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					Land Suitability Analysis for Integrated Coastal
Zone Management in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh:
    A Remote Sensing and GIS Approach

      Md. Shahadat Hossain and C. Kwei Lin
  Integrated Tropical Coastal Zone Management
    Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box # 4
    Klongluang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand.
Coastal Zone of Bangladesh
The country has a long coastline of 710 km
Area of coastal plane is about 36,400 km2

About 22% (25 million) population live in the coastal zone
in fulfilling social, economic, development and strategic
objectives of the country.

The main problem in development of multiple uses of the
coastal zone is the lack of baseline information on physico-
chemical and topographic features, and land use
Evaluation of existing natural resources is essential for future
development in appropriate resource use zoning.

The main objective of this study is to record and
assess present land use, and to produce a resource
classification for proper land use zoning.
The study area
       89º    90º     91º    92º

                    BANGLADESH     Southeastern coast of
                                   Bangladesh - Cox’s Bazar


                                   Chakaria and Cox’s Bazar
                                   Sadar Thana

                                   Latitude 2030 and 22N
                                   Longitude 9145 and 9230E
             Bay of Bengal
Landsat TM image showing Cox’s Bazar coast
                                                                     Major activities
   Island                                                            shrimp farming,
                                             Chittagong              agriculture,
                                             Hill Tracts             fishing,
                       Matamuhuri River
                                                                     salt production,
                                                                     coastal tourism.

                                                                     Some occupations
                                                                     are seasonal, so a
                                                                     person can take up
                                                                     different activities
     Bay of                    Cox’s Bazar                           depending on the
     Bengal                          Cliff                 Myanmar   seasons.
Data collection
Landsat TM image acquired on 12 February 1999
Topographic maps of 1:10,000 scale (Survey of Bangladesh)
Soil maps of 1:50,000 scale (Soil Resources Development Institute)

Image processor ENVI
ArcView GIS

Land characteristics divided into three classes:
(i) most suitable, (ii) moderately suitable and (iii) not suitable
Flowchart of research methodology
              Field Survey Data        Topographic       Soil Maps    Landsat TM
              Other Ancillary Data        Maps

                   Digital Image                                      Visual
                    Processing                                    Interpretation

                                          Land use/cover

                                           GIS Database

                                           Overlay with

                                         Maps
                                         Data

                 Government Policy                            Stakeholder Analysis
                 Present Legislation
                 Present Regulation


                                         Guidelines for
                                    Sustainable Coastal Zone
                                   Management in Cox’s Bazar
Land suitability map for Mangrove
afforestation in the Cox’s Bazar coast
                      Soil type, tidal area, soil pH, soil
                      salinity and land use pattern.

                     Most suitable area 1,929 ha
                     Moderately suitable area 1,895 ha
                     Not suitable area 1,524 ha

                     Major species Avicennia and Sonneratia
                     Survival rate varies from 10% to 90%
                     Yearly growth varies from 1-2 feet in the
                      1st year and 5-6 feet in the 3rd year
Land suitability map for shrimp farm
establishment in the Cox’s Bazar coast

                   Slope, elevation, soil texture, soil pH, organic
                   matter, tidal regime and disease problem

                    Most suitable areas 3,224 ha
                    Moderately suitable areas 1,256 ha
                    Not suitable areas 237 ha

                    Cultured species Penaeus monodon
                    Production rate 230 kg/ha
Land suitability map for salt bed establishment
in the Cox’s Bazar coast

                   Soil texture, tidal regime and land use pattern

                    Most suitable areas 6,230 ha
                    Moderately suitable areas 906 ha
                    Not suitable areas 343 ha

                    Average production 21.50 m ton/ha/yr
Major categories of land suitability for land use
and zoning
                       The suitability maps has overlaid to find
                       out the major categories of land suitability
                       and land use conflicts.

                        3 = Most suitable
                        2 = Moderately suitable
                        1 = Not suitable
                        0 = Absence of activity

                       The left, middle and right digit indicates
                       mangrove, shrimp and salt bed respectively.

                      Mangrove afforestation      333       Salt bed

                                              Shrimp farm
Interpretation of the previous figure

 Most suitable area for mangrove,      Mangrove   Shrimp   Salt   Area (ha)
  shrimp and salt 0.36 ha.                 0         0       2       649.98
                                           0         0       3      5130.72
 Most suitable for shrimp and salt        0         2       0      1163.61
  6.03 ha                                  0         3       0      3122.46
                                           0         3       3          6.03
 Most suitable for mangrove and salt      2         0       0      1474.65
  674.46 ha                                2         0       2       249.12
                                           2         2       0        21.33
 Most suitable for mangrove and           3         0       0      1193.04
  shrimp34.65 ha                           3         0       3       674.46
                                           3         3       0        34.65
                                           3         3       3          0.36
This indicates conflicts mainly            0         0       1       268.29
between mangrove and salt, as              0         1       0       231.03

well as mangrove and shrimp.               1         0       0      1056.15
                                           1         1       1          0.09
River systems of the Cox’s Bazar coast

                                  Matamuhuri river

                                   Varuakhali canal

                                    Bagkhali river
Land use map of the Cox’s Bazar coast

                  The existing land use map revealed that most of
                  the suitable areas for mangrove afforestation are
                  currently being used for shrimp and salt

                  Under the present development of land use, the
                  acceptable amendment is to create green belt
                  along the coast, which will act as a protected
                  barrier against the periodic storm surges of the
                  Bay of Bengal to save lives and properties. On
                  the other hand, the inner areas can be used for
                  shrimp and salt production on a time-sharing
                  basis, which is essential to ensure livelihood of
                  the coastal community.
An ICZM framework for coastal zone management in Cox’s Bazar
                                      Natural resources:    Coastal processes
                                      Land                 (Physical and Biological):
        Management issues:                                  Shrimp/fish farming
        Land/resource use conflict                         Mangrove clearing and afforestation
                                      Accreted mudflat
        Population growth                                  Salt production
        Coastal pollution                                  Coastal tourism
        Infrastructure development                         Fishing
                                                            Urban waste disposal

                                      Management Approach
         Mangrove afforestation:         Shrimp farming:             Salt production:
         Zoning                         Zoning                     Zoning
         Area allocation                Area allocation            Area allocation
         Community                      Time sharing               Common land
           participation                 Carrying capacity            distribution
         Homestead nursery               -Environmental CC          Incentives
          development                     -Economic CC               Proper valuation of salt
                                         EIA                        Develop warehouse
                                         Licensing                    facility
                                         Code of conduct

                                      Management requirement
                            Horizontal integration
                            Top down integration
                            -National level to Community level
                            Bottom up integration
                            -Community level to National level

         Shrimp farming

       Salt production

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