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Discovering the American Past A Look at the Evidence_ Volume II Since 1865_ 7th Edition

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       Discovering the American Past: A Look                                             © 2012, 2007, 2002 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
       at the Evidence, Volume II: Since 1865,
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       1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10



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                               ✦
                                      CHAPTER


                                                  1
                                                                     Reconstructing
                                                                     Reconstruction: The
                                                                     Political Cartoonist
                                                                     and Public Opinion

                                                                                                         ✦
                                                                                           The Problem

                     The cable that arrived at the U.S. State                                                   presidential election since 1864. But by
                     Department from Guayaquil, Ecuador, on                                                     the 1880s, the public had grown tired of
                     the afternoon of December 7, 1902, was                                                     his anger, his outrage, and his crusad-
                     brief: “Nast died today, yellow fever.”1                                                   ing zeal. And so the cartoonist who had
                        Impoverished and nearly forgotten,                                                      given Americans the first modern depic-
                     political cartoonist Thomas Nast had                                                       tion of Santa Claus (January 3, 1863),
                     accepted a position as a consular official                                                 the Democratic donkey (January 15,
                     in out-of-the-way Ecuador as a political                                                   1870), the Republican elephant (Novem-
                     favor from President Theodore Roo-                                                         ber 7, 1874),3 and countless cartoons for
                     sevelt. The fairly undemanding job paid                                                    Harper’s Weekly from 1862 to 1886, faded
                     $4,000, a very nice salary in 1902 but                                                     gradually but not quietly from the scene,
                     nowhere near his total income in 1879 of                                                   and in 1902 swallowed his considerable
                     $25,000 as America’s most well-known                                                       pride and accepted a political favor. Four
                     and influential political cartoonist, for                                                  months later he was dead.
                     Harper’s Weekly in New York City.2 In                                                         The end of the War of the Rebellion4
                     that year, Thomas Nast had been at the                                                     in 1865 left the United States with a
                     peak of his career, had been influential in
                     the overthrow of the nation’s most power-                                                  3. All the dates refer to issues of Harper’s
                                                                                                                Weekly.
                     ful political boss (William Marcy Tweed),                                                  4. Many northerners used the term War of the
                     and had played a major role in every                                                       Rebellion during and immediately after the
                                                                                                                war. The official records of the conflict, pub-
                                                                                                                lished by the U.S. Government Printing Of-
                     1. Albert Bigelow Paine, Th. Nast: His Period                                              fice from 1880 to 1901 were titled The Official
                     and His Pictures (New York: Macmillan Co.,                                                 Records of the War of the Rebellion. President
                     1904), p. 574.                                                                             Lincoln and others, however, preferred the
                     2. Nast’s salary as a customs officer would be                                             term “Civil War,” that was ultimately adopted.
                     comparable to $103,000 in 2009 dollars. His                                                During the war, many southerners referred to
                     1879 total income would be $555,000 in 2009                                                the War for Southern Independence, and later
                     dollars. See http://eh.net.                                                                to the War Between the States.


                                                                                                        [1]

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✦ C HA PTER 1
Reconstructing
Reconstruction:
The Political                           host of difficult questions. What should                                                   reforms (such as universal white male
Cartoonist and                          happen to the defeated South? Should                                                       suffrage, rotation in office, the evo-
Public Opinion                          the states of the former Confederacy be                                                    lution of political campaigns, and so
                                        permitted to take their pre-war places                                                     forth) made it unlikely that either the
                                        in the Union as quickly and smoothly                                                       president or Congress could defy public
                                        as possible, with minimum conces-                                                          opinion successfully. Yet public opinion
                                        sions to their northern conquerors?                                                        can shift with remarkable speed, and
                                        Or should the United States insist on                                                      political figures forever must be sensi-
                                        a more drastic reconstruction of the                                                       tive to its sometimes fickle winds.
                                        South? Tied to these questions was the                                                        Although public opinion is a crucial
                                        thorny constitutional issue of whether                                                     factor in a democratic republic such as
                                        the southern states actually had left the                                                  the United States, that same public opin-
                                        Union at all in 1861. But perhaps the                                                      ion often can be shaped or manipulated
                                        most difficult questions the Union’s vic-                                                  by political figures, interest groups, or
                                        tory raised concerned the status of the                                                    the press. In this chapter, you will be
                                        former slaves. To be sure, they were no                                                    examining and analyzing how Thomas
                                        longer in bondage, but should they pos-                                                    Nast, through his cartoons, attempted
                                        sess the same rights as whites? Should                                                     to influence and shape public opinion
                                        they be allowed to vote?5 Should they                                                      in the North. Although Nast certainly
                                        be assisted in becoming landowners?                                                        was not the only person who sought
                                        If not, how would they earn a living?                                                      to do so, many of his contemporaries,
                                        Indeed, while the war settled a num-                                                       friends and foes alike, admitted that
                                        ber of questions, its conclusion left all                                                  his political cartoons ranked among the
                                        Americans with other dilemmas.                                                             most powerful opinion shapers during
                                           In all these questions, public opinion                                                  the era of Reconstruction.
                                        in the victorious North was a critical                                                        What were Nast’s views on the con-
                                        factor in shaping or altering the federal                                                  troversial issues of the Reconstruction
                                        government’s policies designed to recon-                                                   era? How did his cartoons attempt to
                                        struct the South. Earlier democratic                                                       influence public opinion?



