggregate (GA) Drainage Systems Navid Jafari (Civil Engineering), Presenter Geosynthetic aggregate (GA) are discrete pieces of expanded recycled polystyrene. Utilizing geosynthetic aggregate as backfill material may improve the mechanical and hydraulic behaviors (i.e. stress, strain, and water flow) of drainage systems. Presently, a test method measuring these specific behaviors does not exist. The purpose of this study consists of developing a state of the art test procedure to measure stress, strain, and water flow of GA drainage sys tems. Preliminary results show evidence that GA drainage systems may improve flow capacity and withstand larger stresses than traditional drainage systems.

Effect of Molecular Weight of Chitosan Degraded by Microwave Irradiation on Growth of Osteoblasts in vitro Marvin M. Mecwan and Gabriel E. Rápalo (Biomedical Engineering), Presenters It has been reported that higher molecular weights (Mw) of chitosan (CTS) have better mechanical properties, whereas lower Mw CTS have better cell growth characteristics, both of which are central to bone tissue engineering applications. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of decreasing the Mw of CTS by microwave irradiation—with a given degree of deacetylation (DDA)—on its mechanical properties and its effect on cell growth. We hope to find the most suited CTS material based on Mw, degradability, strength, and cell compatibility with optimum bone tissue repair characteristics for bone tissue engineering applications.

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21 st Annual Stu dent Research Forum
Biodiesel Fuel Engineering Analysis Sergio Mendoza (Mechanical Engineering), Presenter Applying the latest technology to the design of a biofuel micro refinery can serve as the foundation for a distributed biofuel industry that will benefit the environment and communities throughout the mid-south and beyond as an alternative source of energy. This presentation will explain what biodiesel is, how it is produced, how it is beneficial, what achievements have been made with this research project, and the future goals for the short are and long run.

Modeling Piezoelectric Pulse Generation Thomas J. Morano (Mechanical Engineering), Presenter Military and civilian agencies have expressed considerable interest in developing and using nonlethal directed energy weapons (DEWs). A major technical challenge for the design of EM pulse devices is the availability of a stable and well-controlled power source. Few studies have been performed to determine whether piezoelectric materials can be configured to generate shaped energy pulses. An experiment was developed where a uniaxial load was applied, creating an energy pulse. A three-dimensional computational model has been developed in parallel. Currently, the investigation focuses on improving the simulation by adding a reasonable approximatio n of the damping in the experiment.

Evaluation of Osteoblasts on Chitosan-Calcium Phos phate Composite Scaffolds in Static and Dynamic Rotary Bioreactor Culture Conditions Duong Nguyen (Biome dical Engineering), Presenter Bone tissue engineering is focused on bone regeneration using synthetic scaffolds to avoid tissue morbidity from autografts and disease transmission from allografts. There are various biomaterials used for constructing biocompatible scaffolds that possess similar mechanical and biological properties of bone for load bearing and integration. In this study, porous (30%) scaffolds constructed from chitosan calcium phosphate composite microspheres were seeded with a human sarcoma cell line to investigate cell proliferation and mineralization in static and dynamic rotary bioreactor culture conditions. After 3 weeks of mineralization, the scaffolds in the static cultured showed more cell retention and ALP production than scaffolds in the rotary bioreactor.

Using Adaptive Optics to Mitigate the Effects of Turbulence in Non-traditional Optics Systems Amanda D. Smith (Mechanical Engineering), Presenter An image received by an optical sensor can be distorted based on the amount of atmospheric turbulence between transmitter and receiver. Image resolution is limited by the optical system‘s

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ability to correct for the fluctuation of the wavefront. Adaptive optics (AO) techniques have been successfully used to correct for turbulence in ground-to space optics systems. An AO system is proposed to correct for turbulence for applications where both transmitter and receiver are near ground level. A performance model has been developed which predicts turbulence near ground and calculates parameters of interest: isoplanatic angle, Fried‘s parameter, Greenwood frequency, and Strehl ratio.

Clustering for Improved Learning in Maze Traversal Problem William White (Electrical and Computer Engineering), Presenter Recent work has shown that the cellular simultaneous recurrent neural network (CSRN) is able to solve the maze navigation problem for simple mazes. Our work focuses on exploiting partially learned information about the maze to improve learning. We cluster each maze after the first few epochs, based on the calculated values for the current position and it's 4 neighbors. We hope to show that the clustering of mazes can improve the overall learning of the traversal problem for the CSRN. Such improvements may have direct application in faster convergence of resources to a disaster hit area in urban environment.

LIBERAL AND FINE ARTS
Hype rreality and Emotional Authenticity Jenny Bryant (English), Presenter In Julian Barnes‘ novel England, England the history and culture of England are simulated to create a giant theme park, entitled ‗England, England‘, and the lines between the real and the simulated seemingly cease to exist. While the novel is humorous, it italicizes serious problems regarding authenticity, legitimacy and reality in the postmodern age of the ‗hyperreal.‘ My research explores the possibility that emotional authenticity/legitimacy inheres in the world of the ‗hyperreal‘ and I focus on Barnes‘ take on this possibility and how his position is situated within current postmodern theory.

LIFE AND HEALTH SCIENCES
Increasing the Fiber in Granola Bars Erica Hurt (Health and Sport Sciences), Presenter Nine students from Nutrition 2302 were the test subjects of four attributes that measured the standard and modify product in two trials. There was one attribute that was significant in both trials;

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it was the color of the product during trial 1.Overall trial 1 scores were higher than trial 2 and the modify product score better, than the standard product in both trials except in acceptability and taste. The modify product score better in two attributes and the standard score better in the other two attributes, in conclusion the test subjects like both products in different way.

Acceptability of a Fruit Juice with Increased Antioxidants for Childhood Cancer Patients Audrey E. Justus (Health and Sport Sciences), Presenter Recent studies have shown that the damage of cancer can be lessened through the intake of antioxidants. Antioxidants are dietary substances that can prevent damage to your body cells. The acai berry is known to have the highest level of antioxidants on the market. The student researcher evaluated the attributes of a fruit juice with increased antioxidants due to the addition of the acai berry. Undergraduate students (n=9) scored four samples based on texture, sweetness, flavor, and overall acceptability. The conclusion is that a fruit juice with increased antioxidant levels was more acceptable than the juice with fewer antioxidants.

Investigating the Dietary Use of a Hydrocolloid-based Gelatin Product Rebecca Miller (Health and Sport Sciences), Presenter The United States has experienced a shift toward a religious and culturally diverse population. Traditional gelatin products are a component of a full liquid diet. Certain dietary practices restrict and forbid the consumption of gelatin. A student research project was designed to evaluate the viscosity and food attributes of gelatin and a hydrocolloid-based food product. The hydrocolloid substitute is derived from Kappa-carrageen and locust bean gum, which is a religious and culturally acceptable substitute. Food attributes evaluations indicate the hydrocolloid gelatin product is comparable in taste and texture of the original gelatin product, objectively similar in terms of viscosity.

Smoothies Are an Acceptable Food Choice for Meeting the Recommended Daily Allowance for Fiber Jennifer Owe nsby (Health and Sport Sciences), Presenter Gastroparesis is the delayed emptying of food from the stomach into the small intestine which results in uncontrollable glucose levels in diabetic patients. Patients should consume liquid foods to ease digestion such as smoothies. Flaxseed smoothies can be used to help patients meet their recommended daily allowance for fiber. The fiber was increased in an original smoothie recipe by adding flaxseed in varying increments. The products were tested in a sensory evaluation which tested various characteristics of each recipe. The means of the results were plotted on an attribute scale which concluded that there are no major differences in characteristics.

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21 st Annual Stu dent Research Forum
Unlocking the Structure of G Protein-Coupled Receptors Becky Shaffer (Che mistry), Presenter The purpose of our research is to generate a water-soluble GPCR model system that will provide valuable information relating to studies of GPCR in their natural environment. Modified sequences of S1P1 and β-2 adrenergic receptors have been created by replacing outward-facing hydrophobic amino acids with polar residues that allow the receptors to maintain shape and function. Computational tools have been used to predict the disorder tendency for each mod ified sequence. By generating sequences to be experimentally built and tested for structural and functional fidelity, we hope to develop a model system that will provide a complementary method to studying GPCR.

MATH AND COMPUTER SCIENCES
On-Demand Virtual Honeynet for Attack Observation and Analysis Charles Ellis (Computer Science), Presenter The increased widespread malware infection increases the need for accurate behavioral analysis of malicious code. These infections are today‘s primary source of attacks. The traditional approach to understanding and combating malicious software is to allow a dedicated host, or Honeypot, to be exploited by malware and to analyze the activities performed upon the infected system. While infected systems can produce acceptable results, they are limited in function due to the inability to accurately observe how malware interacts between multiple infected systems. A Honeynet allows machines to be infected by malware. Honeynets, while resolving the problem, introduce further complications in that large scale implementations are expensive in hardware procurement and administrative costs. This research focuses on a cost-effective implementation of a dynamic Honeynet to observe abhorrent network traffic while mitigating the risks involved through traffic identification, virtualization, and resource management.

Autonomous Border Patrol Using Wireless Sensor Networks Ernest McCracken (Computer Science), Presenter We are developing a physical environment to study multi-agent collaboration in various scenarios. The environments have dozens of spatially distributed agents with multiple sensing modalities, such as IR, magnetic, vibration, acoustic, and temperature. Using these modalities we are developing a system that can accurately detect and classify vehicles and humans in a border patrol scenario. Additionally small form factor Doppler radars will be integrated to estimate direction and speed of targets. The system will afford the study of individual agents (mobile and fixed) as they interact using wireless channels, as well as development of communication in the network of agents.

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21 st Annual Stu dent Research Forum PHYSICAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES
A Computational Model of Nucleotide Pyrophosphatase/Phosphodiesterase 4 (NPP4) for Substrate Determination Keng C. Ghaila (Che mistry), Presenter Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 4(NPP-4) is a member of the NPP family. NPPs hydrolyze pyrophosphate or phosphodiester bonds in different molecules. These molecules include nucleotide phosphates, choline phosphate esters and lipid phosphates. All NPPs have a bimetallo core with a conserved catalytic threonine or serine residue. NPP4 exists as a type I transmembrane enzyme with its catalytic domain facing the extracellular space. The structure of NPP4 and its preferred substrates are unknown. In addition, residues contributing to its substrate specificity are unknown. We used the Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) software to build a model of NPP4 and determine substrate specificity via docking.

