Syntax by changcheng2



Commenting intelligently on
   sentence structure
 Identifying types of Sentences
• Declarative: makes a statement
  Ex. The king is sick.
• Imperative: gives a command
  Ex. Stand up.
• Interrogative: asks a question
  Ex. Is the king sick?
• Exclamatory: makes an exclamation
  Ex. The king is dead!
        Arrangement of ideas
• Loose sentence: Makes complete sense if
  brought to a close before the actual ending.
  Ex. We reached Edmonton that morning after a
  turbulent flight and some exciting experiences.
• Periodic Sentence: Makes sense only when the
  end of the sentence is reached (the period).
  Builds suspense.
• Ex. That morning, after a turbulent flight and
  some exciting experiences, we reached
  Edmonton. (This type of sentence speeds the
  reader through to the end.
          Order of Sentence

• Natural word order: Subject comes
  before the predicate. (98% of all English
  ex. Oranges grow in California.
• Inverted order of a sentence: predicate
  comes before the subj. New placement of
  ideas is emphatic.
  ex. In California grow oranges.
• A poetic and rhetorical device in which
  normally unassociated ideas, words, or
  phrases are placed next to one another,
  creating an effect of surprise and wit.
  456—it’s hot out here. There’s the odor of
  embalming fluid. The beer is cold in the
  taverns. (juxtaposes hot and cold
  imagery; juxtaposes death “embalming
  fluid” and life “beer is cold.”)
• Refers to a grammatical or structural similarity
  between sentences or parts of a sentence. It
  involves an arrangement of words, phrases,
  sentences and paragraphs sot that elements of
  equal importance are equally developed and
  similarly phrased.
Ex. Government of the people, by the people, for
  the people, shall not perish from the earth.
• To strive, to seek, to find but not to yield.
• A device in which words, sounds, and
  ideas are used more than once to
  enhance rhythm and create emphasis
         Rhetorical question
• A question that expects no answer. Used
  to draw attention to a point and is
  generally stronger than a direct statement.
• The user of the rhetorical question should
  know what the audiences answer will be
  and should expect most of them to have
  the same answer.

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