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					                                                                            CH A P T E R                         3
                         Configuring an Optimization HTTP
                         Parameter Map

                         This chapter describes how to configure parameters on the Cisco 4700 Series
                         Application Control Engine (ACE) appliance that adjust or control several
                         optimization technologies based on the selections made in an associated action
                         list. You can specify an optional optimization HTTP parameter list in an
                         optimization HTTP policy map to identify the association between the action list
                         and the parameter map. The optimization HTTP action list defines what to do
                         while the optimization HTTP parameter map defines the specific details about
                         how to accomplish the action.
                         This chapter contains the following major sections:
                          •   Optimization HTTP Parameter Map Configuration Quick Start
                          •   Creating an Optimization HTTP Parameter Map
                          •   Configuring AppScope Performance Rate Parameters
                          •   Specifying Base File Anonymity Level
                          •   Controlling the Rebasing of Base Files
                          •   Specifying a Canonical URL Regular Expression
                          •   Configuring Static and Adaptive Cache Parameters
                          •   Specifying the Default Scripting Language on Condensed Content Pages
                          •   Specifying Delta Optimization Operating Parameters
                          •   Specifying the Freshness Period of Objects in the Client Browser
                          •   Removing Meta Elements from Documents


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                                                             Chapter 3   Configuring an Optimization HTTP Parameter Map
 Optimization HTTP Parameter Map Configuration Quick Start




                         •    Bypassing FlashForward
                         •    Identifying HTTP Response Codes to Ignore
                         •    Setting the Parameter Summary Value of a Transaction Log Entry
                         •    Setting the Maximum Size of HTTP POST Data
                         •    Specifying a Server Header String
                         •    Controlling the Display of UTF-8 Characters
                         •    Where to Go Next



Optimization HTTP Parameter Map Configuration
Quick Start
                       Table 3-1 provides a quick overview of the steps required to configure an
                       application acceleration and optimization parameter map. Each step includes the
                       CLI command or a reference to the procedure required to complete the task. For
                       a complete description of each feature and all the options associated with the CLI
                       commands, see the sections following Table 3-1.

                       Table 3-1      Optimization HTTP Parameter Map Configuration Quick Start

                        Task and Command Example
                         1.   If you are operating in multiple contexts, observe the CLI prompt to verify
                              that you are operating in the desired context. If necessary, change to the
                              correct context.
                              host1/Admin# changeto C1
                              host1/C1#

                              The rest of the examples in this table use the Admin context unless
                              otherwise specified. For details on creating contexts, see the Cisco 4700
                              Series Application Control Engine Appliance Administration Guide.
                         2.   Enter global configuration mode.
                              host1/Admin# config
                              host1/Admin(config)#




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                                                              Optimization HTTP Parameter Map Configuration Quick Start




                         Table 3-1      Optimization HTTP Parameter Map Configuration Quick Start

                         Task and Command Example
                          3.   Create an optimization HTTP parameter map.
                               host1/Admin(config)# parameter-map type optimization http
                               OPTIMIZE_PARAM_MAP
                               host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)#
                          4.   Configure application acceleration and optimization parameters in the
                               parameter map as required. For example, enter:
                               host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)#                canonical-url
                               $(1)/$http_query_param(category)
                               host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)#                cache key-modifier
                               http://www$(1)
                               host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)#                cache parameter
                               $http_query_param(version)
                               host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)#                delta all-user
                               host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)#                basefile anonymous-level 25
                               host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)#                exit
                               host1/Admin(config)#
                          5.   Create a Layer 7 HTTP optimization policy map to associate an existing
                               action list and parameter map and to configure the specified actions. see
                               Chapter 4, Configuring a Traffic Policy for HTTP Optimization for details.
                               host/Admin(config)# policy-map type optimization http first-match
                               L7OPTIMIZATION_POLICY
                               host/Admin(config-pmap-optmz)# class L7SLBCLASS
                               host1/Admin(config-pmap-optmz-c)#
                               host1/Admin(config-pmap-optmz-c)# action ACT_LIST1 parameter
                               OPTIMIZE_PARAM_MAP
                               host1/Admin(config-pmap-optmz-c)# exit
                          6.   (Optional) Save your configuration changes to Flash memory.
                               host1/Admin# copy running-config startup-config




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Creating an Optimization HTTP Parameter Map
                       You can configure a parameter map to specify optimization-related commands
                       that pertain to application acceleration and optimization functions performed by
                       the ACE. A parameter map groups the functions that adjust or control the actions
                       specified in an associated action list.
                       After you configure the parameter map, associate it with an action list in a policy
                       map. For details about associating a parameter map with an action list in a policy
                       map, see Chapter 4, Configuring a Traffic Policy for HTTP Optimization.
                       To create an optimization HTTP parameter map so that you can configure specific
                       application acceleration and optimization functions, use the parameter-map type
                       optimization http command in global configuration mode.
                       The syntax of this command is as follows:

                            parameter-map type optimization http map_name

                       For the map_name argument, enter a unique name as an unquoted text string with
                       no spaces and a maximum of 64 alphanumeric characters.
                       For example, to create an optimization HTTP parameter map, enter:
                       host1/Admin(config)# parameter-map type optimization http
                       OPTIMIZE_PARAM_MAP
                       host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)#

                       To remove the parameter map from the configuration, enter:
                       host1/Admin(config)# no parameter-map type optimization http
                       OPTIMIZE_PARAM_MAP

                       Use one or more of the commands in the sections in this chapter to define the
                       optimization HTTP parameter map.




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                                                                     Configuring AppScope Performance Rate Parameters




Configuring AppScope Performance Rate
Parameters
                         To control the AppScope features of the optional Cisco AVS 3180A Management
                         Station that measure application acceleration and optimization performance, use
                         the appscope optimize-rate-percent command in parameter map optimization
                         configuration mode.
                         To configure the ACE to upload the statistical log information to the optional
                         Cisco AVS 3180A Management Station, use the appscope-log now command in
                         optimize mode (see Chapter 5, Configuring Global Optimization Settings).


               Note      See Appendix A, Using the Optional Cisco AVS 3180A Management Station for
                         Reporting, for details on AppScope running on a Cisco AVS 3180A Management
                         Station.