                                                                                                                             ✦
                                                                                                                Background
                                        By early 1865, it seemed evident to                                                        depleted forces in Virginia, Union gen-
                                        most northerners and southerners                                                           eral William Tecumseh Sherman broke
                                        that the Civil War was nearly over.                                                        the back of the Confederacy with his
                                        While Grant was hammering at Lee’s                                                         devastating march through Georgia
                                                                                                                                   and then northward into the Carolinas.
                                                                                                                                   Atlanta fell to Sherman’s troops in Sep-
                                        5. Until the ratification of the Fifteenth                                                 tember 1864, Savannah in December,
                                        Amendment in 1870, some northern states,
                                        most prominently New York, did not grant Af-                                               and Charleston and Columbia, South
                                        rican Americans the right to vote.                                                         Carolina, in February 1865. Two-thirds

                                                                                                                             [2]

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Background



                     of Columbia lay in ashes. Meanwhile,                                                       South in rebuilding after the devasta-
                     General Philip Sheridan had driven                                                         tion of war? If so, should the North dic-
                     the Confederates out of the Shenan-                                                        tate how that rebuilding, or reconstruc-
                     doah Valley of Virginia, thus blocking                                                     tion, would take place? What efforts
                     any escape attempts by Lee and further                                                     should the North make to ensure that
                     cutting southern supply routes.                                                            the former slaves were able to exercise
                        In the South, all but the extreme die-                                                  the rights of free men and women?
                     hards recognized that defeat was inevi-                                                    During the war, few northerners had
                     table. One Georgian probably spoke                                                         seriously considered these questions.
                     for a majority of southerners when he                                                      Now that victory lay within their grasp,
                     wrote, “The people are soul-sick and                                                       they could not avoid them.
                     heartily tired of the hateful, hopeless                                                       One person who had been wres-
                     strife. . . . We have had enough of want                                                   tling with these questions was Abra-
                     and woe, of cruelty and carnage, enough                                                    ham Lincoln. In December 1863, the
                     of crippling and corpses.”6 As the Con-                                                    president announced his own plan for
                     federate government made secret plans                                                      reconstructing the South, a plan that
                     to evacuate Richmond, most southern-                                                       reflected the hope later expressed
                     ers knew that the end was very near.                                                       in his second inaugural address, for
                        The triumph of Union arms had                                                           “malice toward none; with charity for
                     established that the United States was                                                     all; . . . Let us . . . bind up the nation’s
                     “one nation indivisible,” from which no                                                    wounds.”8 In Lincoln’s plan, a southern
                     state could secede.7 And yet, even with                                                    state could resume its normal activities
                     victory almost in hand, many north-                                                        in the Union as soon as 10 percent of
                     erners had given little thought to what                                                    the voters of 1860 had taken an oath
                     should happen after the war. Would                                                         of loyalty to the United States. High-
                     southerners accept the changes that                                                        ranking Confederate leaders would be
                     defeat would force on them (especially                                                     excluded, and some blacks might gain
                     the end of slavery)? What demands                                                          the right to vote. No mention was made
                     should the victors make on the van-                                                        of protecting the civil rights of former
                     quished? Should the North assist the                                                       slaves; it was presumed that this mat-
                                                                                                                ter would be left to the slaves’ former
                                                                                                                masters and mistresses.
                                                                                                                   To many northerners, later known
                     6. The letter probably was written by Geor-
                     gian Herschel V Walker. See Allan Nevins, The
                                     .                                                                          as Radical Republicans, Lincoln’s
                     Organized War to Victory, 1864–1865, Vol. IV                                               plan seemed much too lenient. In the
                     of The War for the Union (New York: Charles                                                opinion of these people, a number
                     Scribner’s Sons, 1971), p. 221.
                     7. In response to President Benjamin Harri-                                                of whom had been abolitionists, the
                     son’s 1892 appeal for schoolchildren to mark
                     Columbus’s discovery with patriotic exercises,
                     Bostonian Francis Bellamy (brother of the
                     novelist Edward Bellamy) composed the pledge                                               8. The full text of Lincoln’s second inaugu-
                     of allegiance to the American flag, from which                                             ral address, delivered on March 4, 1865, can
                     the phrase “one nation indivisible” comes. In                                              be found in Roy P Basler, ed., The Collected
                                                                                                                                   .
                     1942, Congress made it the official pledge to                                              Works of Abraham Lincoln, Vol. VIII (New
                     the flag, and in 1954 added the words “under                                               Brunswick, N. J.: Rutgers University Press,
                     God” in the middle of Bellamy’s phrase.                                                    1953), pp. 332–333.


                                                                                                        [3]

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
✦ C HA PTER 1
Reconstructing
Reconstruction:
The Political                           South, when conquered, should not be                                                       however, Lincoln maintained that as
Cartoonist and                          allowed to return to its former ways.                                                      chief enforcer of the law and as com-
Public Opinion                          Not only should slavery be eradicated,                                                     mander in chief, the president was the
                                        they claimed, but freed blacks should                                                      appropriate person to be in charge of
                                        be assisted in their efforts to attain eco-                                                Reconstruction. Clearly, a stalemate
                                        nomic, social, and political equity. Most                                                  was in the making, with Radical Repub-
                                        of the Radical Republicans favored edu-                                                    licans calling for a more reform-minded
                                        cation for African Americans, and some                                                     Reconstruction policy and Lincoln con-
                                        advocated carving the South’s planta-                                                      tinuing to block them.
                                        tions into small parcels to be given to                                                       President Lincoln’s death on April 15,
                                        the freedmen. To implement these                                                           1865 (one week after Lee’s surrender at
                                        reforms, Radical Republicans wanted                                                        Appomattox Court House),10 brought
                                        detachments of the United States Army                                                      Vice President Andrew Johnson to the
                                        to remain in the South and favored the                                                     nation’s highest office. At first, Radical
                                        appointment of provisional governors                                                       Republicans had reason to hope that
                                        to oversee the transitional govern-                                                        the new president would follow poli-
                                        ments in the southern states. Lincoln                                                      cies more to their liking. A Tennessean,
                                        approved plans for the Army to stay                                                        Johnson had risen to political promi-
                                        and supported the idea of provisional                                                      nence from humble circumstances, had
                                        governors. But he opposed the more                                                         become a spokesperson for the common
                                        far-reaching reform notions of the                                                         white men and women of the South, and
                                        Radical Republicans, and as president                                                      had opposed the planter aristocracy.
                                        he was able to block them.                                                                 Upon becoming president, he excluded
                                           In addition to having diametrically                                                     from amnesty all former Confederate
                                        opposed views of Reconstruction, Lin-                                                      political and military leaders as well
                                        coln and the Radical Republicans dif-                                                      as all southerners who owned taxable
                                        fered over the constitutional question                                                     property worth more than $20,000 (an
                                        of which branch of the federal gov-                                                        obvious slap at his old planter-aristo-
                                        ernment would be responsible for the                                                       crat foes). Moreover, Johnson issued
                                        reconstruction of the South. The Con-                                                      a proclamation setting up provisional
                                        stitution made no mention of seces-                                                        military governments in the conquered
                                        sion, reunion, or reconstruction. But                                                      South and told his cabinet he favored
                                        Radical Republicans, citing passages in                                                    black suffrage, although as a states’
                                        the Constitution giving Congress the                                                       rightist he insisted that states adopt
                                        power to guarantee each state a repub-                                                     the measure voluntarily. At the outset,
                                        lican government, insisted that the                                                        then, Johnson appeared to be all the
                                        reconstruction of the South should be                                                      Radical Republicans wanted, preferable
                                        carried out by Congress.9 For his part,                                                    to the more moderate Lincoln.

