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Syntax Commenting intelligently on sentence structure Identifying types of Sentences • Declarative: makes a statement Ex. The king is sick. • Imperative: gives a command Ex. Stand up. • Interrogative: asks a question Ex. Is the king sick? • Exclamatory: makes an exclamation Ex. The king is dead! Arrangement of ideas • Loose sentence: Makes complete sense if brought to a close before the actual ending. Ex. We reached Edmonton that morning after a turbulent flight and some exciting experiences. • Periodic Sentence: Makes sense only when the end of the sentence is reached (the period). Builds suspense. • Ex. That morning, after a turbulent flight and some exciting experiences, we reached Edmonton. (This type of sentence speeds the reader through to the end. Order of Sentence • Natural word order: Subject comes before the predicate. (98% of all English sentences.) ex. Oranges grow in California. • Inverted order of a sentence: predicate comes before the subj. New placement of ideas is emphatic. ex. In California grow oranges. Juxtaposition • A poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to one another, creating an effect of surprise and wit. 456—it’s hot out here. There’s the odor of embalming fluid. The beer is cold in the taverns. (juxtaposes hot and cold imagery; juxtaposes death “embalming fluid” and life “beer is cold.”) Parallelism • Refers to a grammatical or structural similarity between sentences or parts of a sentence. It involves an arrangement of words, phrases, sentences and paragraphs sot that elements of equal importance are equally developed and similarly phrased. Ex. Government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth. • To strive, to seek, to find but not to yield. “Ulysses” Repetition • A device in which words, sounds, and ideas are used more than once to enhance rhythm and create emphasis Rhetorical question • A question that expects no answer. Used to draw attention to a point and is generally stronger than a direct statement. • The user of the rhetorical question should know what the audiences answer will be and should expect most of them to have the same answer.
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