                         The syntax of this command is as follows:

                              appscope optimize-rate-percent value passthru-rate-percent value

                         The keywords, arguments, and options are:
                          •   value—Specifies the percentage of all requests (or sessions) to be sampled for
                              performance with acceleration (optimization) applied. All applicable
                              optimizations for the class will be performed. Valid values are from 0 to 100
                              percent. The default is 10 percent. This value plus the passthru-rate-percent
                              value must not exceed 100.
                          •   passthru-rate-percent value—Specifies the percentage of all requests (or
                              sessions) to be sampled for performance without optimization. No
                              optimizations for the class will be performed. Valid values are from 0 to 100
                              percent. The default is 10 percent. This value plus the optimize-rate-percent
                              value must not exceed 100.
                         For example, to specify a percentage of all requests (or sessions) to be sampled
                         for performance with acceleration and without optimization applied by
                         AppScope, enter:
                         host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# appscope optimize-rate-percent 50
                         passthru-rate-percent 50




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                       To revert to the default rate AppScope performance rate settings of 10 percent,
                       enter:
                       host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no appscope optimize-rate-percent
                       50 passthru-rate-percent 50



Defining a String to Sort Requests for AppScope Reporting
                       To define a string to sort requests for AppScope reporting, use the
                       request-grouping-string command in parameter map optimization configuration
                       mode. The string can contain a URL regular expression that defines a set of URLs
                       in which URLs that differ only by their query parameters are to be treated as
                       separate URLs in AppScope reports.
                       Typically, in an AppScope report organized by URL, matching URLs that differ
                       only in their query parameters are treated as the same URL and are not listed on
                       separate lines. Use the request-grouping-string command to specify that all
                       URL variations based on query parameters are to be treated as separate URLs for
                       reporting purposes. Each variation will appear on a separate line in the report.
                       The syntax for this command is as follows:

                            request-grouping-string string

                       The string argument contains a URL regular expression that defines a set of
                       URLs. The maximum string value is 255 characters. The string can contain the
                       parameter expander functions listed in Table 3-3.
                       For example, to define a string that is used to make the URLs
                       http://server/catalog.asp?region=asia and
                       http://server/catalog.asp?region=america into two separate reporting categories,
                       enter:
                       host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# request-grouping-string
                       http_query_param(region)

                       To remove a request grouping string, enter:
                       host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no request-grouping-string




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                                                                                      Specifying Base File Anonymity Level




Specifying Base File Anonymity Level
                          The ACE incorporates an anonymous base file feature to address user privacy
                          concerns. This feature, which is an all-user delta optimization option for the delta
                          command (see the “Specifying Delta Optimization Operating Parameters”
                          section), enables customers to use the ACE to deliver personalized confidential
                          content such as online trading accounts, banking statements, and business
                          accounts. Typically, customers use this feature with SSL to enable secure and
                          private condensed content delivery.
                          For details on base file anonymity level, see Chapter 1, Application Acceleration
                          and Optimization Overview.
                          By default, the base file anonymity level is disabled. To define the base file
                          anonymity level for the all-user delta optimization method, use the basefile
                          anonymous-level command in parameter map optimization configuration mode.
                          The syntax for this command is as follows:

                               basefile anonymous-level value

                          The value argument specifies the base file anonymity level for the all-user delta
                          optimization method. Valid values are from 0 to 50. The default is a value of 0
                          (disables anonymity).
                          For example, to specify a base file anonymity level of 25, enter:
                          host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# basefile anonymous-level 25

                          To revert to the default base file anonymity level of 0, enter:
                          host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no basefile anonymous-level




Controlling the Rebasing of Base Files
                          Rebasing refers to the process of updating the base file that is used for generating
                          deltas between subsequent content retrievals. Because the base content of a site
                          often changes over a period of time, the size of the generated deltas can grow
                          relatively large. To maintain the effectiveness of the delta optimization process,
                          the base files are automatically updated as required.
                          To control the rebasing of base files by the ACE, use the rebase command in
                          parameter map optimization configuration mode.


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                       Smart Rebasing enables the ACE to instantly rebase URLs when appropriate and
                       to maintain a copy of the old base page so that subsequent requests for it can be
                       fulfilled. This function improves overall ACE performance and content
                       acceleration because it ensures that delta optimization occurs at all times, even
                       when a rebase occurs.
                       For details on Smart Rebasing, see Chapter 1, Application Acceleration and
                       Optimization Overview.
                       The syntax for this command is as follows:

                             rebase {delta-percent value | flashforward-percent value | history-size
                                 value | modification-cooloff-period value | reset-period value}

                       The arguments, keywords, and options are:
                         •   delta-percent value—Specifies the delta threshold at which rebasing is
                             triggered. This number represents the size of a page delta relative to the page
                             total size, expressed as a percentage. Valid values are from 0 to 10000
                             percent. The default threshold is 50 percent.
                         •   flashforward-percent value—Specifies a rebase, based on the percent of
                             FlashForwarded URLs in the response. Rebasing is triggered when the
                             difference between the percentages of FlashForwarded URLs in the delta
                             response and the base file exceed the threshold. Valid values are from 0 to
                             10000 percent. The default is 50 percent. The flashforward-percent keyword
                             provides a threshold control for rebasing based on the percent of
                             FlashForwarded URLs in the response. Where the delta-percent keyword
                             triggers rebasing when the delta response size exceeds the threshold as a
                             percentage of the base file size; the flashforward-percent keyword triggers
                             rebasing when the difference between the percentages of FlashForwarded
                             URLs in the delta response and the base file exceed the threshold.
                         •   history-size value—Controls how much history is stored before resetting.
                             Once the sample collection reaches the specified history size, the ACE resets
                             all rebase control parameters to zero and starts over. This keyword prevents
                             the base file from becoming too rigid. That is, if a base file has served
                             approximately one million pages, then it would take another half million
                             unfavorable responses before the base file can be rebased. Valid values are
                             from 10 to 2147483647 pages. The default value for this parameter is 1000
                             pages.
                         •   modification-cooloff-period value—Specifies the time, in seconds, after the
                             last modification before performing a rebase. Valid values are from 1 to
                             14400 seconds (four hours).The default is 14400 seconds.