                                                         ,
                                        9. See Article IV Section 4, of the Constitu-
                                        tion. Later Radical Republicans also justified
                                        their position using the Thirteenth Amend-                                                 10. The last Confederate army to give up,
                                        ment, adopted in 1865, which gave Congress                                                 commanded by General Joseph Johnston,
                                        the power to enforce the amendment ending                                                  surrendered to Sherman at Durham Station,
                                        slavery in the South.                                                                      North Carolina, on April 18, 1865.


                                                                                                                             [4]

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Background



                        Yet it did not take Radical Republi-                                                    sufficient power in Congress to pass
                     cans long to realize that President John-                                                  harsher measures, but Johnson kept
                     son was not one of them. Although he                                                       vetoing them, and the Radicals lacked
                     spoke harshly, he pardoned hundreds                                                        the votes to override his vetoes.11
                     of former rebels, who quickly captured                                                     Indeed, the impasse that had existed
                     control of southern state governments                                                      before Lincoln’s death continued.
                     and congressional delegations. Many                                                           In such an atmosphere, the congres-
                     northerners were shocked to see former                                                     sional elections of 1866 were bitterly
                     Confederate generals and officials, and                                                    fought campaigns, especially in the
                     even former vice president Alexander                                                       northern states. President Johnson
                     Stephens, returned to Washington. The                                                      traveled throughout the North, defend-
                     new southern state legislatures passed                                                     ing his moderate plan of Reconstruc-
                     a series of laws, known collectively as                                                    tion and viciously attacking his political
                     black codes, that so severely restricted                                                   enemies. However, the Radical Repub-
                     the rights of freedmen that they were                                                      licans were even more effective. Stir-
                     all but slaves again. Moreover, Johnson                                                    ring up the hostilities of wartime, they
                     privately told southerners that he                                                         “waved the bloody shirt” and excited
                     opposed the Fourteenth Amendment to                                                        northern voters by charging that the
                     the Constitution, which was intended                                                       South had never accepted its defeat
                     to confer full civil rights on the newly                                                   and that the 364,000 Union dead and
                     freed slaves. He also used his veto                                                        275,000 wounded would be for nothing
                     power to block Radical Republican                                                          if the South was permitted to continue
                     Reconstruction measures in Congress                                                        its arrogant and stubborn behavior.
                     and seemed to do little to combat the                                                      Increasingly, Johnson was greeted by
                     general defiance of the former Confed-                                                     hostile audiences as the North under-
                     eracy (exhibited in many forms, includ-                                                    went a major shift in public opinion.
                     ing insults thrown at U.S. occupation                                                         The Radical Republicans won a
                     soldiers, the desecration of the United                                                    stunning victory in the congressional
                     States flag, and the formation of organ-                                                   elections of 1866 and thus broke the
                     ized resistance groups such as the Ku                                                      stalemate between Congress and the
                     Klux Klan).                                                                                president. Armed with enough votes
                        To an increasing number of north-                                                       to override Johnson’s vetoes almost at
                     erners, the unrepentant spirit of the                                                      will, the new Congress proceeded rap-
                     South and Johnson’s acquiescence to                                                        idly to implement the Radical Repub-
                     it were appalling. Had the Civil War                                                       lican vision of Reconstruction. The
                     been fought for nothing? Had more                                                          South was divided into five military
                     than 364,000 federal soldiers died in                                                      districts to be ruled by martial law.
                     vain? White southerners were openly                                                        Southern states had to ratify the Four-
                     defiant, African Americans were being                                                      teenth Amendment and institute black
                     subjugated by white southerners and                                                        suffrage before being allowed to take
                     virtually ignored by President John-
                     son, and former Confederates were
                                                                                                                11. Congress was able to override Johnson’s
                     returning to positions of power and                                                        vetoes of the Civil Rights Act and a revised
                     prominence. Radical Republicans had                                                        Freedmen’s Bureau bill.


                                                                                                        [5]