Free Radical Activity during Vitamin E Diffusion of Ultra-high Molecular Polyethylene Nikki Johnson and Aly Boyer (Physics), Presenters Vitamin E (an antioxidant) eliminates free radicals produced by sterilizing gammairradiation in ultra high molecular weight implants. To better understand the relationship between free radical intensity, vitamin E content, and temperature, 4 samples of UHMWPE (2.5x2.5x8mm3) were gamma- irradiated in the presence of nitrogen. To observe this, we varied temperature and environment for each sample. Their free radical signal was measured using electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. While decay of free radicals in the presence of vitamin E could be attributed to the reaction of alpha-tocopherol with radicals, free radicals in heated samples seem to recombine with or without vitamin E.

Calculative Methods for Determining the Force Interaction between Mars Analogue Dust Particles and Applied Surfaces Andre w Johnson (Physics), Presenter The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful- tool used for high-resolution microscopy as well as measuring the forces of interaction between various surfaces. These forces are very small compared to the forces measured for macroscopic objects. These forces provide vital information regarding the interaction mechanisms of microscopic entities. In this work, we have used the AFM in the force measurement mode in determining the nature of the forces that are present between Mars simulated dust particle and various coated surfaces. This work will lead to the design of better protection mechanisms for critical instruments on-board future generation Mars rovers.

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21 st Annual Stu dent Research Forum
Reaction of Ae rogels and RTV655 to Ultra Violet Radiation MacKenzie Sinde n-Redding (Physics), Presenter An obvious material change (spectral shift) is observed in both UV irradiated aerogels and UV irradiated RTV655. The mechanism of this shift is largely unknown. This study attempts to gain a better understanding of the damage caused by the UV radiation. We will also look into protection mechanisms, as well as attempt to better understand the role played by the atmosphere during UV radiation.

SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES
Journal Editor's Recommendations in School Psychology and Related Fields James Arnett (Psychology), Presenter Journal Editors of school psychology journals and related fields were asked to fill out a survey asking for the three most common reasons why manuscripts were rejected without a full review, three common reasons for rejection of a manuscript after a full review, and what three recommendations they would make to potential contributors to their journal. 106 journal editors were targeted for the survey. 57 replied with information, and all 9 major school psychology journals targeted replied with information. Comments from the editors were double coded, and discrepancies were resolved by consensus.

Parental Dissolution and Emotional Security: How it Relates to Children Rachel Bomar (Psychology), Presenter Gottman & Levenson (1992) theorized that four relationship factors contribute to marriage dissolution: criticism, defensiveness, contempt, and stonewalling. This study examined the impact of marital dissolution on the emotional security of adolescents. One hundred and five primary caregivers completed a measure of marital dissolution. Their adolescents (age range 12-18) completed the Security in the Interparental Subsystem Scale, an assessment of emotional security. Increased marriage dissolution was significantly correlated with poor emotional security in the adolescent for 3 of 6 factors: involvement, destructive response and spillover. Results suggest that high marriage dissolution has a negative impact on adolescent emotional security. Discrepancies between Parents’ and Adolescents’ Reports about the Emotional Security of Adolescents: Predictors of Psychopathology Laura Collins, Kelly Buckholdt, and Lisa Jobe-Shields (Psychology), Presenters Emotional Security Theory explains the processes by which marital conflict is associated with children‘s psychological problems. This study hypothesizes that there will be discrepancies

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between parents‘ and adolescents‘ reports about the emotional security of adolescents. One hundred and five adolescents (mean age of 14) and their parents completed the Security in the Interparental Subsystem Scales, a measure of seven dimensions of emotional security: reactivity, behavioral dysregulation, avoidance, involvement, constructive reports, destructive reports, and spill over reports. Results show that parent and adolescent reports of adolescent security have positive correlations in all of the dimensions except avoidance. The association between the presence of discrepancies and psychopathology will be discussed.

A Test of Guidance Hypothesis for Motor Skill Learning: An EMG Study Jesse Crews and Megann Patrick (Health and Sport Sciences), Presenters Research evidence has indicated that too frequent feedback, Knowledge of Results (KR), seems to be detrimental to motor learning. Previous studies limited to the use of performance outcome. The purpose of the present experiment attempted to test the Guidance hypothesis using multilevel analysis, behavioral and neuromuscular activities. Participants were required to learn a simple force production task under three different KR conditions, 100% KR, Summary-2 KR and Summary-4 KR. The scores of force production performance and surface electromyography (EMG) patterns will be examined to assess the predictions of the Guidance hypothesis. Results may provide meaningful insights on the role of feedback information in the process of motor skill learning.

Rebelliousness as a Predicator of Lack of Concern for College Rosaire Patrick Daigle (Psychology), Presenter Rebelliousness in early adolescence may be problematic not only in high school, but also in post-secondary schools. The purpose of this study is to answer the research question: Do teens that are rebellious in high school have difficulty with the college application process? In this study, drawn from data collected as part of the Memphis Health Project, we assessed the relationship between rebelliousness and student worries about getting into the school of the student‘s choice. A total of 6,967 twelfth graders participated. Correlational analyses clearly show significant negative relationships between these variables. Results and conclusions will be discussed.

The Effect of Psychotherapist Nonverbal Behaviors on Client Perceptions Nia Dowell (Psychology), Presenter The aim of this study was to examine the potential independent and joint impact of two specific therapist nonverbal behaviors—eye contact and trunk lean—on perceptions of therapist credibility, empathy, and the relationship between client and therapist. Four different psychotherapists were filmed in four combinations of eye contact and trunk lean. Participants rated these therapists after viewing a randomized order of the therapy session videos. Preliminary

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findings indicate that high eye contact and forward trunk lean enhanced perceived therapist credibility, empathy, and therapeutic alliance. These findings suggest therapists could improve their practice by utilizing nonverbal behaviors.

Thinking in Color Alexis Eskew, Samantha Patton, and Hugh M. McElroy III (Psychology), Presenters The goal of this research is to determine whether linguistic comprehension is more symbolic or embodied in cognition. Three experiments will be conducted to investigate such comprehension. Experiment 1 serves as both data collection in survey form and interrater reliability. The participants will respond to a list of abstract words by assigning a color to each word. Experiment 2 measures reaction time of the participant using a test similar to experiments of the Stroop design. Experiment 3 recreates the previous experiment using color words rather than physical colors. Optimal results would verify an embodied and symbolic theory of cognition.

Does Money Make the Grade? Brent Fonville (Psychology), Presenter The study examined the correlation between the household income of students and their grade point average (GPA). The hypothesis stated that students with higher household incomes made better grades than those with lower incomes. Students enrolled at the University of Memphis, aged 18-35, in Fall semester 2007, were the participants. Surveys were administered randomly to students at various locations on campus. The results of the study reported a significant and positive correlation between household income and GPA, showing that, as hypothesized, the more yearly income a student and his/her family has increases, the higher the grades of the student.

Gende r Bias Versus the Head of the Table Cue: Who Is the Leader? Andrea Garrison (Psychology), Presenter The study built upon work by Porter, Geis, and Jennings (1983). Specifically, undergraduate students participated in a survey in which the head-of-the-table cue for group leadership was used for testing hypotheses related to gender bias. Four photos of five- member groups were used in which individual participants chose the person who he/she thought was most likely to be the leader of the group. Two photos contained male/female same-gender groups and two contained mixedgender groups. Since the ―think leadership, think male‖ mentality is still present in today‘s society, the hypothesis predicted that gender bias outweighed the cue in leader selection.

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Dispelling Suicide Myths among College Students Porshia Gibbs (Biology) and Alicia White (Psychology), Presenters Suicide among college students has gained much atte ntion since the Garret Lee Smith Act was passed in 2004. While suicide is closely linked to treatable mental illnesses, the stigma of mental illness, along with the stigma of suicide itself, prevents many college students from seeking assistance. Dispelling myths about suicide is crucial to suicide prevention. As part of a campusbased suicide prevention program at the University of Memphis, students completed a written questionnaire concerning suicide ―myths‖. Findings from the survey are presented. The implications of the findings for suicide prevention programs for University of Memphis students are also presented.

Risk Taking as a Causal Factor for Military Enrollment Jonathan McAteer (Psychology), Presenter This study examined the difference in risk taking for students enrolled in the military or ROTC program. It was predicted that those in the military or ROTC would have higher risk taking scores. Participants were 6,967 students from Memphis city school system. Measures were drawn from the Memphis Health Project survey. An independent samples t-test showed that those in the military or ROTC had significantly higher mean risk taking scores. The study implies people in the military are there to satisfy a need to take risks and suggest more rigoro us interviewing and training to reduce the effect of risk takers.

The Obama Phenomenon: The Good, Bad, and the Ugly, A Sociological Approach Erica McClore (Sociology), Presenter A fascination with the man Barack Obama has swept the nation. Whether it is good or bad, positive or negative, the voters came out in support, and the critics came out to bash him. Many questions surround him taking the presidential office? Is he different than all the others? Does race matter? This research will attempt to answer how these fascinations are driven and where they seem to go.

Cerebellar Modulation of Frontal Cortex Dopamine Release in a Mouse Model of Autism J. Ryan Morehead (Psychology), Presenter Our work with genetically- modified mice (Lurcher) has revealed a unique animal model representative of neuropathologies commonly reported in autism, notably cerebellum Purkinje cell loss and prefrontal cortex (PFC) dopamine dysfunction. Utilizing in vivo fixed-potential amperometry, we have shown that PFC dopamine release evoked by electrical stimulation of the

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cerebellum is diminished in Lurcher mice. Here we determined that the cerebellum modulates PFC dopamine via a neural pathway relayed through the reticulo-tegmental nucleus, pedunculopontine nuclei, and ventral tegmental area. Determining the pathways whereby the cerebellum modulates PFC dopamine represents a crucial step towards the development of an animal model of autism.