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                                                                           Specifying a Canonical URL Regular Expression




                          •   reset-period value—Specifies the period for performing a meta data refresh
                              Valid values are from 1 to 900 seconds (15 minutes). The default is 900
                              seconds.
                         For example, to specify a rebase, based on a percentage of 1000 FlashForwarded
                         URLs in the response, enter:
                         host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# rebase flashforward-percent 1000

                         To revert to a default rebase setting, enter:
                         host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no rebase flashforward-percent




Specifying a Canonical URL Regular Expression
                         The canonical URL function in a parameter map is used to specify a base file
                         selection policy. The canonical URL function specifies a regular expression that
                         is used to match a variety of actual URLs. All matched URLs share a single base
                         file.
                         The ACE uses the canonical URL function to modify a parameterized request to
                         eliminate the question mark (?) and the characters that follow to identify the
                         general part of the URL. This general URL is then used to create the base file. The
                         ACE uses the canonical URL to map multiple parameterized URLs to a single
                         canonical URL.
                         For details on the canonical URL function, see Chapter 1, Application
                         Acceleration and Optimization Overview.
                         To specify a string containing a canonical URL regular expression that defines a
                         set of URLs to which the parameter map applies, use the canonical-url command
                         in parameter map optimization configuration mode. At least one URL must be
                         specified by using the canonical-url command.
                         The syntax for this command is as follows:

                              canonical-url parameter-expander-function

                         The parameter-expander-function argument specifies parameter expander
                         functions that evaluate to strings. The maximum string value is 255 characters.
                         Table 3-3 lists the parameter expander functions that you can use.




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                        For example, to specify a string that contains a canonical URL regular expression,
                        enter:
                        host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# canonical-url
                        $(1)/$http_query_param(category)

                        To delete the string that contains a canonical URL regular expression, enter:
                        host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no canonical-url




Configuring Static and Adaptive Cache Parameters
                        This section describes how to configure both static and dynamic adaptive caching
                        in a parameter map. If a traffic class is found that matches a request, its cache
                        policy is inspected and applied to that object.
                        There are two aspects of all cached objects:
                          •   The key under which the object is cached. The key is controlled by the
                              parameter map commands canonical-url (described in the “Specifying a
                              Canonical URL Regular Expression” section), cache key-modifier, and
                              cache parameter. For details about the cache key-modifier and cache
                              parameter commands, see the “Modifying the Cache Key” section.
                          •   The expiration behavior of the cached content. The cache content expiration
                              can be a time-based expiration or a load-based expiration. For details about
                              configuring the expiration setting, see the “Configuring Time-Based Cache
                              Object Expiration” and “Specifying Load-based Expiration for Cache
                              Objects” sections.
                        For details about dynamic caching, see Chapter 1, Application Acceleration and
                        Optimization Overview.
                        This section contains the following topics:
                          •   Modifying the Cache Key
                          •   Configuring Time-Based Cache Object Expiration
                          •   Specifying Load-based Expiration for Cache Objects
                          •   Overriding Cache Requests or Response Headers




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Modifying the Cache Key
                          The cache object key is the unique identifier that is used to identify a cached
                          object to be served to the client, replacing a trip to the origin server.
                          The HTTP protocol is not session based; each request for every page and
                          dependent object is entirely autonomous with no state preserved between
                          requests. This situation forces web application developers to use session tracking
                          techniques like cookies. It is sometimes necessary to include more in the cache
                          key than simply the URL.
                          The key that the ACE uses for any given requesting URL comprises one or more
                          of the following two components, which are shown in Figure 3-1:
                           •   Canonical URL—The URL portion up to a question mark (?). The canonical
                               URL can be modified by the cache key-modifier command.
                           •   Query parameters—The URL portion after a question mark (?). Query
                               parameters can be modified by the cache parameter command, which can be
                               used to include selected query parameters, a cookie value, an HTTP header
                               value, or other values.
                          You can modify the cache key by defining the following commands in
                          optimization parameter mode:
                           •   cache key-modifier
                           •   cache parameter




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                        Figure 3-1            How the Cache Key is Formed from a URL

                                                           Request Object URL

                                    “http://www.xyz.com/somepage.asp?action=browse&level=2”


                                                      URL is composed of two parts




                      Canonical URL (portion before the “?”)                 Query parameters (portion after the “?”)

                       “http://www.xyz.com/somepage.asp”                             “action=browse&level=2”




                                   Modifiable with                                          Modifiable with
                                  CacheKeyModifier                                         CacheParameter
                                      keyword                                                 keyword




                                                                                                                         143681
                                                                   Cache Key


                        This section contains the following topics:
                          •   Modifying the Canonical URL Portion of the Cache Key
                          •   Modifying the Query Parameter Part of a URL in the Cache Key


Modifying the Canonical URL Portion of the Cache Key
                        You can modify the canonical form of a URL—that is, the portion before the
                        question mark (?)—for use in forming the cache key, by using the cache
                        key-modifier command in parameter map optimization configuration mode. This
                        command specifies a regular expression containing embedded variables that are
                        expanded by the ACE. You can include zero or more instances of the (number)
                        variable, as described in Table 3-3.