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
✦ C HA PTER 1
Reconstructing
Reconstruction:
The Political                           their formal places in the Union. The                                                      threatened to destroy the balance of
Cartoonist and                          Freedmen’s Bureau, founded earlier,                                                        power between the branches of the fed-
Public Opinion                          was given additional federal support to                                                    eral government. The vote on removal
                                        set up schools for African Americans,                                                      fell one short of the necessary two-
                                        negotiate labor contracts, and, with the                                                   thirds, and Johnson was spared the
                                        military, help monitor elections. Only                                                     indignity of removal. Nevertheless,
                                        the proposal to give land to blacks was                                                    the Republican nomination of General
                                        rejected, being seen as too extreme even                                                   Ulysses Grant and his subsequent land-
                                        by some Radical Republicans. Congres-                                                      slide victory (running as a military hero,
                                        sional Reconstruction had begun.                                                           Grant carried twenty-six out of thirty-
                                           President Johnson, however, had                                                         four states) gave Radical Republicans a
                                        not been left completely powerless.                                                        malleable president, one who, although
                                        Determined to undercut the Radical                                                         not a Radical himself, could ensure
                                        Republicans’ Reconstruction policies,                                                      the continuation of their version of
                                        he issued orders increasing the pow-                                                       Reconstruction.13
                                        ers of civil governments in the South                                                         The Democratic party, however, was
                                        and removed military officers who                                                          not dead, even though the Republican
                                        were enforcing Congress’s will, replac-                                                    party dominated national politics in
                                        ing them with commanders less deter-                                                       the immediate aftermath of the Civil
                                        mined to protect black voting rights                                                       War. In addition to white farmers and
                                        and more willing to turn the other way                                                     planters in the South and border states,
                                        when disqualified white southerners                                                        the Democratic party attracted many
                                        voted. Opposed most vigorously by his                                                      northerners who favored conserva-
                                        own secretary of war, Edwin Stanton,                                                       tive (“sound money”) policies, voters
                                        Johnson tried to discharge Stanton. To                                                     who opposed Radical Reconstruction,
                                        an increasing number of Radicals, it                                                       and first- and second-generation Irish
                                        became clear that the president would                                                      immigrants who had settled in urban
                                        have to be removed from office.                                                            areas and had established powerful
                                           In 1868, the House of Representa-                                                       political machines such as Tammany
                                        tives voted to impeach Andrew Johnson.                                                     Hall in New York City.
                                        Charged with violating the Tenure of                                                          By 1872, a renewed Democratic
                                        Office Act and the Command of the Army                                                     party believed it had a chance to oust
                                        Act (both of which had been passed over                                                    Grant and the Republicans. The Grant
                                        Johnson’s vetoes), the president was                                                       administration had been rocked by a
                                        tried in the Senate, where two-thirds of                                                   series of scandals, some involving men
                                        the senators would have to vote against                                                    quite close to the president. Although
                                        Johnson for him to be removed.12 The                                                       honest himself, Grant had lost a good
                                        vast majority of senators disagreed with                                                   deal of popularity by defending the
                                        the president’s Reconstruction policies,
                                        but they feared that impeachment had                                                       13. In 1868, southern states, where the Demo-
                                        become a political tool that, if successful,                                               cratic party had been strong, either were not
                                                                                                                                   in the Union or were under the control of Rad-
                                                                                                                                   ical Reconstruction governments. Grant’s vic-
                                        12. See Article I, Sections 2 and 3, of the Con-                                           tory, therefore, was not as sweeping as it may
                                        stitution.                                                                                 first appear.


                                                                                                                             [6]

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Background



                     culprits and naively aiding in a cover-                                                    had never been strong, and they had
                     up of the corruption. These actions,                                                       voted for Radical Republicans more out
                     along with some of his other policies,                                                     of anger at southern intransigence than
                     triggered a revolt within the Repub-                                                       out of any lofty notions of black equal-
                     lican party, in which a group calling                                                      ity. Thus northerners did not protest
                     themselves Liberal Republicans bolted                                                      when, one by one, southern Democrats
                     the party ranks and nominated well-                                                        returned to power in the states of the
                     known editor and reformer Horace                                                           former Confederacy.14 As an indication
                     Greeley to oppose Grant for the presi-                                                     of how little their own attitudes had
                     dency. Hoping for a coalition to defeat                                                    changed, white southerners labeled
                     Grant, the Democrats also nominated                                                        these native Democrats “Redeemers,”
                     the controversial Greeley.                                                                 who were swept back into power by
                        Greeley’s platform was designed to at-                                                  anti-northern rhetoric and violence.
                     tract as many different groups of voters                                                      Although much that was fruit-
                     as possible to the Liberal Republican-                                                     ful and beneficial was accomplished
                     Democratic fold. He favored civil service                                                  in the South during the Reconstruc-
                     reform, the return to a “hard money” fis-                                                  tion period (most notably black suf-
                     cal policy, and the reservation of western                                                 frage and public education), some of
                     lands for settlers rather than for large                                                   this was to be temporary, and many
                     land companies. He vowed an end to                                                         opportunities for progress were lost.
                     corruption in government. But the most                                                     By the presidential election of 1876,
                     dramatic part of Greeley’s message was                                                     both candidates (Rutherford B. Hayes
                     his call for an end to the bitterness of                                                   and Samuel Tilden) promised an end
                     the Civil War, a thinly veiled promise to                                                  to Reconstruction, and the Radical
                     bring an end to Radical Reconstruction                                                     Republican experiment, for all intents
                     in the South. “Let us,” he said, “clasp                                                    and purposes, was over.
                     hands over the bloody chasm.”                                                                 It is clear that northern public opinion
                        For their part, Radical Republicans                                                     from 1865 to 1876 was far from static
                     attacked Greeley as the tool of diehard                                                    but was almost constantly shifting.
                     southerners and labeled him as the                                                         This public opinion was influenced by a
                     candidate of white southern bigots and                                                     number of factors, among them speeches,
                     northern Irish immigrants manipu-                                                          newspapers, and word of mouth. Espe-
                     lated by political machines. By con-                                                       cially influential were editorial cartoons,
                     trast, Grant was labeled as a great war                                                    which captured the issues visually, often
                     hero and a friend of blacks and whites                                                     simplifying them so that virtually every-
                     alike. The incumbent Grant won eas-                                                        one could understand them. Perhaps the
                     ily, capturing 55 percent of the popu-
                     lar vote. Greeley died soon after the
                     exhausting campaign.                                                                       14. Southerners regained control of the state
                                                                                                                governments in Tennessee and Virginia in
                        Gradually, however, the zeal of Radi-                                                   1869, North Carolina in 1870, Georgia in 1871,
                     cal Republicanism began to fade. An                                                        Arkansas and Alabama in 1874, and Mississip-
                     increasing number of northerners grew                                                      pi in early 1876. By the presidential election
                                                                                                                of 1876, only South Carolina, Louisiana, and
                     tired of the issue. Their commitment to                                                    Florida were still controlled by Reconstruction
                     full civil rights for African Americans                                                    governments.


