Chapter 20 - The Civil War Notes

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					               Chapter 20 Notes – The Civil War (Part 2)

The Merrimac and the Monitor
  -   The Confederates had a very small navy, but they covered a wooden ship,
      called the Merrimac, with Iron plates and added a powerful ram to the front
      of the ship.
  -   The Union responded by building their own ironclad ship called the Monitor.
  -   The Confederates used the Merrimac to sink three Union ships, all made of
      wood. They were trying to break through the Union blockade.
  -   They would have been successful until the Monitor showed up.
  -   Both ships shot cannons at each other and rammed each other with no
      damage being done.
  -   Neither side could claim victory.
  -   After the battle, both sides built more ironclad ships, but the South was never
      able to build enough to end the Northern blockade.

Siege of Vicksburg
  -   Vicksburg was the last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River.
  -   Vicksburg was bombarded with cannons for six weeks before surrendering
      on July 4th, 1863 – this date is an important turning point in the war for two
          o #1. The Union now controlled the entire Mississippi River.
          o #2. At Gettysburg, General Lee had been defeated and crossed back
             over into Southern territory.
                   It was the first battle of the war that Lee had lost.

African Americans and the War
  -   At first most of the North regarding the conflict as a “white man’s war,” but in
      1862 Congress decided to enlist African-American recruits.
  -   186,000 enlisted in the Union and another 30,000 joined the Union navy,
      most of them were former slaves.

  -   Massachusetts was one of the first states to organize black regiments.
  -   The most famous regiment was the 54th Massachusetts infantry.
         o When the soldiers of the 54th learned that they were getting paid less
            than the white soldiers, they protested by not taking any pay.
         o Congress backed down with the urging of Lincoln and granted them
            equal pay.
         o They were also famous for a “suicide mission” they volunteered for at
            Fort Wagner, South Carolina.
                 Over half of their infantry was killed in the assault on Fort
                 Their bravery won them widespread respect throughout the
         o Every African American soldier that fought risked death or
            enslavement if they were captured.
  -     Lincoln had been searching all war for a commander that would fight the
  -     He finally found that commander in Ulysses S. Grant in 1864.
  -     Grant used his advantage of reinforcements unlike his predecessors.
           o He relentlessly attacked Lee and the Confederates in Virginia knowing
               that he had more men.
                     Many Union soldiers died under Grant’s command, but he was

Total War
  - Grant believed in the concept of total war.
  Total War - war on the enemy’s:
       #1. Will to fight
       #2. Its ability to support an army.
         o The Union wanted everyone in the South to feel the effects of war, so
             that they would never think of seceding again.
  - He sent one of his most trusted generals, William Sherman, to Georgia with
     instructions to “Inflict all the damage you can against their war resources.”
         o When Sherman’s army reached Atlanta they:
                 Looted homes
                 Burned fields and supplies
                 Killed livestock
                 Destroyed railroads
       o From Atlanta, Sherman headed north to South Carolina and wreaked
         havoc on the first state to secede from the Union.

-   Sherman’s success in the South was enough to get Lincoln re-elected in 1864.
       o *Remember – Success for re-election during a war, usually depends on
         how that war is going.
Appomattox Court House
   -   Grant continued to pester Lee in Virginia.
   -   Only April 3rd, 1865, Union forces captured Richmond.
   -   General Lee knew that war was over. He is quoted as saying, “There is
       nothing left for me do but go and see General Grant, and I would rather die a
       thousand deaths.”
   -   On April 9th, 1865, General Lee surrendered to General Grant in the village of
       Appomattox Court House.
   -   Grant allowed Confederate soldiers to go home if they promised to fight no
       longer. The war was over.

Lasting Effects
   -   In the new country, slavery and secession no longer existed. But they both
       came at quite a cost:
           o Billions of dollars had been spent.
           o More than 620,000 total soldiers were dead.
           o It was take the South generations to recover from the environmental
               destruction of their towns and fields.

   -   The Civil War is known as the first modern war, because it was the first to
       happen after the Industrial Revolution. Examples of the Industrial
       Revolution playing a part in the war:
          o Factories
          o Railroads
          o Telegraph
          o Armored Ships
          o More accurate weapons
          o Total War

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