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                         The expanded string that results from the cache key-modifier command replaces
                         the default canonical URL portion of the cache key. If you do not specify the
                         cache key-modifier command, the canonical URL is used as the default value for
                         the URL portion of the cache key (there may also be a query parameter portion).
                         The following example uses the cache key-modifier command to strip out the
                         portion of a URL added by a content delivery network (CDN):
                         host1/Admin(config)# class-map type http loadbalance match-any
                         Example1_Classmap
                         host1/Admin(config-cmap-http-lb)# match http url
                         .*mycdn\.net.*www(.*\.gif)
                         host1/Admin(config-cmap-http-lb)# exit
                         host1/Admin(config)# parameter-map type optimization http
                         OPTIMIZE_PARAM_MAP1
                         host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# cache key-modifier http://www$(1)
                         host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# exit
                         host/Admin(config)# policy-map type optimization http first-match
                         L7OPTIMIZATION_POLICY
                         host/Admin(config-pmap-optmz)# class Example1_Classmap
                         host1/Admin(config-pmap-optmz-c)# action ACT_LIST1 parameter
                         OPTIMIZE_PARAM_MAP1

                         The match http url command in the Example1_Classmap class map specifies a
                         regular expression that identifies URLs for which this traffic class is to be used.
                         The regular expression defines the following sequence: Start with any number of
                         any characters, up to the literal mycdn.net, followed by any sequence of characters
                         up to the literal www, followed by a subexpression group (in parentheses) that
                         ends the URL.
                         The subexpression group in the regular expression is any sequence of characters
                         followed by the literal .gif, which must end the string. The subexpression group
                         can be expanded by using the (number) syntax. The group is the first and only
                         subexpression, so it can be referenced by (1).
                         The cache key-modifier command replaces the original URL with a new string
                         that begins with “http://www” and ends with the value of subexpression group 1
                         from the previous line. The effect is to strip out the portion of the URL that was
                         used for redirection to a CDN.




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                       The cache key-modifier command transforms a matched URL such as the
                       following:
                       http://a188.g.mycdn.net/f/188/920/1d/www.mysite.com/images/logo.gif

                       to this string:
                       http://www.mysite.com/images/logo.gif

                       The syntax for the command is as follows:

                                cache key-modifier {string parameter_expander_function}

                       The arguments are:
                            •   string—A regular expression. Enter an unquoted text string with no spaces
                                and a maximum of 255 alphanumeric characters. Alternatively, you can enter
                                a text string with spaces if you enclose the entire string in quotation marks
                                (“). The ACE supports the use of regular expressions for matching string
                                expressions. Table 3-2 lists the supported characters that you can use for
                                matching string expressions.

                            •   parameter_expander_function—A parameter expander function that evaluate
                                to strings. The maximum string value is 255 characters. Table 3-3 lists the
                                parameter expander functions that you can use.
                       For example, enter:
                       host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# cache key-modifier http://www$(1)

                       To remove a cache key modifier, enter:
                       host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no cache key-modifier

                       Table 3-2       Special Characters for Matching String Expressions

                        Convention                       Description
                        .                                One of any character.
                        .*                               Zero or more of any character.
                        \.                               Period (escaped).
                        [charset]                        Match any single character from the range.
                        [^charset]                       Do not match any character in the range. All other
                                                         characters represent themselves.
                        ()                               Expression grouping.

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                         Table 3-2      Special Characters for Matching String Expressions (continued)

                         Convention                        Description
                         (expr1 | expr2)                   OR of expressions.
                         (expr)*                           0 or more of expression.
                         (expr)+                           1 or more of expression.
                         expr{m,n}                         Repeat the expression between m and n times, where
                                                           m and n from 1 to 255.
                         expr{m}                           Match the expression exactly m times. The range for
                                                           m is from 1 to 255.
                         expr{m,}                          Match the expression m or more times. The range for
                                                           m is from 1 to 255.
                         \a                                Alert (ASCII 7).
                         \b                                Backspace (ASCII 8).
                         \f                                Form-feed (ASCII 12).
                         \n                                New line (ascii 10).
                         \r                                Carriage return (ASCII 13).
                         \t                                Tab (ASCII 9).
                         \v                                Vertical tab (ASCII 11).
                         \0                                Null (ASCII 0).
                         \\                                Backslash.
                         \x##                              Any ASCII character as specified in two-digit
                                                           hexadecimal notation.




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Table 3-3          Parameter Expander Functions

Variable                                        Description
$(number)                                       Expands to the corresponding matching subexpression (by
                                                number) in the URL pattern. Subexpressions are marked in a
                                                URL pattern using parentheses (). The numbering of the
                                                subexpressions begins with 1 and is the number of the
                                                left-parenthesis “(“ counting from the left. You can specify
                                                any positive integer for the number. $(0) matches the entire
                                                URL. For example, if the URL pattern is
                                                ((http://server/.*)/(.*)/)a.jsp, and the URL that matched it is
                                                the following:
                                                http://server/main/sub/a.jsp?category=shoes&session=99999,
                                                then the following are correct:
                                                $(0) = http://server/main/sub/a.jsp
                                                $(1) = http://server/main/sub/
                                                $(2) = http://server/main
                                                $(3) = sub
                                                If the specified subexpression does not exist in the URL
                                                pattern, then the variable expands to the empty string.
$http_query_string()                            Expands to the value of the whole query string in the URL. For
                                                example, if the URL is
                                                http://myhost/dothis?param1=value1&param2=value2
                                                then the following is correct:
                                                $http_query_string() = param1=value1&param2=value2
                                                This function applies to both GET and POST requests.




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Table 3-3           Parameter Expander Functions (continued)

Variable                                         Description
$http_query_param(query-                         Expands to the value of the named query parameter (case
param-name)                                      sensitive). For example, if the URL is
this obsolete syntax is also supported: http://server/main/sub/a.jsp?category=shoes&session=99999
$param(query-param-name)                         then the following are correct:
                                                 $http_query_param(category) = shoes
                                                 $http_query_param(session) = 99999
                                                 If the specified parameter does not exist in the query, then the
                                                 variable expands to the empty string. This function applies to
                                                 both GET and POST requests.
$http_cookie(cookie-name)                        Evaluates to the value of the named cookie. For example,
                                                 $http_cookie(cookiexyz). The cookie name is case sensitive.
$http_header(request-header-name)                Evaluates to the value of the specified HTTP request header.
                                                 In the case of multivalued headers, it is the single
                                                 representation as specified in the HTTP specification. For
                                                 example, $http_header(user-agent). The HTTP header name is
                                                 not case sensitive.
$http_method()                                   Evaluates to the HTTP method used for the request, such as
                                                 GET or POST.
Boolean Functions:                               Evaluates to a Boolean value: True or False, depending on the
$http_query_param_present                        presence or absence of the element in the request. The
(query-param-name)                               elements are a specific query parameter (query-param-name),
$http_query_param_notpresent                     a specific cookie (cookie-name), a specific request header
(query-param-name)                               (request-header-name), or a specific HTTP method
$http_cookie_present(cookie-
                                                 (method-name). All identifiers are case sensitive except for
name)
$http_cookie_notpresent(cookie-                  the HTTP request header name.
name)
$http_header_present(request-
header-name)
$http_header_notpresent(request-h
eader-name)
$http_method_present(method-name)
$http_method_notpresent(method-
name)