                                                                                                        [7]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
✦ C HA PTER 1
Reconstructing
Reconstruction:
The Political                           master of this style was Thomas Nast, a                                                    the illustrations for one of his books so
Cartoonist and                          political cartoonist whose career, princi-                                                 that “then I will have good pictures”).
Public Opinion                          pally with Harper’s Weekly, spanned the                                                    In contrast, one of Nast’s favorite
                                        tumultuous years of the Civil War and                                                      targets, political boss William Marcy
                                        Reconstruction. Throughout his career,                                                     Tweed of New York’s Tammany Hall,
                                        Nast produced more than three thou-                                                        once shouted, “Let’s stop these damn
                                        sand cartoons, illustrations for books,                                                    pictures. I don’t care so much what the
                                        and paintings. Congratulating them-                                                        papers say about me—my constituents
                                        selves for having hired Nast, the editors                                                  can’t read; but damn it, they can see
                                        of Harper’s Weekly once exclaimed that                                                     pictures!”
                                        each of Nast’s drawings was at once “a                                                        It is obvious from his work that Nast
                                        poem and a speech.”                                                                        was a man of strong feelings and emo-
                                           Apparently, Thomas Nast developed                                                       tions. In his eyes, those people whom
                                        his talents early in life. Born in the                                                     he admired possessed no flaws. Con-
                                        German Palatinate (one of the Ger-                                                         versely, those whom he opposed were,
                                        man states) in 1840, Nast was the son                                                      to him, capable of every conceivable vil-
                                        of a musician in the Ninth Regiment                                                        lainy. As a result, his characterizations
                                        Bavarian Band. The family moved to                                                         often were terribly unfair, gross distor-
                                        New York City in 1846, at which time                                                       tions of reality and more than occasion-
                                        young Thomas was enrolled in school.                                                       ally libelous. In his view, however, his
                                        It seems that art was his only inter-                                                      central purpose was not to entertain
                                        est. One teacher admonished him,                                                           but to move his audience, to make them
                                        “Go finish your picture. You will never                                                    scream out in outrage or anger, to prod
                                        learn to read or figure.” After unsuc-                                                     them to action. The selection of Nast’s
                                        cessfully trying to interest their son in                                                  cartoons in this chapter is typical of the
                                        music, his parents eventually encour-                                                      body of his work for Harper’s Weekly:
                                        aged the development of his artistic                                                       artistically inventive and polished,
                                        talent. By the age of fifteen, Thomas                                                      blatantly slanted, and brimming with
                                        Nast was drawing illustrations for                                                         indignation and emotion.
                                        Frank Leslie’s Illustrated Newspaper.                                                         The evidence in this chapter consists
                                        He joined Harper’s Weekly in 1862 (at                                                      of fourteen cartoons by Thomas Nast
                                        the age of twenty-two), where he devel-                                                    that were published in Harper’s Weekly
                                        oped the cartoon style that was to win                                                     between August 5, 1865, and December
                                        him a national reputation, as well as                                                      9, 1876. Your tasks in this chapter are
                                        enemies.15 He received praise from                                                         to determine Nast’s views on the con-
                                        Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses Grant, and                                                        troversial issues of the Reconstruction
                                        Samuel Clemens (also known as Mark                                                         era, and how his cartoons attempted to
                                        Twain, who in 1872 asked Nast to do                                                        sway public opinion on those issues.


                                        15. Nast began to make the transition from
                                        artistry to caricature in 1867. Note the differ-
                                        ences between Sources 1 and 2 and Sources 3
                                        through 14. As you can see, the transition was
                                        more gradual than immediate.


                                                                                                                             [8]

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The Method




                                                                                                         ✦
                                                                                            The Method

                     Although Thomas Nast developed                                                             elections) of the period between 1865
                     the political cartoon into a true art                                                      and 1876. As you examine the cartoons
                     form, cartoons and caricatures had                                                         in this chapter, try to determine what
                     a long tradition in both Europe and                                                        event or issue is being portrayed. Often
                     America before Nast. English artists                                                       a cartoon’s caption, dialogue, or date
                     helped bring forth the cartoon style                                                       will help you discover its focus.
                     that eventually made Punch (founded                                                           Next, look closely at each cartoon
                     in 1841) one of the liveliest illus-                                                       for clues that will help you understand
                     trated periodicals on both sides of the                                                    the message that Nast was trying to
                     Atlantic. In America, Benjamin Fran-                                                       convey. People who saw these cartoons
                     klin is traditionally credited with pub-                                                   more than one hundred years ago did
                     lishing the first newspaper cartoon in                                                     not have to study them so carefully,
                     1754—the multidivided snake (each                                                          of course. The individuals and events
                     part of the snake representing one col-                                                    shown in each cartoon were immedi-
                     ony) with the ominous warning “Join                                                        ately familiar to them, and the message
                     or Die.” By the time Andrew Jackson                                                        was obvious. But you are historians,
                     sought the presidency, the political car-                                                  using these cartoons as evidence to
                     toon had become a regular and popu-                                                        help you understand how people were
                     lar feature of American political life.                                                    reacting to important events many
                     Crude by modern standards, these car-                                                      years ago.
                     toons influenced some people far more                                                         As you can see, Nast was a talented
                     than did the printed word.                                                                 artist. Like many political cartoon-
                        As we noted, the political cartoon, like                                                ists, he often explored the differences
                     the newspaper editorial, is intended to                                                    between what he believed was the ideal
                     do more than objectively report events.                                                    (justice, fairness) and the reality (his
                     It is meant to express an opinion, a                                                       view of what was actually happening).
                     point of view, approval or disapproval.                                                    To “read” Nast’s cartoons, you should
                     Political cartoonists want to move peo-                                                    identify the issue or event on which
                     ple, to make them laugh, to anger them,                                                    the cartoon is based. Then look at the
                     or to move them to action. In short,                                                       imagery Nast used: the situation, the
                     political cartoons do not depict exactly                                                   setting, the clothes people are wearing,
                     what is happening; rather, they portray                                                    and the objects in the picture. It is espe-
                     popular reaction to what is happening                                                      cially important to note how people are
                     and try to persuade people to react in a                                                   portrayed: Do they look handsome and
                     particular way.                                                                            noble, or do they look like animals?
                        How do you analyze political car-                                                       Are they happy or sad? Intelligent or
                     toons? First, using your text and the                                                      stupid?
                     Problem and Background sections of                                                            Political cartoonists often use sym-
                     this chapter, make a list of the most                                                      bolism to make their point, some-
                     important issues and events (including                                                     times in the form of an allegory. In an