Cultural Education and Risky Behavior Ben Roberts and Courtney Peasant (Psychology), Presenters From drug abuse to premature sexual activities youth are becoming increasingly involved in risky behavior. The Rites of Passage program aims to reduce these risky behaviors among minority youth through cultural education. This study examines the relationship among risky behaviors and cultural education. Data will be taken from participants engaging in a multi site of Rites of Passage program. In the Memphis community, results will show the relationship between these factors and will have implications for prevention of risky behaviors.

Contributions of Acetylcholine Receptors during Subthalamic Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation: Relevance to Parkinson’s Disease Rachel Tillery (Psychology), Presenter Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a surgical treatment that has been shown to successfully ameliorate many of the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson‘s disease (PD) by increasing dopamine in the striatum. However, it is unclear which neuronal pathway(s) projecting from the STN mediate STN DBS-evoked striatal dopamine release. One potential pathway may involve STN excitatory projections to the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT) in the hindbrain. Previous studies have shown that activation of PPT cholinergic (acetylcholine) projections to SNc dopamine cells enhance striatal dopamine release. The present study tested this pathway using in vivo amperometry and selective pharmacological blockade of the acetylcholine receptors in mice.

Acceptance of Food Products after Folate and Iron Have Been Doubled in Relation to Pregnancy Erin Traynom and Sarah Bursi (Health and Sport Sciences), Presenters Folate and iron are two micronutrients that are essential to the diet of a pregnant woman. Pregnant women, on average, need up to 400 micrograms (mcg) of folate a day and 27-30mg of iron. The purpose of our project was to create an acceptable product that has double the amounts of folate and iron compared to the original recipe. Our project incorporated foods from breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Each product was fortified with flaxseed and evaluated until the appropriate amounts were reached. The products were adjusted each week for taste and texture based on sensory evaluations.

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The Relations hip between Levels of Sadness and Dieting Frequency in Twelfth Grade Girls Sarah “Kristi” Vassar (Psychology), Presenter This study examined the relations between sadness and dieting frequency among adolescent females. Participants were drawn from among 6,967 students participating in the Memphis Health Project, a longitudinal study of health behavior. Most were in the 12 th grade. Once parental consent and adolescent assent were secured, teachers administered the confidential survey to their classes. Two 4-point Likert questions were used to measure sadness and the frequency of dieting. Results indicated that girls who were sad were significantly more likely to diet frequently, r = .09, p < 0.001. The implications of this study and directions for future research are discussed.

Visual and Auditory Pe rception of Video and Text Shinobu Watanabe, Sara Wright, and Jessica Voyles (Psychology), Presenters Previous research has shown that speech perception relies on both auditory and visual cues. In the current study we investigated the interaction between visual and auditory cues by monitoring the eye gaze of participants when the speech signal of the speaker they are watching and listening to is distorted. The hypothesis is that eye gaze normally to the nose bridge of the speaker to capt ure eyes and mouth will shift to the mouth in distorted speech. Findings shed led on multimodal communication in face-to-face settings.

The Essence of Smoking Cessation in Adolescents Alicia M. White (Psychology), Presenter This study investigated the effects of a social support on adolescents‘ odds of quitting smoking. It was hypothesized that high school seniors would be more likely to quit smoking when given support from friends and family. Participants in the study were drawn from the Memphis Health Project, a 10-year longitudinal study of health behaviors. High school seniors completed a self-report survey, after giving parental consent and student assent. The results showed that students who receive more social support are more likely to quit smoking. This study suggests that increasing support increases the chances teens have to stop smoking.

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GRADUATE ABSTRACTS

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21 st Annual Stu dent Research Forum BUSINESS
IT Enabled Co-Creation Platforms: A Value Motivation Frame work Shane Banks and Colin Onita (Manage ment Information Systems), Presenters Advances in information systems have enabled organizations to create business value through an interactive, participative process that engages individuals with organizational interfaces in a value-adding encounter or experience. The phenomenon of co-creation of business value has been studied in a supply chain context, but has not been examined from an individual-platformindividual interaction perspective. IT Enabled Co-creation Platforms enable individuals and organizations to co-create value through different roles. This paper investigates value creation in a web-enabled co-creation platform setting and sets forth to explain the dynamics of value creation and the roles that exist within IT Enabled Co-Creation Platforms. Analyzing the Effects of Parental Divorce on Children’s Outcomes During Adolescence: A Propensity-Score Matching Approach Debjani Kanjilal (Economics), Presenter Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, the relationship between parental divorce and academic achievement of adolescents and their likelihood to indulge in risky behaviors is explored. Multiple propensity score matching technique is used to compare adolescents with divorced parents to a control group of individuals who are otherwise observably similar but whose parents are not divorced. The results indicate that adolescents with divorced parents have lower academic achievement and are more likely to indulge in some risky behavior; however this negative effect is not homogeneous, but depends on factors such as household income and school environment.

Innovation Diffusion: The Role of Influentials in a Heterogeneous Two-Segment Market Mohammad G. Nejad (Marketing and Supply Chain Management), Presenter This study explores the role of influentials in innovation diffusion by focusing on twosegment market where the potential consumers are heterogeneous in three dimensions: First, ―influential‖ or ―imitator‖ designation. Second, influence of social contagion. Third, influence of marketing activities. In addition, the study considers two social network structures: random and scale- free. A comprehensive agent-based modeling and simulation exercise along with in-depth, empirical-based experiments produced the following key findings: (a) characterization of influentials makes a difference in their impact on market outcomes; (b) social network structure contributes to this impact; and (c) there is a significant interaction between the two.

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Crime Spillovers and Hurricane Katrina Ioana Sofia Pacurar (Economics), Presenter By using DID and triple-DID approaches, we estimate the effects of migration due to hurricane Katrina on crime rates across the United States from 2003-2007. To account for potential endogeneity between the socio-economic characteristics of a host-city and evacuees, we instrument the evacuees by a weighted distance to New Orleans, LA. The results show that а 1 percent increase in migration is associated with 3 percent increase in larceny thefts, 8 percent increase in car thefts, and 3 percent increase in property crimes. We find no significant changes in heinous crimes, such as murders, forcible rapes, and aggravated assaults.

Do IS Professors Have a Stacked Deck? Aaron Peevyhouse (Management Information Systems), Presenter This study compares core business undergraduate classes that form the selection of majors to determine the role of key factors influencing student perceptions of teacher quality. Based on research, this model proposes that the known direct link between teacher effort (helpfulness) and knowledge conveyance (clarity) is moderated by a student‘s entry level of interest in the class and the perceived difficulty level of the material presented. This study looks at a rando mly selected group of entry level business core classes from 100 universities to determine if perceptions of difficulty and lack of prior interest influences perceptions of tea cher quality. It will focus towards determining the relative positioning of IS compared with its sister disciplines and whether relative perceptions of prior interest and ease of IS course hurt comparative teacher ratings of clarity.

EDUCATION
Acute Exercise and Postprandial Oxidative Stress in Pre -Diabetic Women Heather Katherine Bell (Health and Sport Sciences), Presenter Individuals with impaired lipid and glucose metabolism have higher risk for postprandial oxidative stress. The purpose was to investigate the impact of acute exercise on blood TAG and oxidative stress biomarkers in pre-diabetic women. Methods included 16 pre-diabetic women that consumed a high fat meal with and without a session of aerobic exercise 15 minutes preceding the meal in a random order cross-over design. Blood samples were collected pre- meal, and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours post- meal and assayed for trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, xanthine oxidase activity, hydrogen peroxide, malondialdehyde, TAG, and glucose. No interaction or condition main effects were noted. Time main effects were noted for XO, H2O2, MDA, and TAG with values higher from 1-6 hours post meal compared to pre meal, and for TEAC with values lower at 4 hours post meal. Acute exercise does not influence postprandial TAG and oxidative stress in obese prediabetic women.

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Learning to Reduce Communication Apprehension with Learning Styles Stephanie Stokes Eley (Leadership), Presenter Prior research has suggested the way teachers choose to present course material, the type of assignments given and even the order in which the assignments are given can influence communication apprehension. An explanatory mixed method design allowed high communication apprehensive participants to be identified and purposefully selected to discuss how past learning experiences have influenced their current level of apprehension. In this study, participants described their reasons for speech apprehension, their ideal learning environment, and how the format of the class influenced their ability to learn to communicate more effectively.

Survey of Personal Financial Education at HBCUs Rita Williams Green (Leade rship), Presenter The importance of financial education is particularly important for college students because of limited life experience and knowledge of financial management. Widespread financial illiteracy is a contributing factor to the economic downturn that is facing the U.S. economy today. Historically Black Colleges and Universities have played a crucial role in the education of AfricanAmericans but as the best and the brightest are prepared for well-paying professions, does their education include a course in personal finance? A survey of the curriculum of the nation‘s HBCUs uncovers the availability of personal finance courses as well as institutional mandates for those courses. Above and Beyond the Syllabus: Transformation in an Adult, Foreign Language Classroom Stacey Margarita Johnson (Leadership), Presenter While the syllabus for a college- level, elementary foreign language class may include objectives such as mastery of the grammar and vocabulary, even students who do not achieve such objectives may experience a perspective transformation as a result of studying a foreign language. This study examines the experiences of three adult women who completed two semesters of Elementary Spanish. Data was collected through the Learning Activities Survey and interviews. Results showed perspective transformation in three areas: 1) identified with Hispanic cultures, 2) awareness of diversity, and 3) awareness of ethnocentricity. Three types of classroom activities appeared to make significant contributions: 1) meeting native speakers, 2) collaborative learning, and 3) viewing/analyzing films. Taiwanese College Students’ Learning Motivation and the Use of Video Games for English Learning Yu-Yuan Lee (Instruction and Curriculum Leaders hip), Presenter The purpose of this study was to examine how language learning motivation relates to Taiwanese college students‘ perceptions of playing commercial video games to learn English. The 24

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results indicated that motivation intensity, requirement motivation, and popular culture (media) motivation affect students‘ perceptions of using video games formats for learning a SL/FL. The findings suggest that popular culture (media) motivation appears to be a good predictor of choosing video games to learn English. Instruction implications and suggestions for further studies were included. An Application of Pace’s Model of Student Development and College Impress on Learning Community Students Louis Rocconi (Counseling, Educational Research, and Psychology), Presenter Pace (1979) delineates a model for the study of student development and college impress in which he postulates that the extent to which students exert their time and effort in the educational opportunities offered by institutions will directly impact their growth and development in college. Structural equation modeling is used to test whether Pace‘s model can be used to accurately describe a sample of learning community students‘ development and gains during college, with student outcome being perceived gains in general education and intellectual skills. Results strongly support Pace‘s proposition that student effort is the most important determinate of perceived gains. Moreover, results strongly support the use of Pace‘s model as a theoretical framework that may be used to study learning community students‘ development and gains in college.