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                                                              Chapter 3   Configuring an Optimization HTTP Parameter Map
  Configuring Static and Adaptive Cache Parameters




Modifying the Query Parameter Part of a URL in the Cache Key
                        The cache parameter command modifies the query parameter part of a
                        URL—that is, the portion after the question mark (?)—for use in forming the
                        cache key. This command specifies an expression that includes one or more
                        parameter expander functions if you want to modify the parameter portion of the
                        cache key.
                        The cache parameter command specifies one or more parameter expander
                        functions that evaluate to strings. These strings are appended to the canonical
                        URL to form the last portion of the cache key. The parameter expander functions
                        are listed in Table 3-3.
                        The string specified in the cache parameter command replaces the default query
                        parameter that is used in the cache key. If the cache parameter command is not
                        specified, the query parameter portion of the URL is used as the default value for
                        this portion of the cache key. The canonical URL, which could be possibly
                        modified by entering the cache key-modifier command, is the first part of the
                        cache key.
                        The following example shows how to use the cache parameter command to
                        create a different instance of the dynamically cached page for each value of the
                        “version” query parameter:
                        host1/Admin(config)# class-map type http loadbalance match-any
                        Example2_Classmap
                        host1/Admin(config-cmap-http-lb)# match http url
                        .*dyncache/page3\.asp.*
                        host1/Admin(config-cmap-http-lb)# exit
                        host1/Admin(config)# parameter-map type optimization http
                        OPTIMIZE_PARAM_MAP2
                        host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# cache parameter
                        $http_query_param(version)
                        host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# exit
                        host/Admin(config)# policy-map type optimization http first-match
                        L7OPTIMIZATION_POLICY
                        host/Admin(config-pmap-optmz)# class Example2_Classmap
                        host1/Admin(config-pmap-optmz-c)# action ACT_LIST2 parameter
                        OPTIMIZE_PARAM_MAP2

                        The match http url command in the Example2_Classmap class map specifies a
                        regular expression that identifies URLs for which this traffic class is to be used.
                        The sequence is to start with any number of any characters, up to the literal
                        dyncache/page3.asp, followed by any sequence of characters up to the end of the
                        URL.


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                          The cache parameter command sets the value of the query parameter portion of
                          the cache key to the value of $http_query_param(version). The default value of
                          the query parameter portion of the cache key is the entire query parameter portion
                          of the URL.
                          This configuration extracts from a matched URL such as the following:
                          http:www.mysite.com/dyncache/page3.asp?session=nqyfxe46&m=int&version=12

                          the 12 string, which is the value of the version parameter. This string is appended
                          to the URL portion of the cache key to form the complete cache key.
                          The syntax for the command is as follows:

                               cache parameter parameter_expander_function

                          The parameter-expander-function argument specifies a parameter expander
                          function that evaluates to strings. Use the forwardslash (/) character when
                          combining multiple parameter expander functions (for example, cache
                          parameter $http_cookie(ID)/$http_query_param(category)). The maximum
                          string value is 255 characters. Table 3-3 lists the parameter expander functions
                          that you can use.
                          For example, to set the value of the query parameter portion of the cache key,
                          enter:
                          host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# cache parameter $http_query_param
                          (version)

                          To remove a cache parameter, enter:
                          host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no cache parameter



Configuring Time-Based Cache Object Expiration
                          To define the ACE cache freshness settings, use the cache ttl command in parameter
                          map optimization configuration mode. This command sets the maximum time (max
                          keyword) or the minimum time (min keyword) in seconds that an object without an
                          explicit expiration time should be considered fresh. The percent keyword sets the
                          percent of an object's age at which an embedded object without an explicit expiration
                          time is considered fresh.




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                                                             Chapter 3   Configuring an Optimization HTTP Parameter Map
 Configuring Static and Adaptive Cache Parameters




                       To control the period of time that objects in the client’s browser remain fresh, use
                       the expires-setting command in parameter map optimization configuration mode.
                       For more information, see the “Specifying the Freshness Period of Objects in the
                       Client Browser” section.
                       The syntax for this command is as follows:

                             cache ttl {min time | max time | percent value}

                       The keywords, arguments, and options are:
                         •   min time—Specifies the minimum time in seconds that an object without an
                             explicit expiration time should be considered fresh. The min keyword
                             specifies the minimum time that the content can be cached for, which
                             corresponds to the life of the content. For example, for a new item that is valid
                             for 3 hours, this value would be 3 x 60 x 60 = 10800 seconds. For static
                             caching (the flashforward-object action), this value should normally be 0.
                             For dynamic caching (the cache dynamic action), this value should be set to
                             indicate how long the ACE should cache the page. Valid values are from 0 to
                             2147483647 seconds. The default is 0.
                         •   max time—Specifies the maximum time in seconds that an object without an
                             explicit expiration time should be considered fresh. The max keyword
                             determines how the ACE handles the case when the object has passed its
                             cache minimum time-to-live value.Valid values are from 0 to 2147483647
                             seconds. The default is 300 seconds.
                         •   percent value—Specifies the percentage of an object’s age at which an
                             embedded object without an explicit expiration time is considered fresh.
                             Valid values are from 0 to 100 percent. The default is 0 percent.
                       For example, to specify a minimum time-to-live (TTL) value of 1000 seconds that
                       the content can be cached for, enter:
                       host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# cache ttl min 1000

                       To revert to a default cache TTL value, enter:
                       host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no cache ttl min