                                                                                                        [9]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
✦ C HA PTER 1
Reconstructing
Reconstruction:
The Political                           allegory, familiar figures are shown in                                                    United States. In Nast’s time, Colum-
Cartoonist and                          a situation or setting that everyone                                                       bia, a tall woman wearing a long clas-
Public Opinion                          knows—for example, a setting from                                                          sical dress, represented the United
                                        the Bible, a fairy tale, or another well-                                                  States. Also in Nast’s time, an hour-
                                        known source. For instance, a cartoon                                                      glass, rather than a clock, symbolized
                                        showing a tiny president of the United                                                     that time was running out. And military
                                        States holding a slingshot, dressed in                                                     uniforms, regardless of the fact that the
                                        sandals and rags, and fighting a giant,                                                    Civil War had ended in 1865, were used
                                        muscular man labeled “Congress”                                                            to indicate whether a person had sup-
                                        would remind viewers of the story of                                                       ported the Union (and, by implication,
                                        David and Goliath. In that story, the                                                      was a Republican) or the Confederacy
                                        small man won. The message of the                                                          (by implication, a Democrat).
                                        cartoon is that the president will win                                                        As you can see, a political cartoon
                                        in his struggle with Congress.                                                             must be analyzed in detail to get the
                                           Other, less complicated symbolism                                                       full meaning the cartoonist was trying
                                        is often used in political cartoons. In                                                    to convey. From that analysis, one can
                                        Nast’s time, as today, the American flag                                                   discover the message of the cartoon,
                                        was an important symbol of the ideals                                                      along with the cartoonist’s views on
                                        of our democratic country, and an olive                                                    the subject and the ways in which the
                                        branch or dove represented the desire                                                      cartoonist was trying to influence pub-
                                        for peace. Some symbols have changed,                                                      lic opinion. Now you are ready to begin
                                        however. Today, the tall, skinny fig-                                                      your analysis of the Reconstruction era
                                        ure we call Uncle Sam represents the                                                       through the cartoons of Thomas Nast.




                                                                                                                           [ 10 ]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Evidence




                                                                                                         ✦
                                                                                          The Evidence
                     Sources 1 through 14 from Harper’s Weekly. A Journal of Civilization, August 5, 1865;
                     June 30, 1866; March 30, 1867; September 5, October 3, 1868; April 13, August 3, September
                     21, 1872; March 14, September 26, December 5, 1874; September 2, December 9, November
                     4, 1876.




                     1. Columbia—“Shall I Trust These Men, And Not This Man?,” August 5, 1865.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Provided courtesy HarpWeek




                                                                                                       [ 11 ]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
✦ C HA PTER 1
Reconstructing
Reconstruction:
The Political                                                     2. “The Contrast of Suffering—Andersonville and Fortress Monroe,”
Cartoonist and                                                       June 30, 1866.
Public Opinion
                                     Provided courtesy HarpWeek




                                                                                                                           [ 12 ]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Evidence



                     3. Amphitheatrum Johnsonianum—“Massacre of the Innocents At New
                        Orleans,” March 30, 1867.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Provided courtesy HarpWeek




                                                                                                       [ 13 ]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
✦ C HA PTER 1
Reconstructing
Reconstruction:
The Political                                                     4. “This Is a White Man’s Government,” September 5, 1868.
Cartoonist and
Public Opinion
                                     Provided courtesy HarpWeek




                                                                                                                           [ 14 ]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The Evidence



                     5. “The Modern Samson,” October 3, 1868.




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Provided courtesy HarpWeek




                                                                                                       [ 15 ]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
✦ C HA PTER 1
Reconstructing
Reconstruction:
The Political                                                     6. “The Republic Is Not Ungrateful,” April 13, 1872.
Cartoonist and
Public Opinion
                                     Provided courtesy HarpWeek




                                                                                                                           [ 16 ]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Evidence



                     7. “Baltimore 1861–1872,” August 3, 1872.




                                                                                                                                                                                                     Provided courtesy HarpWeek




                                                                                                       [ 17 ]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
✦ C HA PTER 1
Reconstructing
Reconstruction:
The Political                                                     8. “Let Us Clasp Hands over the Bloody Chasm” (Horace Greeley)
Cartoonist and                                                       September 21, 1872.
Public Opinion                       Provided courtesy HarpWeek




                                                                                                                           [ 18 ]

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Evidence



                     9. “Colored Rule in Reconstructed (?) State,” March 14, 1874.




                                                                                                                                                                                                     Provided courtesy HarpWeek




                                                                                                       [ 19 ]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
✦ C HA PTER 1
Reconstructing
Reconstruction:
The Political                                                     10. “The Commandments in South Carolina,” September 26, 1874.
Cartoonist and
Public Opinion
                                     Provided courtesy HarpWeek




                                                                                                                           [ 20 ]

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Evidence



                     11. “Now Gnaw Away!,” December 5, 1874.




                                                                                                                                                                                                     Provided courtesy HarpWeek




                                                                                                       [ 21 ]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
✦ C HA PTER 1
Reconstructing
Reconstruction:
The Political                                                     12. “Is This a Republican Form of Government? Is This Protecting Life, Liberty, or
Cartoonist and                                                       Property? Is This the Equal Protection of the Laws?,” September 2, 1876.
Public Opinion
                                     Provided courtesy HarpWeek




                                                                                                                           [ 22 ]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 The Evidence



                     13. “The Ignorant Vote—Honors Are Easy,” December 9, 1876.