ENGINEERING
Dermal Fibroblast Interactions with Growth Factors and Silicone Elastomer Particles: An In Vitro Study Matthew Cre ws (Biomedical Engineering), Presenter A minimally invasive procedure involving the subdermal injection of liquid silicone has been used clinically to create a fibrous tissue pad which mitigates the high pressures that cause diabetic foot ulcers. However, some implant migration has been a clinical issue. The objective of this in vitro study was to measure the effects of silicone particles and growth factors on fibroblast cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, and cellular interactio ns to decrease implant migration. Proliferation and collagen synthesis were enhanced by growth factors and the silicone particles had no deleterious effect.

Calcium Sulfate Coating on Chitosan-Calcium Phosphate Beads for Controlled Drug Delivery Heather Doty (Biome dical Engineering), Presenter Over 6 million fractures occur in the USA each year. To aid in bone repair scaffolds with osteoinductive, biodegradable and drug delivery properties are used. Extended drug delivery is necessary to fight infection and to release growth factors at appropriate times. The goal of this study

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was to extend the drug release of chitosan/calcium phosphate composite scaffold material by coating the composite with calcium sulfate and profiling an antibiotic release over ten days. The calcium sulfate coating slowed the release of the antibiotic, amikacin typically used to treat bone infections, for over 48 hours, compared to the uncoated scaffold material.

Evaluation of Chitosan Coatings on Titanium to Deliver VEGF Locally and Promote Migration In Vitro Megan Leedy (Biomedical Engineering), Presenter Osseointegration is the ability of an implant to form a direct interface with bone without intervening fibrous tissue. It is a prerequisite for functional implant loading and for the long term success of implants. The biopolymer chitosan, a de-acetylated derivative of chitin, has been investigated as a bioactive coating to enhance osseointegration due to its demonstrated biocompatibility, controllable degradation, and osteogenic properties. This current study investigated the potential of chitosan coatings on titanium to be loaded with vascular endothelial growth factor and have it be released in a dose effective manner in which would promote migration of endothelial cells in vitro.

A Systematic Study on Latent Semantic Analysis Model Parameters for Mining Biomedical Literature Haritha Malempati (Electrical and Computer Engineering), Presenter Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is an efficient text mining technique. A systematic study is done on the parameters affecting the performance of LSA. This poster reports a systematic study on various parameters, such as: (i) stemming, stop-words and word counts, (ii) corpus content, (iii) inclusion or exclusion of the dc component or 1 st Eigen vector, (iv) objective criteria to choose the number of factors to create the model, (v) information theoretic criteria to select features. Empirical analyses were conducted using a previously published 50 gene data set. Performance analysis using carefully selected well- studied keyword queries. It was found that a combination of factors such as inclusion of title in abstract in creating corpus, exclusion of the dc component and selection of eigen vectors based on objective criterion yields better performance.

BMP-2 and B2A Synthetic Peptide Therapy for Disc Regeneration Jonathan McCanless (Biomedical Engineering), Presenter Neuropathic pain resulting from age-related degeneration of the intervertebral discs is alleviated through decompression of nerves which branch out from the spinal cord. Current techniques fail to address the diseased state of the disc and only ―buy time‖ for afflicted patients through removal of impinging tissue and/or height restoration with prosthetics. Cellular therapies, growth factor therapies, and/or tissue engineered scaffolds may be an attractive and preferred

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alternative treatment, resulting in long-term disc regeneration. The effects of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and B2A synthetic peptide, concerted and alone, o n extracellular matrix production by disc- like differentiated mesenchymal stem cells in hydrogel beads were evaluated.

Effects of Macrophage Cells Stimulated to Release Reactive Oxygen Species on Corrosion of Titanium Danielle Mueller (Biomedical Engineering), Presenter Titanium is commonly used for dental, craniofacial, and some orthopedic implants. These metals inevitably corrode and release metal ions to local and systemic tissues, which may cause adverse reactions. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of macrophage cells on corrosion properties of titanium. The corrosion potential and current of titanium in the presence of cells and cells activated to simulate inflammatory conditions via release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were monitored. Total charge transfer and concentration of nitric oxide data indicate that corrosion properties of titanium may be affected by the presence and activation state of cells.

Evaluation of Chitosan Sponges as an Adjunctive Therapy for Treatment of Orthopaedic Trauma Scott Noel (Biomedical Engineering), Presenter Localized delivery of antibiotics has emerged as a method of treatment for the eradication of infection. Localized delivery offers the advantage of high local concentrations with decreased serum concentrations resulting in lower incidence of systemic toxicity. Chitosan is a biocompatible, biodegradable polymer that has been successfully used in many different applications. Chitosan is also utilized as a haemostatic wound dressing. We tested the resorbable, antibiotic- loaded chitosan sponge delivery system in separate contaminated in vivo models to evaluate the efficacy in eradicating infection. Results from our in vitro and in vivo studies indicated an improvement to traditional treatment methods.

Multi-purpose Fluid Manage ment and Detection System for the Automated Analysis of Minute Volumes of Samples Felynncia Rainey (Biomedical Engineering), Presenter A multi-purpose, automated, flow analytical system has been designed and implemented. The system is composed of a flow-through electrochemical cell in combination with a computer controlled actuator, multi-position valve, peristaltic pump, and potentiostat. The complex fluid management/data acquisition system is controlled via a progra m written in LabVIEW. The automated test system (ATS) has two distinct working modes: Sequential Sampling/Distribution (SSD) and a Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). The ATS is used for testing large number of microfabricated electrodes (SSD mode) or for analyzing minute volume samples (FIA mode) in reproducible manner.

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Recurrent Network-Based Face Recognition Using Image Sequences Yong Ren and William E. White (Electrical and Compute r Engineering), Presenters We propose a novel method for face recognition with large pose variations in image sequences using a Cellular Simultaneous Recurrent Network (CSRN). If the face images are obtained from different viewpoints, the face recognition rate drops significantly. We formulate the recognition problem for face image sequences with large pose variation as an implicit temporal prediction task for CSRN. Our simulation shows that for this VidTIMIT Audio-Video face dataset with large pose variation, we can obtain an overall 65% (for rank 1) or 75% (for rank 2) face recognition accuracy better than the 42% (rank 1) recognition accuracy of FRVT 2002.

Composite Chitosan-Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds for Local BMP-2 Delivery and Enhanced Bone Regeneration Benjamin Reves (Biomedical Engineering), Presenter Our labs have developed composite chitosan-calcium phosphate scaffolds to improve the elution profile of the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and to enhance bone regeneration in severe fractures. The osteoinductivity of the composite scaffolds was dete rmined using an established rat muscle pouch model. Implants were placed in the latissimi dorsi of Wistar rats, and the rats were sacrificed after one month. Following decalcified histological processing, the sections were analyzed for residual implant material, new bone, and osteoid formation. The composite scaffolds were found to be osteoinductive and displayed the ability to promote and support new bone growth.

Chitosan Film as a Possible Surgically Adaptable Implant for Infection Prevention J. Keaton Smith (Biome dical Engineering), Presenter The natural biopolymer chitosan has medically advantageous properties in the film form which have led to its investigation as a wound healing implant. Manipulation of chitosan‘s degree of deacetylation will determine if the film is able to uptake and elute drugs while maintaining the mechanical integrity necessary for a bioadhesive wrap. Chitosan film mechanical, degradation and drug interaction properties were characterized. This research concluded that a high degree of deacetylation enables chitosan to be used as an implantable drug delivery, fixation device for musculoskeletal applications.

Synthesis and Characterization of Ultrathin Membranes for the Next Generation of Biosensors Zachary Thomas (Chemistry), Presenter Imprinting molecular recognition sites in polymer films is an attractive method for the development of biosensors that can cost-effectively test for low abundance analytes. Currently, even

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the thinnest films that can be produced are too thick to allow effective mass transfer of analyte to recognition site, limiting practical application of the method. To overcome this limitation, we have synthesized polystyrene films that are ultra-thin, approximately 3 molecules thick, by using selfassembled bilayers on gold as a removable template for the controlled polymerization of monomers. The films have been characterized by ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Stress-Induced Tachyarrhythmias in a Hype raldosteronis m-Induced Cardiac Fibrosis Rat Model Jamie Weaver (Biomedical Engineering), Presenter Previous studies have shown that tachyarrhythmias are electrically inducible in a hyperaldosteronism- induced cardiac fibrosis rat model. This study investigates the inducibility of arrhythmias using physical activity as a stressor. Control and treated groups implanted with an ECG recording radio-telemetry device undergo run-to-fatigue (RTF) treadmill testing for six weeks. Interbeat interval (IBI) is used to locate potential arrhythmias. Percent increase in heart rate during RTF and recovery time following RTF serve to indicate degree of cardiac stress. Preliminary work indicates the occurrence of premature ventricular contractions in the treated animals. Thus, RTF testing is a suitable method to study stress- induced arrhythmias in our rat model.

LIBERAL AND FINE ARTS
The Riddle of the Yellow Sphinx of Abu Rowash Jennifer Butterworth (Art History), Presenter The earliest known example of the sphinx form comes from the mortuary complex of the Fourth Dynasty Pharaoh Djedefre. Excavated in 1900, the age and gender attributions of this small limestone statue have been the subject of some scholarly discussion, although it has never been formally analyzed. Most Egyptologists today describe it as female due to the yellow paint still visible on its face. This attribution, while likely, raises issues relating to the iconography of kingship in early dynastic Egypt. This poster will showcase the e vidence for a female attribution and the problems associated with this attribution.