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Specifying Load-based Expiration for Cache Objects
                          You can use performance assurance with a load-based expiration to set when an
                          object in the cache can expire (excluding the natural process of cache pruning). In
                          this case, the origin server’s load determines when the object expires.
                          This type of expiration allows you to dynamically increase the TTL of cached
                          responses if the current response time (average computed over a short time
                          window) from the origin servers is larger than the average response time (average
                          computed over a longer time window) by a threshold amount. Similarly, the TTL
                          is dynamically decreased if the reverse holds true. The starting value for the cache
                          TTL is the cache ttl min value (see the “Configuring Time-Based Cache Object
                          Expiration” section), or 0 if not specified. The purpose of a moving average-based
                          calculation is to allow the cache to respond to trends in usage patterns, smoothing
                          out uncharacteristic spikes.
                          To control a load-based expiration for the cache, use the server-load command in
                          parameter map optimization configuration mode.
                          The syntax for this command is as follows:

                               server-load {trigger-percent value | ttl-change-percent value}

                          The keywords, options, and arguments are:
                           •   trigger-percent value—Defines the threshold that triggers a change in the
                               cache TTL. This keyword enables the ACE to monitor the server load in real
                               time and make intelligent closed loop content expiration decisions so that site
                               performance is maximized and existing hardware resources are used most
                               efficiently, even during periods of peak traffic load. Valid values are from 0
                               to 100 percent. The default is 20 percent.
                           •   ttl-change-percent value—Defines the percentage by which the cache TTL
                               is increased or decreased in response to a change in the server load. For
                               example, if this value is set to 20, the current TTL for a particular response is
                               300 seconds, and if the current server response time exceeds the trigger
                               threshold, then the cache TTL for the response is raised to 360 seconds
                               (which is a 20 percent increase). Valid values are from 0 to 100 percent. The
                               default is 20 percent.
                          For example, to specify a threshold trigger of 50 percent, enter:
                          host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# server-load trigger-percent 50

                          To revert to a default setting of 20 percent, enter:
                          host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no server-load trigger-percent


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                                                              Chapter 3   Configuring an Optimization HTTP Parameter Map
  Configuring Static and Adaptive Cache Parameters




Overriding Cache Requests or Response Headers
                        To override client request headers (primarily for embedded objects), use the
                        cache-policy request command in parameter map optimization configuration
                        mode.
                        The syntax for this command is as follows:

                              cache-policy request {override-all | override-cache-ctl-no-cache}

                        The keywords are:
                          •   override-all—Specifies that all cache request headers are ignored.
                          •   override-cache-ctl-no-cache—Overrides the Cache-Control: no cache
                              HTTP header from a request. This keyword is used for a flashforward-object
                              command action (see Chapter 2, Configuring an Optimization HTTP Action
                              List). Typically, if a cache control request header states that there is no cache,
                              the ACE will not cache this object. The override-cache-ctl-no-cache
                              keyword instructs the ACE to ignore the Cache-Control: no cache header
                              from the request side.
                        For example, to instruct the ACE that all cache request headers are ignored, enter:
                        host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# cache-policy request override-all

                        To remove a cache policy request selection, enter:
                        host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no cache-policy request
                        override-all

                        To override origin server response headers (primarily for embedded objects), use
                        the cache-policy response command in parameter map optimization
                        configuration mode.
                        The syntax for this command is as follows:

                              cache-policy response {override-all | override-cache-ctl-private}




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                                                   Specifying the Default Scripting Language on Condensed Content Pages




                          The keywords are:
                           •   override-all—Specifies that all cache response headers are ignored.
                           •   override-cache-ctl-private—Overrides the Cache-Control: private HTTP
                               header from a response. This keyword is used for a flashforward-object
                               command action (see Chapter 2, Configuring an Optimization HTTP Action
                               List) and is equivalent to static object caching. Typically, if a cache control
                               response header states that it is private, the response headers will make the
                               object not cacheable. The override-cache-ctl-private keyword instructs the
                               ACE to ignore the Cache-Control: private HTTP header from a response.
                          For example, to instruct the ACE that all cache response headers are ignored,
                          enter:
                          host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# cache-policy response override-all

                          To remove a cache policy response selection, enter:
                          host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no cache-policy response
                          override-all




Specifying the Default Scripting Language on
Condensed Content Pages
                          To configure the ACE to recognize the scripting language used on condensed
                          content pages, either JavaScript or Visual Basic, use the clientscript-default
                          command in parameter map optimization configuration mode.
                          The syntax for this command is as follows:

                               clientscript-default {javascript | vbscript}

                          The keywords are:
                           •   javascript—Sets the default scripting language to JavaScript (default).
                           •   vbscript—Sets the default scripting language to Visual Basic.
                          For example, to set the default scripting language to Visual Basic, enter:
                          host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# clientscript-default vbscript

                          To revert to the default JavaScript scripting language, enter:
                          host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no clientscript-default vbscript



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                                                              Chapter 3   Configuring an Optimization HTTP Parameter Map
  Specifying Delta Optimization Operating Parameters




Specifying Delta Optimization Operating Parameters
                         The ACE applies several optimization technologies to accelerate web application
                         performance. You can configure the delta optimization operating parameters that
                         affect how the ACE handles cacheable content and objects. You can also control
                         the delta optimization mode to determine whether the web pages to be condensed
                         are common to all users or personalized for each individual user.
                         This section contains the following topics:
                          •   Setting Cacheable Content and Objects for Delta Optimization
                          •   Specifying Delta Optimization Mode


Setting Cacheable Content and Objects for Delta Optimization
                         To configure the delta optimization operating parameters on the ACE, use the
                         delta command in parameter map optimization configuration mode.
                         The syntax for this command is as follows:

                              delta {cacheable-content | exclude {iframes | mime-type mime-type |
                                  non-ascii | scripts} | first-visit | page-size {min value | max value}

                         The keywords and options are:
                          •   cacheable-content—Enables the delta optimization of the cacheable content.
                              Typically, the ACE detects cacheable content and prevents its delta
                              optimization.
                          •   exclude—Defines the cacheable objects that should not be delta optimized.
                               – iframes—Specifies that Inline frames (IFRAME tags) should not be
                                   delta optimized.
                               – mime-type mime-type—Specifies the Multipurpose Internet Mail
                                   Extension (MIME)-type messages that should not be delta optimized (such
                                   as image/Jpeg, text/html, application/msword, and audio/mpeg).
                               – non-ascii—Specifies that non-ACII data should not to be delta
                                   optimized. Specify this keyword if the content has UTF8 characters (see
                                   the “Controlling the Display of UTF-8 Characters” section). This
                                   excludes such characters from Delta optimization but the rest of that page
                                   can still be delta optimized.