                                                                                                                                                                                                    Provided courtesy HarpWeek




                                                                                                       [ 23 ]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
                             ✦ C HA PTER 1
                             Reconstructing
                             Reconstruction:
                             The Political                           14. “The Solid South Against the Union,” November 4, 1876.
                             Cartoonist and
                             Public Opinion
Provided courtesy HarpWeek




                                                                                                                                                        [ 24 ]

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                             Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Questions to Consider




                                                                                                          ✦
                                                                              Questions to Consider
                     Begin by reviewing your list of the                                                        trying to tell? The larger inside draw-
                     important issues and events of the                                                         ings explain the contrast. What were
                     Reconstruction era. Then systemati-                                                        the conditions like at Andersonville?
                     cally examine the cartoons, answering                                                      At Fortress Monroe? What did the car-
                     the following questions for each one:                                                      toonist think were the physical and psy-
                                                                                                                chological results?
                     1. What issues or event is represented
                                                                                                                   On July 30, 1866, several blacks
                        by this cartoon?
                                                                                                                attending a Radical Republican con-
                     2. Who are the principal figures, and
                                                                                                                vention in New Orleans were shot and
                        how are they portrayed?
                                                                                                                killed by white policemen. Who is the
                     3. What imagery is used?
                                                                                                                emperor in Source 3, and how is he por-
                     4. Is this cartoon an allegory? If so,
                                                                                                                trayed? What kind of setting is used in
                        what is the basis of the allegory?
                                                                                                                this cartoon? Who is the person in the
                     5. What symbols are used?
                                                                                                                lower left intended to represent? What
                     6. How was Nast trying to influence
                                                                                                                did Nast think caused this event? What
                        public opinion through this cartoon?
                                                                                                                was his own reaction to it?
                     You may find that making a chart is the                                                       Each of the three people standing in
                     easiest way to do this.                                                                    Source 4 represents part of the Demo-
                       Sources 1 through 3 represent Nast’s                                                     cratic party coalition, and each has
                     view of Presidential Reconstruction                                                        something to contribute to the party.
                     under Andrew Johnson. Who is the                                                           Can you identify the groups that the
                     woman in Source 1? Who are the men                                                         man on the right and the man in the
                     kneeling before her in the left frame?                                                     center represent? What do they offer
                     What do they seek? Who does the Afri-                                                      the party? Notice the facial features of
                     can American in the right frame repre-                                                     the man on the left as well as his dress,
                     sent? Can you formulate one sentence                                                       particularly the hatband from Five
                     that summarizes Nast’s “message” in                                                        Points (a notorious slum section of New
                     Source 1?                                                                                  York City). Who is this man supposed
                       Source 2 is more complex: two draw-                                                      to represent, and what does he give the
                     ings within two other drawings. If you do                                                  party (see the club in his left hand)?
                     not already know what purpose Ander-                                                       Notice the knife and the belt buckle
                     sonville and Fortress Monroe served,                                                       of the man in the middle. Who does
                     consult a text on this time period, an                                                     he represent? The man on the right
                     encyclopedia, or a good Civil War his-                                                     probably is meant to represent Horatio
                     tory book. Then look at the upper left                                                     Seymour, the Democratic party’s nomi-
                     and upper right outside drawings. Con-                                                     nee for president to oppose Republican
                     trast the appearance of the man enter-                                                     nominee Ulysses Grant. What is the
                     ing with the man leaving. Now examine                                                      African American U.S. Army veteran
                     the lower left and lower right outside                                                     reaching for? What is Nast’s “message”
                     drawings the same way. What was Nast                                                       in Source 4? How does Source 4 relate


                                                                                                       [ 25 ]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
✦ C HA PTER 1
Reconstructing
Reconstruction:
The Political                           to Source 5? What is the allegory Nast                                                     governor Franklin J. Moses (caricatured
Cartoonist and                          was using? Who are the men on the left                                                     in Source 10). How are African Americans
Public Opinion                          of the cartoon? Who does the statue                                                        portrayed in Sources 9, 10, and 13 (com-
                                        on the right represent? What is Nast’s                                                     pared to portrayals in Sources 1, 4, 5, and
                                        “message” here?                                                                            7)? What is the meaning of Source 13? Of
                                           Sources 6 through 8 dealt with the                                                      Source 11? Source 12?
                                        presidential election of 1872, which pitted                                                   The last cartoon (Source 14) is Nast’s
                                        the incumbent President Grant against                                                      reaction to a bill in Congress to grant
                                        the Democratic challenger editor Horace                                                    amnesty to hundreds of unpardoned
                                        Greeley.16 Grant is depicted in Source 6,                                                  former Confederates. What is the alle-
                                        protected by Miss Liberty. What does                                                       gory Nast was using here? What does
                                        the bust behind Grant represent? What                                                      the fort represent? What is the signifi-
                                        is Nast’s message here? Hoping to finally                                                  cance of the African American hiding
                                        put an end to what he considered a fruit-                                                  on the left side of the panel? Who are
                                        less Reconstruction, Greeley called for                                                    the men preparing to fire on the fort?
                                        northerners and southerners to “clasp                                                      What do the two cannons represent?
                                        hands over the bloody chasm.” How did                                                      What is Nast’s troubling “message”
                                        Nast use (or misuse) Greeley’s state-                                                      here? Now return to the central ques-
                                        ment? How would you assess Nast’s car-                                                     tions asked earlier. What significant
                                        toons in Sources 7 and 8?                                                                  events took place during Reconstruc-
                                           Sources 9 through 13 reflect Nast’s                                                     tion? How did Nast try to influence
                                        thinking in the later years of Reconstruc-                                                 public opinion on the important issues
                                        tion. Sources 9 and 10 portray his opin-                                                   of the era? How did Nast’s own views
                                        ion of Reconstruction in South Carolina,                                                   change between 1865 and 1876? Why
                                        presided over by Radical Republican                                                        did Reconstruction finally end?