Little People of Ancient World Re-examining the Old Kingdom Statue of the Dwarf Pe r-ni-ankhu Sarah Chandlee (Art History), Presenter Dwarfs are attested in ancient Egypt from the Pre-dynastic through the Greco-Roman period. Recently discovered are the tomb and statue of a dwarf from the Old Kingdom, Per-niankhu. In 1991, Zahi Hawass published an article in MDAIK47, wherein he provided a description

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and his interpretation of the statue of Per-ni-ankhu. After careful examination of this article, it is apparent to me that a few of Dr. Hawass‘ comments about the statue bear discussing in further detail, while other arguments need to be readdressed. Lastly, I offer a possible genealogy for Per-niankhu and other drawfs of the Old Kingdom. Cohesion’s Affect on Coherence in Non-Native Student Narrative Scott Healy (Englis h), Presenter This study serves as a preliminary analysis of the relationship between cohesion and coherence in non- native oral narrative. In particular, this study focuses on differences in cohesion and coherence between native and non-native speakers of English narrating from pictures and memory. The results suggest non-native speakers may have memorized native-like cohesive elements, but they lack native-like knowledge of how to apply the elements effectively. Instruction on how to apply the rote- memorized cohesive elements to increase global coherence would benefit non-native speakers.

Their Heads to Keep: The Iconography of Ancient Egyptian Headrests Lana Hill (Art History), Presenter The ancient Egyptian headrest or ―pillow‖ was both a useful piece of bedroom equipment and an important funerary object which magically protected the head of the deceased. Despite the importance of the headrest in Egypt, little research has been done on how its symbolic significance may be indicated by the iconographic elements found on decorated headrests. This study addresses that deficiency by categorizing the iconographic elements found on decorated headrests. The findings indicate that motifs with apotropaic meaning and those concerned with symbols of birth or rebirth are most common, and symbols of solar iconography are also frequently depicted.

Voices of Memphis: Using Multicultural Feminism, Narrative, Intersectionality, and Polyculturalism to Divulge Screaming Silences Jacklyn Martin (Liberal Studies), Presenter My project will work to construct a portrait of female identity in Memphis via a series of interviews and photography. The selection of subjects for the project will be influenced by research on the complexity of intersectionality and the value of polycultural feminism. In order to highlight those voices that might otherwise remain silenced, it is imperative to pair the consideration of privilege with the application of an interdisciplinary approach. The use of narrative insists that ordinary people have extraordinary stories, and dissects what sort of problems, successes, and trends are met by women of the region in under-privileged positions.

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To Shake or Not to Shake? Investigating a War Relief at Luxor Te mple Danielle Phelps (Art History), Presenter On the exterior western wall of the Processional Colonnade Hall at Luxor Temple in Egypt, there is a relief that depicts a destroyed unnamed town and its devastated landscape that dates to the reign of Ramesses II (ca. 1275 B.C.). There are no depictions of humans, animals, or even text accompanying the scene, which is odd since the surrounding re liefs are of action- filled battle scenes. This scene may represent a natural disaster, such as an earthquake, which would be among the very first portrayals in history of such an occurrence.

From Spreading the Misery to Spreading the Joy: Cleaning Up Race Relations in Memphis Tammy Prater (History), Presenter Memphis‘ second proposed sanitation worker‘s strike just a year after the death of Dr. King and the roles the Concerned Women of Memphis and Shelby County (CWMSC) played in averting that strike is the central focus of this research. Active in politics, the CWMSC were also active participants in the Civil Rights Movement. By stepping outside of accepted class and gender roles and using their volunteer spirit to help others, this group of women embodies the historically underrepresented white presence in local civil rights work.

Infant Feeding Perceptions among African Ame rican Wome n in Shelby County Implications for Breastfeeding Promotion Patricia Schroeder (Public Health), Presenter Breastfeeding confers significant immunologic, cognitive, economic, and environmental benefits. As of 2007, only 31% of infants in Tennessee‘s WIC program were ever breastfed, with a slightly higher rate (34%) in Shelby County. In July 2008, data were collected from 119 AfricanAmerican women who attended the Sisterhood Showcase in Shelby County to identify infantfeeding perceptions. Principal sources of breastfeeding information were found to be physicians (31%) and family (25%). The rationale to formula- feed was primarily influenced by work situation (17%) and mother‘s advice (14%), while the baby‘s health (14%), and doctor‘s advice (13%) supported breastfeeding.

Let There Be Light: A Reconstruction of the Torch Ritual in the New Kingdom Meghan Strong (Art History), Presenter My research focuses on spell 137A from the Book of the Dead, a mortuary text used in the ancient Egyptian New Kingdom. Spell 137A, also referred to as the ―torch ritual,‖ originates in Thebes and was used as part of the funerary rites. The detailed instructions of this spell describe

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what must be used in the ceremony, but not exactly when it must be performed on the mummy. In this presentation, I compare vignettes from Book of the Dead papyri, textual evidence, and temple relief to reconstruct the context and purpose of the ―torch ritual.‖

LIFE AND HEALTH SCIENCES
Prevalence of Obesity and High Blood Pressure in a College Population Doris Amoah (Public Health), Presenter Body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure data were collected on 150 University of Memphis students at a health fair in Fall 2008. The sample was 63% female, 63% African American, and 33% Caucasian. Most (91%) were undergraduates; 9% were graduate students. Mean age was 23. Nearly half (54%) were overweight, obese or morbidly obese (5%). Over half (56%) had elevated systolic BP and were pre-, stage 1 or stage 2 hypertensive; 41% had elevated diastolic BP (pre-, stage 1 and stage 2 hypertensive). Interventions are warranted to address the high prevalence of obesity and hypertension in college students. Identification of cis Acting Regulatory Elements in P. falciparum hrp3 Promoter Anusha Gopalakrishnan (Biology), Presenter Identification of promoter elements responsible for regulation of gene expression has been hampered by the AT-richness of P. falciparum intergenic regions. Previously, our studies on the 1.7-kb ring specific hrp3 promoter suggested the multipartite nature of this ring specific element. In order to characterize the hrp3 ring specific enhancer in more detail, we used linker scanning substituting 100 nt at a time throughout the enhancer region. Interestingly, mutation of the 100 nt located at the 1.1-kb from the ATG initiation codon completely abolished the hrp3- mediated luciferase activity. Quantitative Real time PCR with these constructs will allow us to directly measure firefly luciferase mRNA accumulation in ring and trophozoite. These experiments will allow us to identify regulatory elements in regulation of gene expression in P. falciparum. Treatment-related Changes in Vowel Spectral Ene rgy in Hypokinetic Dysarthria Dorian Beverly (Audiology and Speech Language Pathology), Presenter Hypokinetic dysarthria (HD) results in reduced speech intelligibility characterized by decreased loudness, monopitch, monoloudness, etc. Abnormal vowel spectral energy (as quantified by harmonic amplitude measurements) is also associated with this motor speech disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine the harmonic spectra of vowels produced during connected speech, and in isolation, in a speaker with HD before and after intensive voice treatment. Prior to treatment, this speaker demonstrated reduced loudness (reflected by dB SPL for vowels) with large harmonic amplitude differences. Following treatment, as loudness increased, an upward redistribution of harmonic energy resulted in decreased harmonic amplitude differences.

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G Protein –Coupled Receptors Model Systems Erin Ross Bonilla (Chemistry), Presenter G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are physiologically essential transmembrane receptors. A significant percentage of commercial drugs target GPCR. GPCR structures are valuable and, in most cases, unavailable tools for drug optimization. Structural determination is difficult for GPCR due to poor water solubility. This project focuses on the design and validation of artificial GPCR model systems with enhanced water solubility. Unfolding simulations at high temperatures are used to determine stability of candidate artificial model systems in an aqueous environment to prioritize future experimental studies. An Evaluation of a National Kidney Foundation’s Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) Landrus Burress (Public Health), Presenter An evaluation of the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) was conducted to assess community effectiveness. KEEP is a kidney health screening program designed to raise awareness about kidney disease for high risk individuals. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a permanent loss of kidney function. A survey was designed to 1) evaluate program efficacy; 2) assess participant satisfaction; 3) determine program needs based on participants‘ perceptions; and 4) identify program strengths and weaknesses. Over 94% of 75 respondents were completely satisfied with KEEP; found it useful; rated the program beneficial; and reported increased CKD knowledge. Overall, the program received high ratings.

Respiratory Flow and Vocal Pitch in Classification of Vibratory Regimes in I nfants Maki Doiuchi (Audiology and Speech Language Pathology), Presenter Infant phonation is characterized by frequent variations in vocal fold vibration patterns (regimes). According to nonlinear dynamic models, such variations may be induced by changes in control parameters, such as vocal pitch and respiratory flow. Utterances were collected from five infants. Regimes were identified spectrographically, pitch was approximated by an automatic detection algorithm, and respiratory flow was estimated by excursion traces of the ribcage and abdomen. Our preliminary data indicate that the vibratory regimes are related to pitch and flow, suggesting that changes in values of vocal pitch or respiratory flow are associated with different vocal patterns in infants.

Effect of Macronutrient Type on Postprandial Oxidative Stress: Further Evidence for Lipid-induced Insulin Resistance Kelsey H. Fisher-Wellman (Health and Sport Sciences), Presenter Postprandial oxidative stress has been suggested to be the link in the connection between insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of the present investigation

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was to compare the oxidative stress response induced following the consumption of meals rich in all three macronutrients. Results suggest that lipid rich feedings may pose the greatest health burden in terms of eliciting postprandial oxidative stress. Moreover, these date provide evidence for a primary role of habitual high fat feeding in promoting the development of insulin resistance. Lastly, the consumption of protein and carbohydrate rich meals appears optimal in terms of minimizing postprandial oxidative stress in healthy men.