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                                                                       Specifying Delta Optimization Operating Parameters




                                 – scripts—Specifies that JavaScript should not to be delta optimized.
                           •   first-visit—Enables delta optimization on the first visit to a web page.
                           •   page-size—Sets the minimum and maximum page size, in bytes, for delta
                               optimization.
                                 – min value—Specifies the minimum page size, in bytes, for delta
                                     optimization. Valid values are from 1 to 250000 bytes. The default is 1024
                                     bytes.
                                 – max value—Specifies the maximum page size, in bytes, for delta
                                     optimization. Valid values are from 1024 to 250000 bytes. The default is
                                     250000 bytes.
                          For example, to specify the MIME-type messages that should not be delta
                          optimized, enter:
                          host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# delta exclude mime-type audio/mpeg

                          To disable a delta optimization operating parameter on the ACE, enter:
                          host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no delta exclude mime-type
                          audio/mpeg



Specifying Delta Optimization Mode
                          Delta optimization mode specifies whether the web pages to be condensed are
                          common to all users or personalized for individual users, which determines what
                          kind of page deltas are generated by the ACE.
                          The ACE supports two delta optimization modes:
                           •   All-user mode
                           •   Per-user mode
                          For details on each delta optimization mode, see Chapter 1, Application
                          Acceleration and Optimization Overview.
                          To control the delta optimization mode used by the ACE, use the other delta
                          command in parameter map optimization configuration mode (see the “Setting
                          Cacheable Content and Objects for Delta Optimization”section).
                          The syntax for this command is as follows:

                               delta {all-user | per-user}



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                                                             Chapter 3   Configuring an Optimization HTTP Parameter Map
 Specifying Delta Optimization Operating Parameters




                        The keyword are:
                         •   all-user—Specifies that the corresponding URLs are to be condensed by using
                             the All-user delta optimization mode. This is the default.
                         •   per-user—Specifies that the corresponding URLs are to be condensed by using
                             the Per-user delta optimization mode.
                        For example, to specify that the corresponding URLs are to be delta optimized using
                        the Per-user mode, enter:
                        host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# delta per-user

                        To revert to the default All-user delta optimization mode, enter:
                        host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no delta per-user




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                                                         Specifying the Freshness Period of Objects in the Client Browser




Specifying the Freshness Period of Objects in the
Client Browser
                          To control the period of time that objects in the client’s browser remain fresh, use
                          the expires-setting command in parameter map optimization configuration mode.
                          The expires-setting command instructs the ACE to insert an Expires response
                          header with a time value for an object. It is not necessary to configure this
                          command when specifying the flashforward command in an action list because,
                          in this case, the ACE always inserts a long time value in the Expires header for
                          the transformed object. The expires-setting command is typically used when you
                          are not using FlashForward but want to achieve the FlashForward affect by
                          making all of the embedded objects perceived as being fresh by the browser.
                          For details on FlashForward, see Chapter 1, Application Acceleration and
                          Optimization Overview).
                          The syntax for this command is as follows:

                               expires-setting {cachettl | time-to-live seconds | unmodified}

                          The keywords and options are:
                           •   cachettl—Sets the freshness similar to FlashForwarded objects and uses the
                               minimum and maximum settings configured by the cache ttl command (if
                               set). See the “Configuring Time-Based Cache Object Expiration” section.
                           •   time-to-live seconds—The duration that objects in the client’s browser
                               remain fresh. Valid entries are from 0 to 2147483647 seconds.
                           •   unmodified—Disables browser object freshness control (default).
                          For example, to specify that the ACE use the settings configured by the cache ttl
                          command, enter:
                          host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# expires-setting cachettl

                          To remove an expiration setting, enter:
                          host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no expires-setting cachettl




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                                                            Chapter 3   Configuring an Optimization HTTP Parameter Map
 Removing Meta Elements from Documents




Removing Meta Elements from Documents
                      By default, the ACE includes HTML Meta elements in documents. To configure
                      the ACE to remove HTML Meta elements from documents to prevent them from
                      being condensed, use the extract meta command in parameter map optimization
                      configuration mode.
                      The syntax for this command is as follows:

                           extract meta

                      For example, to remove HTML Meta elements from documents, enter:
                      host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# extract meta

                      To include HTML Meta elements in documents, enter:
                      host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no extract meta




Bypassing FlashForward
                      FlashForward object acceleration extends the ACE’s bandwidth usage reduction
                      and download acceleration benefits to objects that are embedded within HTML
                      pages. This feature combines local object storage with dynamic renaming of
                      embedded objects to enforce object freshness within the parent HTML page. For
                      details on FlashForward, see Chapter 1, Application Acceleration and
                      Optimization Overview.
                      To configure the ACE to bypass FlashForward for stale embedded objects, use the
                      flashforward refresh-policy command in parameter map optimization
                      configuration mode.
                      The syntax for this command is as follows:

                           flashforward refresh-policy {all | direct}

                      The keywords are:
                       •   all—Allows FlashForward to indirectly refresh embedded objects (default)
                       •   direct—Bypasses FlashForward for stale embedded objects so that they are
                           directly refreshed.



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                                                                               Identifying HTTP Response Codes to Ignore




                         Request headers that the ACE sends to the origin server for stale embedded
                         objects (indirect GET) may not be accepted by the origin server and may cause
                         errors. In this case, specify direct to prevent this behavior.


               Note      By default, FlashForward is disabled. You must enabled it by specifying the
                         following commands in action list optimization mode: flashforward and
                         flashforward-object (for embedded objects). See Chapter 2, Configuring an
                         Optimization HTTP Action List.