                                                                                                                             ✦
                                                                                                                    Epilogue

                                        Undoubtedly, Thomas Nast’s work had                                                        Yet gradually, northern ardor began to
                                        an important impact on northern opin-                                                      decline as other issues and concerns
                                        ion of Reconstruction, the Democratic                                                      eased Reconstruction out of the lime-
                                        Party, Andrew Johnson, Ulysses Grant,                                                      light and as it appeared that the cru-
                                        Horace Greeley, Irish-Americans, and                                                       sade to reconstruct the South would
                                        a host of other individuals and issues.                                                    be an endless one. Gradually southern
                                                                                                                                   Democrats regained control of their
                                                                                                                                   state governments, partly through
                                        16. Angered at the corruption of Grant’s ad-
                                        ministration, several Liberal Republicans bolt-                                            intimidation of black voters and partly
                                        ed their party and supported Greeley.                                                      through appeals to whites to return the


                                                                                                                           [ 26 ]

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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Epilogue



                     South to the hands of white southern-                                                      tire of his anger, his self-righteousness,
                     ers.17 Fearing northern outrage and                                                        and his relentless crusades. Meanwhile
                     a potential return to Radical Recon-                                                       newspaper and magazine technology
                     struction, however, on the surface                                                         was changing, and Nast had great dif-
                     most southern political leaders claimed                                                    ficulty adjusting to the new method-
                     to accept emancipation and decried                                                         ology.18 Finally, the new publisher of
                     against widespread lynchings and ter-                                                      Harper’s Weekly sought to make the
                     ror against former slaves.                                                                 publication less political, and in such
                        Meanwhile in the North, those Radi-                                                     an atmosphere there was no place for
                     cal Republicans who had insisted on                                                        Thomas Nast. His last cartoon for
                     equality for the freedmen either were                                                      Harper’s Weekly appeared on Christ-
                     dying or retiring from politics, replaced                                                  mas Day of 1886. He continued to drift
                     by conservative Republicans who spoke                                                      from job to job, in 1893 briefly owned
                     for economic expansion, industrialism                                                      his own paper, Nast’s Weekly, which
                     and commerce, and prosperous farm-                                                         turned out to be a financial disaster,
                     ers. For their part, northern Democrats                                                    and by 1901 was deeply in debt. It was
                     envisaged a political reunion of north-                                                    then that President Roosevelt came to
                     ern and southern Democrats that could                                                      his aid with a minor consular post in
                     win control of the federal government.                                                     Ecuador, where he died four months
                     Like their Republican counterparts but                                                     after his arrival. He was buried in a
                     for different reasons, northern Demo-                                                      quiet ceremony in Woodlawn Cemetery
                     crats had no stomach for assuring free-                                                    in The Bronx, New York.
                     dom and rights to former slaves.                                                              Although Nast was only sixty-two
                        Finally, in the late 1880s, when white                                                  years old when he died, most of the
                     southerners realized that the Recon-                                                       famous subjects of his cartoons had
                     struction spirit had waned in the North,                                                   long predeceased him. William Marcy
                     southern state legislatures began insti-                                                   Tweed, the political boss of New York’s
                     tuting rigid segregation of schools,                                                       Tammany Hall who Nast had helped to
                     public transportation and accommoda-                                                       bring down, was sentenced to twelve
                     tions, parks, restaurants and theaters,                                                    years in prison in late 1873. But “Boss”
                     elevators, drinking fountains, and so on.                                                  Tweed escaped in 1875 and fled to
                     Not until the 1950s did those chains                                                       Cuba, where he was apprehended by
                     begin to be broken.                                                                        authorities who identified him with the
                        As the reform spirit waned in the later                                                 assistance of a Nast cartoon. He died in
                     years of Reconstruction, Nast’s popu-                                                      prison in 1878.
                     larity suffered. The public appeared to                                                    18. Nast began drawing his cartoons in soft
                                                                                                                pencil on wooden blocks that were then pre-
                                                                                                                pared by engravers. Around 1880 photome-
                                                                                                                chanical reproduction of ink drawings replaced
                     17. Conservative Democrats regained control                                                the older and slower method. J. Chal Vinson,
                     of southern state governments in Tennes-                                                   Thomas Nast, Political Cartoonist (Athens:
                     see and Virginia (1869); Georgia (1872); Ala-                                              University of Georgia Press, 1967), p. 35; and
                     bama, Arkansas, and Texas (1874); Mississippi                                              Morton Keller, The Art and Politics of Thomas
                     (1876); North Carolina, South Carolina, Loui-                                              Nast (London: Oxford University Press, 1968),
                     siana, and Florida (1877).                                                                 p. 327.



                                                                                                       [ 27 ]

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
✦ C HA PTER 1
Reconstructing
Reconstruction:
The Political                              Nast’s hero, Ulysses S. Grant, left the                                                 was laid to rest in what grammatically
Cartoonist and                          White House in 1877 after an adminis-                                                      should be called Grants’ Tomb.
Public Opinion                          tration marked by corruption and scan-                                                        Thomas Nast was a pioneer of a tradi-
                                        dal. Not a wealthy man, Grant hurried                                                      tion and a political art form that remains
                                        to finish his memoirs (to provide for his                                                  extremely popular today. As Joel Pett,
                                        wife Julia) before the throat cancer he                                                    cartoonist for the Lexington (KY) Her-
                                        had been diagnosed with killed him. He                                                     ald-Leader put it, “If [newspaper pub-
                                        died on July 23, 1885, and was interred                                                    lishers] . . . sign on to the quaint but true
                                        in Central Park in New York City, not                                                      notion that journalism ought to comfort
                                        far from Nast’s modest grave. In 1897,                                                     the afflicted and afflict the comfortable,
                                        a magnificent tomb was dedicated to                                                        there’s no better way to afflict the com-
                                        Grant and his remains were relocated                                                       fortable than with editorial cartoons.”19
                                        there. When Julia died in 1902, she                                                        Nast couldn’t have said it better himself.




                                                                                                                                   19. Chris Lamb, Drawn to Extremes: The Use
                                                                                                                                   and Abuse of Editorial Cartoons (New York:
                                                                                                                                   Columbia University Press, 2004), p. 238.


                                                                                                                           [ 28 ]

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

				
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