Computational Docking and Mutagenic Studies to Validate NPP6 Model Angela L. Howard (Chemistry), Presenter Nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 6 (NPP6) is a phosphocholine esterase. NPP6 acts by hydrolyzing lysophosphatidylcholine to produce monoacylglycerol and phosphocholine. NPP6 is expressed predominately in the kidney where it plays a role in choline reabsorption. Experimental and computational methods are being applied to characterize NPP6. The crystallized bacterial Xac NPP shares 29.8% amino acid identity with NPP6, and therefore serves as an acceptable computational template for NPP6. This model provides insight into substrate recognition and binding. Additional efforts are ongoing to characterize NPP6 using our modeling results to guide selection of mutation sites with which to validate the enzyme substrate model.

Assessment of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) in Memphis Bars and Restaurants Sara Jacob (Health and Sport Sciences), Presenter Objective: To assess the effectiveness of the Tennessee Non Smokers Protection Act (NSPA) in Memphis bars & restaurants. Methods: 38 venues (18 covered & 20 exempt from NSPA) were sampled for particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5 ). Results: The PM2.5 level decreased 88% in venues covered by NSPA. Bars that allowed smoking had the highest PM2.5 levels (average 168 μg/m3) and were 11.4 times higher than in smoke-free restaurants (average 14.7 μg/m3). Conclusion: Tennessee NSPA effectively improved indoor air quality in venues co vered by the law. However, NSPA exempt venues continue to be major source of ETS exposure to employees and patrons in such venues.

Dermacentor variabilis: Regulation of Macrophage Migration and Phagocytosis by Tick Saliva Carolyn D. Krame r (Biology), Presenter We studied effects of tick saliva and salivary gland extract (SGX) on cell migration, signaling, and phagocytosis in the murine macrophage cell line, IC-21. Saliva increased basal and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated migration. However, saliva did not affect PDGFstimulated extracellular signal- regulated kinase (ERK) or AKT activity. Saliva had no affect on 34

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phorbol-12- myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated AKT activity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)stimulated Interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) activity was unaffected by SGX; zymosan- mediated IRAK activity increased when cells were pretreated with saliva. Saliva suppressed phagocytosis of zymosan. These results suggest that Dermacentor variabilis has evolved a mechanism for selectively controlling the host‘s wound healing response.

Preinitiation Complex Occupancy of Active and Inactive Promote rs during Plas modium Falciparum Erythrocytic Stage Lilian Alando Nyindodo (Biology), Presenter Plasmodium falciparum appears to have developed its own set of transcription factors compared to other eukaryotes. The parasite‘s gene expression is controlled at multiple levels including chromatin remodeling and gene silencing. The PfTBP and PfTFIIE interact with active and inactive erythrocytic-expressed parasite promoters. PfTBP binding associated not with the histone 3 and 4 acetylation, suggesting that histone acetylation may not be a prerequisite for the PfTBP/PfTFIIE promoter interaction. A similar pattern of PfTBP interaction was seen with the promoter regions. PfTBP did not interact with the coding and 3‘UTR of sexually expressed gene during the erythrocytic cycle. Our results indicate that the TBP-containing PIC interacts with active and inactive P. falciparum promoters, contrasting the classical model of the eukaryotic gene regulation in which TBP-containing PIC interaction with cognate promoter leads to initiation of transcription. PIC appears to interact with cognate promoter and non promoter regions.

Assessment of Environmental Conce rns of Students and Faculty at the University of Memphis Jennifer Ransom (Public Health), Presenter Sustainable Technologies Awareness Day was held at the University of Memphis in October, 2008. Surveys (n=337) assessed attendees‘ environmental concerns. Respondents included 57% females and 43% males. Ethnicity indicated 51% were Caucasian, 35% AfricanAmerican, and 14% other categories. Respondents expressed most concern for energy, health (e.g. air quality), and waste. Students and faculty reported similar levels of concern across all categories. More students than faculty expressed willingness to spend over 20% more for eco-friendly products. Electricity conservation and recycling were the most popular eco- friendly actions currently practiced. These data have implications for effectively targeting environmental messages to a campus population.

Auditory Ecology and Preference for Unilateral or Bilateral Hearing Aids Kathryn L. Shaughnessy (Audiology and Speech Language Pathology), Presenter Conventional wisdom suggests that choosing one hearing aid instead of two reflects a lack of auditory demands. This study explored auditory ecology for patie nts who chose one versus two

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hearing aids. Envirometers provided objective data and questionnaires provided subjective data describing the subject‘s auditory/acoustic environment. Results indicated that (1) both groups spent the majority of their time in environments with little background noise; and (2) subjective and objective auditory ecology measurement methods produced similar results. This study found no evidence to suggest that differences in auditory ecology contribute to a person‘s decision to c hoose one or two hearing aids.

Computational and Experime ntal Approaches for the Analysis of Alkaline Sphingomyelinase (NPP7) Irene Wanjala (Chemistry), Presenter NPP7 is a 60kDa glycoprotein that utilizes a lysophospholipase C-like activity to hydrolyze three known substrates, sphingomyelin (SM), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and platelet activating factor (PAF). Little is known about its overall structure and function. The aim of this work is to apply computational and experimental procedures toward the structural and functional analysis of NPP7 to better understand its substrate specificity and hydrolytic mechanism. Here we discuss computational and experimental work toward a better understanding of the structure and function of alkaline sphinogmyelinase.

Residues Involved in Ligand Recognition at the Lysophosphatidate Receptor, LPA 5 Jesica R. Williams (Chemistry), Presenter Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a naturally-occurring bioactive phospholipid implicated in human diseases, particularly arteriosclerosis, cancer and metastasis. LPA activates G proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs) and elicits a variety of biological effects including proliferation, migration and platelet aggregation. Eight LPA-specific GPCRs, LPA1-8 , have been identified to date. We report a model of LPA5 and identify residues involved in LPA recognition. Site-directed mutagenesis studies were performed to validate the accuracy of the computational model. The computational and experimental results identified R2.60, R6.62, R7.32, H4.64, L5.42, L5.46, L7.35, and V7.39 to be important residues involved in ligand recognition at LPA5 .

MATH AND COMPUTER SCIENCES
Characterizing Comment Spam in the Blogosphere through Content Analysis Archana Bhattarai (Computer Science), Presenter The increasing penetration of spam in the form of comments in blogs and social networks has started becoming a nuisance. In this work, we investigate the characteristics of comment spam in blogs based on linguistic and statistical properties of the co ntent. Our framework uses a flexible

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method of active learning from the raw data without requiring training instances for machine learning algorithms that we use for detection of spam comments. We also incorporate the concept of co-training for supervised learning to get accurate results. Our approach could produce an accuracy of 86% with 90% precision outperforming existing results.

The Effect of Shear in Fibe r Spinning Shaun Ceci, Catherine Frost, and Dias Kurmashev (Mathematical Sciences), Presenters We study the equations of fiber spinning under the assumption that viscous friction in the fiber is balanced by shear stresses. Our discussion gives a rather complete picture about the existence and nonexistence of stationary solutions. The linearization about steady state of the governing equations is analyzed by semigroup methods and shown to have the spectrally determined growth property. Both linear and nonlinear stability of stationary solutions is investigated numerically.

A Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithm for Task Based Sailor Assignment Proble m Koyel Chaudhuri and Soujanya Medapati (Computer Science), Presenters This project deals with United State Navy‘s Task based Sailor Assignment Problem which is an NP-complete problem. Here the task is to minimize the number of sailors on the ship by assigning multiple tasks to each sailor based on his eligibility, capacity and other parameters. It examines the performance of a multiobjective evolutionary algorithm called NSGA-II, on a large instance of this problem. Rigorous experiments have been conducted with different data sets such as 5000sailors400task types. Three different population sizes of individuals have been used, with 500,000 evaluations of the objectives. The experimental results indica te remarkable diversity amongst the solutions.

Test of Dose Related Trend for Correlated Exchangeable Discrete Data Using Stochastic Ordering Kyeongmi Cheon (Mathe matical Sciences), Presenter Many studies result in clustered discrete data. For example, the responses from the fetuses in the same litter share similarities or are correlated therefore should not be analyzed with standard statistical procedure. To detect an increasing trend in the correlated responses according to increasing dose of toxic material, we propose a new test. Our method is more flexible than other procedures and can be used for any type of data while many procedures available now can be applicable only to binary data. Our test is nonparametric, being free of parametric model assumption. We will illustrate it with rodent toxicity data.

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On The Use of Informed Initialization and Extre me Solutions Sub-population in Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms Aishwarya Kaushal and Pavan Kalyan Vejandla (Computer Science), Presenters This work examines two strategies in order to improve the performance of MOEA when applied to problems with many objectives: informed initialization and extreme solutions subpopulation. Experimental results applying these two strategies in continuous, combinatorial benchmark problems and United States Navy‘s Sailor Assignment Problem show that the diversity in the final solutions is improved, while preserving the proximity to the Pareto front. Some additional experiments that demonstrate how the number of initial informed solutions affects the performance are also presented.

On Deployme nt of Multiple Base Stations for Energy-Efficient Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks Yunyue Lin (Computer Science), Presenter Data transmission from sensor nodes to a base station often incurs significant energy consumption, which critically affects network lifetime. We generalize and solve the problem of deploying multiple base stations to maximize network lifetime in terms of two different metrics under one-hop communication model. For each lifetime metric, we propose an optimal solution for small-scale networks and a heuristic approach for large-scale ones based on the minimal enclosing circle algorithm that deploys a base station at the geometric center of each cluster. Simulation results show the distinguished performance of the proposed deployment algorithms in maximizing network lifetime.

Negative Authentication: An Immunology Inspired Approach to Password Security Sudip Saha (Computer Science), Presenter Authentication systems generally adopt the approach of checking authentication request in a list of stored profiles of identification and verification information. This stored profile is subject to various online and offline guessing attacks. Negative authentication is an alternative approach inspired by inner mechanisms in the biological immune systems. In particular, this type of authentication exploits a form of complement profile which resembles censoring and maturation process of T-cells. The scope and design issues of this system have been addressed in this work. For the implementation of negative authentication system, the use of generic real valued negative selection model has been examined. The performance aspect of complement profile generation by this technique has been analyzed here to find out good configuration settings for practical purpose.