                         For example, to bypass FlashForward for stale embedded objects, enter:
                         host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# flashforward refresh-policy direct

                         To revert to the default of allowing FlashForward to indirectly refresh embedded
                         objects, enter:
                         host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no flashforward refresh-policy




Identifying HTTP Response Codes to Ignore
                         You can specify a comma-separated list of HTTP response codes for which the
                         response body must not be read (ignored) by using the ignore-server-content
                         command in parameter map optimization configuration mode. For example, a
                         response code value of 302 directs the ACE to ignore the response body in the
                         case of a 302 (redirect) response from the origin server.
                         The syntax of this command is as follows:

                              ignore-server-content value

                         The value argument specifies the response code as an unquoted text string with a
                         maximum of 64 alphanumeric characters.
                         For example, to specify a response code value of 302 to ignore, enter:
                         host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# ignore-server-content 302

                         To remove one or more response codes to ignore, enter:
                         host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no ignore-server-content




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                                                              Chapter 3   Configuring an Optimization HTTP Parameter Map
  Setting the Parameter Summary Value of a Transaction Log Entry




Setting the Parameter Summary Value of a
Transaction Log Entry
                        To set the maximum number of bytes that are logged for each parameter value in
                        the parameter summary of a transaction log entry in the statistics log, use the
                        parameter-summary command in parameter map optimization configuration
                        mode.
                        The syntax of this command is as follows:

                              parameter-summary parameter-value-limit bytes

                        The bytes argument sets the maximum number of bytes that are logged for each
                        parameter value in the parameter summary of a transaction log entry in the
                        statistical log. If a parameter value is longer than this limit, it is truncated at the
                        specified parameter limit. Valid values are from 0 to 10,000 bytes. The default is
                        100 bytes.
                        For example, to specify a value of 5000 bytes as the parameter summary value,
                        enter:
                        host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# parameter-summary
                        parameter-value-limit 5000

                        To revert to the default of 100 bytes as the parameter summary value, enter:
                        host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no parameter-summary
                        parameter-value-limit




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                                                                             Setting the Maximum Size of HTTP POST Data




Setting the Maximum Size of HTTP POST Data
                         An HTTP POST can send a very large (effectively unlimited) amount of data; in
                         an extreme case, the client can just keep sending a stream of data for the server to
                         handle. In order to parse and inspect the POST data, the ACE needs to load the
                         data into a buffer in memory.
                         There are two types of standard HTTP form POST operations. They are
                         distinguished by the value in the Content-Type header:
                          •   application/x-www-form-urlencoded—This type of POST represents the
                              majority of all HTTP POSTs. This is just a standard POST of a web page
                              form.
                          •   multipart/form-data—This type of POST is much less common. Its main
                              purpose is to allow browser users to upload files to a website or application.
                              For example, if you use a web-based email program, and you want to attach
                              a file to an e-mail that you are sending, the upload of the file is done by using
                              this type of POST. Another usage (even less common) of this type of POST
                              is to send binary data (for example, from a custom browser plugin, or from a
                              nonbrowser HTTP client).
                         To set the maximum number of kilobytes of the POST data to scan for parameters
                         for the purpose of logging transaction parameters in the statistics log, use the
                         post-content-buffer-limit command in parameter map optimization
                         configuration mode.
                         The syntax for this command is as follows:

                              post-content-buffer-limit value

                         The value argument specifies the buffer size for the POST data. Valid values are
                         from 0 to 1000 KB. The default is 40 KB. Parameters beyond this limit will not
                         be logged by the ACE.
                         For example, to specify a buffer size of 1000 KB, enter:
                         host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# post-content-buffer-limit 1000

                         To revert to the default buffer size of 40K, enter:
                         host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no post-content-buffer-limit




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                                                              Chapter 3   Configuring an Optimization HTTP Parameter Map
  Specifying a Server Header String




Specifying a Server Header String
                         To define a user-specified string to be sent in the server header for an HTTP
                         response, use the server-header command in parameter map optimization
                         configuration mode. This command provide you with a method to uniquely tag the
                         context or URL match statement by setting server header value to a particular
                         string. The server header string can be used in cases where a particular URL is not
                         being transmitted to the correct target context or the match statement.
                         The syntax for the command is as follows:

                              server-header string

                         The string argument defines a particular string in the server header. Enter a quoted
                         text strin. A maximum of 64 alphanumeric characters are allowed.
                         For example, to specify a string to be sent in the server header, enter:
                         host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# server-header “Header from Admin
                         Context”

                         To delete the server header string, enter:
                         host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no server-header




Controlling the Display of UTF-8 Characters
                         UTF-8 (8-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character
                         encoding for Unicode. The UTF-8 character set is an international standard that
                         allows web pages to display non-ASCII or non-English multibyte characters. It is
                         able to represent any universal character in the Unicode standard and is backward
                         compatible with ASCII.
                         To determine how many UTF-8 characters on a page constitute a UTF-8 character
                         set page for purposes of UTF-8 detection, use the utf8 threshold command in
                         parameter map optimization configuration mode. This threshold adjusts the
                         detection of multibyte UTF-8 character set pages.
                         The syntax for the command is as follows:

                              utf8 threshold value




             Cisco 4700 Series Application Control Engine Appliance Application Acceleration and Optimization Configuration
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Chapter 3   Configuring an Optimization HTTP Parameter Map
                                                                                                        Where to Go Next




                         The value argument specifies the number of UTF-8 characters on a page that
                         constitute a UTF-8 character set page. Valid values are from 1 to 1,000,000
                         characters. The default is 5 characters.
                         For example, to specify a value of 1000 UTF-8 characters on a page, enter:
                         host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# utf8 threshold 1000

                         To disable the UTF-8 threshold, enter:
                         host1/Admin(config-parammap-optmz)# no utf8 threshold




Where to Go Next
                         Proceed to Chapter 4, Configuring a Traffic Policy for HTTP Optimization, to
                         configure a traffic policy for server load-balancing and application acceleration.




Cisco 4700 Series Application Control Engine Appliance Application Acceleration and Optimization Configuration
OL-16199-01                                                                                                         3-33
                                                            Chapter 3   Configuring an Optimization HTTP Parameter Map
 Where to Go Next




           Cisco 4700 Series Application Control Engine Appliance Application Acceleration and Optimization Configuration
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