# Erwin Schroedinger and Max Born Wave Mechanics and Quantum

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```					 Came up with a set of equations or wave
functions in 1926 for electrons.
 Said that electrons confined in their orbits would set
up standing waves and you could describe only
the probability of where an electron could be. The
distributions of these probabilities formed regions of
space about the nucleus were called orbitals.
 Orbitals could be described as electron density
clouds. The densest area of the cloud is where you
have the greatest probability of finding the
electron and the least dense area is where you
have the lowest probability of finding the electron.
   The branch of mechanics that deals with the
mathematical description of the motion and
interaction of subatomic particles.
   Electrons can be labeled using the sub
shell and orbital or by using the four
quantum numbers:
› n : principal quantum number

› l : azimuthal or lanky quantum number

› ml : magnetic quantum number

› ms : spin quantum number
   Enhanced on Schrödinger’s theory stating in his eyes, the
atom contained 'waves of chance.' When an electron moved
throughout the nucleus, the waves would ripple from side to
side. They would ripple in a line when particles moved
through the room in an atom. The symbol Psi stands for the
wave function in Schrödinger’s equation and throughout
quantum mechanics. Psi squared is the probability density of
finding a particle in a given place at a given time, if the
particle’s position is measured.
   His cat theory is a thought experiment, which means it considers
some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking
through its consequences.
   It illustrates what he saw as the problem of the Copenhagen
interpretation of quantum mechanics applied to everyday objects,
resulting in a contradiction with common sense.
   A cat is placed in a box, together with a radioactive atom.
    IF the atom decays, and the geiger-counter detects an alpha
particle, the hammer hits a flask of prussic acid, killing the cat.
    The mystery lies in the complex coupling of quantum and classical
domains.
   Before the observer opens the box, the cat's fate is tied to the wave
function of the atom, which is itself in a super-position of decayed
and not decayed states.
   Then, said Schrödinger, the cat must itself be in a super-position of
dead and alive states before the observer opens the box, observe
the cat, and collapses it's wave function.
   Albert Einstein was the scientist to come up with the cat
experiment.
   Born also added to the experiment the probabilities of the
outcome of the cat to be dead or alive.
   The Copenhagen interpretation implies that the state of the
two systems undergoes collapse into a definite state when
one of the systems is measured.
   In Schrödinger’s original thought experiment, he describes
how one could transpose the super-position of an atom to
large-scale systems of a live and dead cat.
   He proposed a scenario with a cat in a sealed box, where as
the cat's life or death was dependent on the state of a
subatomic particle.
   According to Schrödinger, the Copenhagen interpretation
implies that the cat remains both alive and dead (to the
universe outside the box) until the box is opened.

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 views: 0 posted: 3/25/2013 language: English pages: 10