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PHYSICAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES HRGPS in Seis mology: Love Wave Dispersion in Central North Ame rica James P. Davis (Earth Sciences), Presenter Data from 94 HRGPS stations and 33 broadband seismic stations are used for the Mw=9.0 December 26, 2004, Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. The reference HRGPS site was located within the array and being simultaneously affected by surface waves. Spatial filtering is de monstrated to be the same as the k=0 beamform, and kinematic site absolute displacements, as well as fixed site displacements plus common- mode error, are recovered from time-series. FK beamforming is then applied over several narrow frequency bands to prod uce a continental Love phase velocity dispersion curve for Central North America.

Nanocaps ules: Functionalizing the World’s Thinnest Membranes Bill Ganus (Che mistry), Presenter Phospholipids can self-assemble to form liposomes, spherical vesicles similar to cell membranes. With a liposome as a spherical template, hydrophobic monomers and pore- forming moieties are loaded into the hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer. Photochemical polymerization converts the monomers—now in a spherical pattern—into a polymer capsule. The porogens are chemically removed, leaving empty pores in their place. During synthesis, many types of small molecules—from organic dyes to small enzymes—can be loaded into the hollow interior of the nanocapsules. The immobilization of these molecules, combined with control of the controllable pores, generates a novel, functional nanomaterial.

Polyme r Assisted Synthesis of FeNi Nanoparticles Sunil K. Karna (Physics), Presenter FeNi nanoparticles in the size range of 50 to 150 nm were synthesized via wet chemical method. The precursor salts were reduced by hydrazine hydrate in alkaline media in presence of polyethylene glycol or polyvinylpyrolidone. The synthesis process was studied to understand the role of polymers in the growth of nanoparticles. Structural characterization performed using TEM and XRD show formation of highly crystalline and well dispersed FeNi nanoparticles. The size of particles was found to vary with molecular weight and concentrations of polymers. Low temperature zero- field cooled magnetization studied show saturation magnetization decrease with the increase in polymer molecular weight.

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Improvements in Capillary Membrane Sampling-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method for the Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water Meggan L. Larson (Chemistry), Presenter In the U.S., chlorination is the most widely used water treatment process; as a result disinfection by-products (DBPs) are formed. One main class of DBPs is trihalomethanes (THM4) which include chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform. Currently, the maximum contaminant level set by the USEPA for total THM4 is 0.080 mg/L. A capillary membrane sampling- gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (CMS-GC-MS) method was developed for analysis of THM4 in drinking water. The instrument setup has been modified to include automated internal standard (1,2-dibromopropane). Optimization, method detection limits, accuracy, and precision studies for the improved method will be presented. Following these studies, drinking water grab samples from various locations were analyzed and the concentrations of THM4 were determined.

Pathways Involved in Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus for Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease Deranda Lester and Tiffany Rogers (Psychology), Presenters Deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or dorsal forebrain bundle (DFB) is an effective neurosurgical treatment for motor symptoms of Parkinson‘s; however, underlying mechanisms are unclear. Using amperometry in urethane-anesthetized mice, this study investigated pathways by which DFB and STN-stimulation could release striatal dopamine, providing therapeutic benefits. Stimulations were applied to the STN or DFB while infusing lidocaine into the substantia nigra compacta (SNc) or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPT). Findings suggest that DFB-stimulation activates ascending SNc dopamine axons, while STNstimulation evokes striatal dopamine directly via glutamatergic inputs to SNc dopamine cells and indirectly via cholinergic/glutamatergic STN-PPT-SNc pathways.

Synthesis and Photochemistry of New Photochromic Organometallics Karen L. Mosley (Chemistry), Presenter Cyclopentadienyltricarbonylmanganese (cymantrene) derivatives capable of linkage isomerization were successfully synthesized by a new method and their photochemistry has been investigated. Tricarbonyl[η5 -(2-oxo-2-(2-pyridinyl)ethyl)cyclopentadienyl]manganese (1) was first synthesized by reacting methyl cymantrene with 2-carboxypyrdine aldehyde in the presence of tBuOK. This method produced low yields due to side reactions. In the new method, side reactions were minimized by replacing the aldehyde with methyl picolinate which also afforded greater yields. In addition, hydrazones were prepared by reacting 1 with substituted hydrazines and a catalytic amount of acetic acid. The photochromic properties of the hydrazones were characterized using IR, NMR, and UV absorption spectroscopy.

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Directed Covalent Assembly of Organic Nandisks Using Self-assembled Temporary Scaffolds Samuel Tekobo and Zachary Thomas (Chemistry), Presenters Nanoparticles of various sizes and shapes continue to impact modern technologies as well as scientific projections on future materials and devices. The tremendous influence of such nanoscale particles depart from their utilization as building block in composites material. Successful application of Nanoscale building blocks such as carbon nanotubes highlight the potential in creating superior material and the needs for the development of new nanoparticles produced by simple and scalable procedures from inexpensive components. Here we present a new way to create organic nanodisks from common hydrophobic monomers using directed covalent assembly within the self assembled temporary scaffold of bicelles.

SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES
Sexualizing the Body: Men, Muscularity, and Interpersonal Sexual Objectification Linda Baggett, Samantha Daniel, and Teresa Reeves (Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Research), Presenters Men face increased pressure to be muscular and slim, which has led to greater dissatisfaction with their bodies. Additionally, men's bodies are becoming increasingly sexually objectified. Sexual objectification occurs through interactions with people and the media when their bodies are evaluated as sexual objects, not as people, and limits one‘s worth to physical appearance and desirability. Studies with women have shown that being sexually objectified was related to selfobjectification and body shame, however, interpersonal sexual objectification in men has never been explored. This study explores men‘s experiences with interpersonal sexual objection and how that relates to drive for muscularity.

Perinatal Pedagogy: Authoritative Knowledge Taken to the People Nora C. Bridges (Anthropology), Presenter This community-based project will focus on aspects of an evaluation of the Community Voice program, which is implemented in Memphis, Tennessee by the March of Dimes. This program is aiming to reduce infant mortality in the African American community in Shelby County. This program touts itself as being a bottom- up approach that seeks to disseminate health information by ―taking it to the people‖ through the use of the social capital of Lay Health Advisors. Theoretical issues of commodified knowledge, authoritative knowledge, and culturally appropriate knowledge are at the crux the curriculum‘s ability to communicate effectively and meaningfully to the community.

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Emotion-Related Family Processes: Examination of the Relation between Parent Characteristics, Parenting Practices and Adolescent Outcomes Kelly E. Buckholdt and Lisa Jobe-Shields (Psychology), Presenters Parents‘ responses to their adolescents‘ emotions are often identified as a starting point to explain the development of adolescents‘ emotion dysregulation and psychopathology. Meanwhile, factors that contribute to the ways parents respond are rarely examined. This study examined parents‘ own difficulties regulating emotions within Eisenberg and colleagues (1998) model of emotion socialization processes. Results of structural equation modeling indicated that parents who had more difficulty regulating their own emotions neglected their adolescent‘s expressions of sadness more often; which in turn, related to more difficulty regulating emotion for the adolescent, and more internalizing and externalizing problems.

African-Ame rican Homicide Bereavement: The Influence of Social Support on Coping with Loss Laurie Burke, Maria Ippolito, and Alessandra Garza (Psychology), Presenters Past bereavement research indicates that people coping with violent loss are more likely to exhibit severe grief responses. However, the relevance of these findings has not been assessed in the African-American population where homicide rates are higher. Additionally, coping may be influenced by aspects of social support, including the size of the social network. Drawing on data collected from a sample of 58 African-American homicide survivors, we explored how the number of family and non- family supporters influences the bereaved‘s sense of both general and griefspecific support, and how negative social interactions affect bereavement outcome. The Role of Metacognitive Processes in Facilitating Students’ Learning in Multi-agent Hyperme dia Learning Environme nts Amber Chauncey, Emily Siler, and Candice Burkett (Psychology), Presenters Multi-agent computer based learning environments (CBLEs) have the potential to prompt, support, and model students‘ self- regulatory behavior in complex learning domains (Azevedo, 2008). The present study examines the effectiveness of MetaTutor, a multi-agent CBLE designed to train students to deploy key metacognitive strategies during learning about the circulatory system. Product (i.e., learning outcomes) and process (i.e., think-aloud protocols) data for 25 participants were randomly selected from a larger sample of 53 during a 60 minute learning task. We converged these data to examine the role of self- regulatory processes on students‘ learning. Linear regression analysis revealed that the use of self- regulatory processes significantly predicted students‘ posttest scores. The findings reveal the importance of the deployment of key metacognitive processes associated with students‘ learning in multi-agent learning environments.

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Defined by My Body: Muscularity and Self-Objectification in Men Samantha Daniel (Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Research), Presenter Appearance standards for men have become more restrictive over the past few decades resulting in increased male body image disturbances. Self-objectification occurs when one's appearance is considered to be the most important determinant of his/her self- worth and may be used to explain the drive for muscularity in men. Given mixed findings in the extant literature regarding men's experiences with self-objectification, there is reason to believe that these discrepancies may be a result of the way it's currently being measured. This project outlines the development of a new instrument to measure self-objectification to partially explain the drive for muscularity in men.

Coping in the Wake of Loss: Factors Influencing African-American Homicide Bereavement Maria Ippolito, Laurie Burke, and Alessandra Garza (Psychology), Presenters Research suggests that those who have suffered violent loss are more likely to exhibit severe grief responses. Our study of 58 African-American homicide survivors examined several potential predictors of psychosocial adaptation, including general and religious coping behavior and meaning reconstruction in the wake of loss. Outcomes evaluated include complicated grief, trauma, depression, and anxiety responses as well as access to adaptive states of positive emotion. Results contribute to a clearer understanding of factors that may mediate the response to homicide bereavement and suggest healing practices that could inform support group work and psychotherapeutic intervention for this vulnerable population.

Perceptions of Care Provided to Dementia Patients: Analysis of Caregiving Bother Sarah Kennedy (Anthropology), Presenter Using a mixed methods approach, qualitative and quantitative data on dementia patient behaviors and caregiver bother for 58 male and female caregivers were compared. All caregivers, who were either caring for a veteran or a veteran, were participating in an approved research s tudy at the VA Medical Center in Memphis, Tennessee. Data included monthly qualitative interviews and responses on the Revised Memory and Behavior Problem Checklist. Male caregivers were overall less bothered but personally affected more by behaviors, while female caregivers expressed more distress with how the disease had affected their care recipient.

Mental Image ry and EEG Activities in Elite and Novice Collegiate Soccer Players Kate Marshall (Health and Sport Sciences), Presenter Research has revealed that the practice of mental imagery (kinesthetic and visual imagery) of motor tasks plays an important role in motor skill learning and performance. The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to examine whether one type of motor imagery (i.e., kinesthetic, visual) is

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preferred by elite soccer athletes, 2) to determine if EEG patterns vary based on a) athletes‘ ability to use imagery, and b) their use of imagery to rehearse simple movements verses complex sport skills. Results will be discussed and related to mental imagery training recommendations and strategies for athletes.

G Loadings and Specificity Effects of DAS-II Core Clusters Jennifer L. Maynard and Lawre nce Houston (Psychology), Presenters The purpose of this study was to investigate the general factor loadings and specificity of the core cluster scores from the Differential Abilities Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II; Elliot, 2007). Results indicate that Nonverbal Reasoning Ability and Working Memory appear to be primarily measures of the general factor at 3 of the 4 age groups used in the analysis. Spatial Ability appears to be primarily a measure of the general factor across all 4 age groups. In contrast, Processing Speed appears to be primarily a measure of specific ability across all 4 age groups.

Digital Heritage: Community-Based Video Production Andre w J. Mrkva (Anthropology), Presenter This poster depicts the process and challenge of utilizing participatory action research and visual ethnographic methodology to produce oral history videos in cooperation with community youths. Researchers, community stakeholders, and several youths tested the research model to capture stories of the community in the midst of an urban development project that would directly affect their future. The model includes the youths as research partners instead of passive participants whereupon they decided what questions they pursued and directed the production of a video to present to their community and the public. This poster shares the pitfalls and successe s experienced overall.

Ambivalent Sexism: Gender Roles, Self-Esteem, and Drive for Muscularity Teresa Reeves, Samantha Daniel, and Linda Baggett (Counseling, Educational Psychology, and Research), Presenters The impact of having a poor body image may decrease self-esteem and masculinity in such a way that the need to emit compensatory strategies to emulate hegemonic masculinity may emerge. One such avenue involves the adoption of traditional gender roles, which can lead to a benevolent sexist perspective. This study seeks to examine the extent to which the pressure to emulate societal ideals on men may inadvertently result in their objectification of others. Thus, it is hypothesized that increased masculinity, increased drive for muscularity, and decreased self-esteem will positively predict ambivalent sexism.

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“Difficult” Suffixes Are Less Frequent in Mothers’ Speech Than “Easy” Suffixes Anne S. Warlaumont (Audiology and Speech Language Pathology), Presenter Certain suffixes (e.g., the plural noun –s) are acquired early and are relative strengths for children with language impairment. Other suffixes (e.g., the 3rd person singular verb -s and the past tense verb –ed), appear to be more difficult, emerge later in children's speech, and are relative weaknesses for children with language impairment. This study investigates the frequency of several suffixes in mothers' speech. The easier, earlier-acquired plural -s suffix is clearly more frequent than the later-emerging, "more difficult" suffixes. Frequency may play an important role in suffix acquisition for both typical children and children with language impairment.

Health and Anxiety among Homicide Survivors Joah L. Williams, Mollie B. Anderson, and Laurie A. Burke (Psychology), Presenters Homicide survivors have an increased risk for experiencing heightened anxiety reactions including symptoms of general anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (e.g. AmickMcMullan et al., 1991). These disorders are also linked to poor physical health. We examined relations between general anxiety, PTSD symptoms, and health among a sample of 62, predominately African American, individuals experiencing homicide loss. Regression analyses reveal that PTSD symptom severity is a statistically significant pred ictor of poorer self-reported health across six functional health domains (all p‘s < .05). Results suggest that PTSD symptoms may be more predictive of functional health than general anxiety among this population.

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21 st Annual Stu dent Research Forum PARTICIPANTS
UNDERGRADUATES Arnett, James ..........................................15 Baldwin, Jennifer ......................................8 Bidwell, Kate ...........................................7 Bomar, Rachel ........................................15 Boyer, Aly ..............................................14 Bryant, Jenny .........................................11 Burkett, Candice .....................................42 Bursi, Sarah ............................................19 Collins, Laura .........................................15 Crews, Jesse ...........................................16 Daigle, Rosaire Patrick ...........................16 Dowell, Nia ............................................16 Elenes, Egleide .........................................8 Ellis, Charles ..........................................13 Eskew, Alexis .........................................17 Estrella, Anthony .....................................8 Fonville, Brent .......................................17 Garrison, Andrea ....................................17 Garza, Alessandra ............................42, 43 Ghaila, Keng ..........................................14 Gibbs, Porshia ........................................18 Graves, Katye ...........................................8 Hamilton, Jacqueline ................................7 Harpole, Josh ............................................9 Hurt, Erica ..............................................11 Jafari, Navid .............................................9 Johnson, Andrew ................................... 14 Johnson, Nikki ....................................... 14 Justus, Audrey ........................................ 12 Maxwell, Timothy .................................... 7 McAteer, Jonathan ................................ 18 McClore, Erica ...................................... 18 McCracken, Ernest ................................ 13 McElroy III, Hugh .................................. 17 Mecwan, Marvin ...................................... 9 Mendoza, Sergio .................................... 10 Miller, Rebecca ..................................... 12 Morano, Thomas .................................... 10 Morehead, J. Ryan.................................. 18 Nguyen, Duong ..................................... 10 Owensby, Jennifer ................................. 12 Patrick, Megann .................................... 16 Patton, Samantha .................................... 17 Rapalo, Gabriel......................................... 9 Roberts, Ben .......................................... 19 Shaffer, Becky ....................................... 13 Siler, Emily ............................................ 42 Sinden-Redding, MacKenzie ................ 15 Smith, Amanda ....................................... 10 Tillery, Rachel ....................................... 19 Traynom, Erin ....................................... 19 Vassar, Sarah "Kristy"............................ 20

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UNDERGRADUATES (Continued) Voyles, Jessica .......................................20 Watanabe, Shinobu ................................20 White, Alicia .....................................18, 20 White, William..................................11, 28 Wright, Sara ...........................................20

GRADUATES Amoah, Doris .........................................32 Anderson, Mollie ....................................45 Baggett, Linda ..................................41, 44 Banks, Shane ..........................................22 Bell, Heather ...........................................23 Beverly, Dorian ......................................32 Bhattarai, Archana .................................36 Bonilla, Erin Ross ...................................33 Bridges, Nora ..........................................41 Buckholdt, Kelly ...............................15, 42 Burke, Laurie ..............................42, 43, 45 Burress, Landrus ....................................33 Butterworth, Jennifer .............................29 Ceci, Shaun ............................................37 Chandlee, Sarah .....................................29 Chaudhuri, Koyel ...................................37 Chauncey, Amber ...................................42 Cheon, Kyeongmi ..................................37 Crews, Matthew .....................................25 Daniel, Samantha .......................41, 43, 44 Davis, James............................................39 Doiuchi, Maki ........................................ 33 Doty, Heather ........................................ 25 Elley, Stephanie Stokes .......................... 24 Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey ......................... 33 Frost, Catherine ..................................... 37 Ganus, Bill ............................................. 39 Gopalakrishnan, Anusha ........................ 32 Green, Rita Williams .............................. 24 Healy, Scott ........................................... 30 Hill, Lana ............................................... 30 Houston, Lawrence ................................ 44 Howard, Angela ..................................... 34 Ippolito, Maria ................................. 42, 43 Jacob, Sara ............................................. 34 Jobe-Shields, Lisa............................. 15, 42 Johnson, Stacey ...................................... 24 Kanjilal, Debjani ................................... 22 Karna, Sunil............................................ 39 Kaushal, Aishwarya .............................. 38 Kennedy, Sarah ...................................... 43 Kramer, Carolyn ..................................... 34

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GRADUATES (Continued) Kurmashev, Dias ....................................37 Larson, Meggan ......................................40 Lee, Yu-Yaun .........................................24 Leedy, Megan .........................................26 Lester, Deranda ......................................40 Lin, Yunyue ...........................................38 Malempati, Haritha ................................26 Marshall, Kate ........................................43 Martin, Jacklyn .......................................30 Maynard, Jennifer ...................................44 McCanless, Jonathan...............................26 Medapati, Soujanya ................................37 Mosley, Karen .........................................40 Mrkva, Andrew .......................................44 Mueller, Danielle ...................................27 Nejad, Mohammad G. .............................22 Noel, Scott ..............................................27 Nyindodo, Lilian .....................................35 Onita, Colin ............................................22 Pacurar, Ioana Sofia ................................23 Peasant, Courtney ...................................19 Peevyhouse, Aaron .................................23 Phelps, Danielle .....................................31 Prater, Tammy ........................................31 Rainey, Felynncia ...................................27 Ransom, Jennifer.....................................35 Reeves, Teresa .................................41, 44 Ren, Yong ..............................................28 Reves, Benjamin .................................... 28 Rocconi, Louis ....................................... 25 Rogers, Tiffany ...................................... 40 Saha, Sudip ............................................ 38 Schroeder, Patricia ................................ 31 Shaughnessy, Kathryn ............................ 35 Smith, J. Keaton .................................... 28 Strong, Meghan ..................................... 31 Tekobo, Samuel ..................................... 41 Thomas, Zachary ............................. 28, 41 Vejandla, Pavan Kalyan ......................... 38 Wanjala, Irene ........................................ 36 Warlaumont, Anne ................................. 45 Weaver, Jamie ....................................... 29 Williams, Jesica...................................... 36 Williams, Joah ........................................ 45

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