Docstoc
EXCLUSIVE OFFER FOR DOCSTOC USERS
Try the all-new QuickBooks Online for FREE.  No credit card required.

FORM A - Ning

Document Sample
FORM A - Ning Powered By Docstoc
					Kim Lettorale, Adam Leaman, Carly Sikorski
Dr. Schwarzer
Curr 509.01: Sociocultural Perspectives on Teaching and Learning
October 3 2011

The Community:

       East Orange is a community in Essex County, NJ with a population of 69,824. The

median age of the residents in East Orange is 33 years old. The ethnic groups represented in

East Orange are White, African American or Black, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian,

Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic/Latino and others. The majority of the population is

Black or African American making up 89.5% of the population. The representation of

Hispanics/Latinos is 4.7% making Hispanics/Latinos the second most represented group in East

Orange after African American or Black. Most of the housing in East Orange is rental units

(73.4%), while 26.6% of the homes are owner-occupied. The majority of residents in East

Orange complete high school (72.4%), with 15% of the residents obtaining a Bachelors degree.

18.3% of the residents are foreign born and 15% of the population speaks a language other than

English at home. The median household income is $32,324 (compared to the US average of

$41,994) with 15.9% of families and 19.2% of individuals below poverty level.

       These demographics are a strong influence on the schools in many ways. East Orange is

an urban area with a higher than average poverty rate. The schools may have less qualified

teachers, outdated or rundown schools, and larger class sizes. The majority of the students in the

school are Black or African American and the teachers are likely to be white middle class

females who do not live in East Orange. This likely causes a disconnect between the cultures of

the teachers and the students, and this in turn leads to a lack of personal connections made

between the content and the students and their community. This situation can lead students to

feel uninterested in the subject matter and thus less excited to learn. Also, there may be an
overrepresentation of students in remedial classes, which are most likely unchallenging and

boring. In East Orange, about 25% of students drop out before they complete high school, which

shows that the schools are not helping the students reach their full potential.

          We found the fact that even though 72.4% of the residents in East Orange graduate high

school, only 15% of them continue or go on to obtain a Bachelors degree to be the most

interesting demographic finding. To us, this means that the students are smart and capable of

succeeding, but there must be a reason that they are not finishing or attending college. There

should be more effort made by colleges and universities to recruit the students in East Orange

and make higher education more accessible to them. Some students do attend college but do not

finish, which also shows that more effort needs to be put forth to retain the students of East

Orange in higher education institutions.

History of the Community:

          Before European settlers came to America, Lenni-Lennape Native Americans had

inhabited the area that is now known as East Orange for hundreds of years. In 1666, the

Hackensacks, lead by Chif Oraton, traded their land to Robert Treat, a Puritan leader who had

originally settled in New Haven, Connecticut after leaving England (Robert Treat). Like most

land sales between Native Americans and the European settlers, the Hackensacks had not meant

to give full and permanent ownership of their land away (Robert Treat). In fact, the Native

Americans did not even have the same conceptualization of ownership as the settlers (Robert

Treat).

          When the land of current East Orange, as well as the areas between today’s Newark and

Montclair, was “sold” to the settlers for “four barrels of beer, 850 fathoms of wampum, 3

trooper's coates, 2 ankors of liquer’ and other items” (Robert Treat) , the Hackensacks were
under the impression that the settlers would use the land along with them. Native Americans

believed that the land was for everyone: they did not fence off individual properties and families

did not exclusively “own” their homes (Robert Treat). Nevertheless, following Treat’s original

“purchase” of the land, the settlers increasingly strengthened their presence there, building

meeting houses, churches, mills, homes, etc. where Native Americans had once farmed, hunted,

and lived (Robert Treat).

       In 1668, Daniel Dodd became the first settler of East Orange. In 1718, the word of

Daniel Dodd finding copper on his farm led the influx of people to the area, thus the population

of the area boomed. In 1719 the first meeting house was built in this area. This was a significant

historic event because now residents of East Orange had a place to worship, talk business, family

life, and about educational issues (this first meeting house was an all-purpose center of town).

Presently, the first meeting house is known as the First Presbyterian Church (Gerrish).

       In 1825, the residents in the immediate area built a two story wood-frame school and

named it Franklin School and this marked the first start of classes in East Orange. In 1874,

because of concerns of booming population, the school was moved down the street into a larger

building. The old building would become Franklin Hose Company #2, the areas first fire

department in 1884. Presently, Franklin School has been named the Whitney Houston Academy,

and is in the same location (Pierson).

       Orange, including what is now the City of Orange Township, South Orange, West

Orange and East Orange, incorporated as a city in1860, but immediately split into separate

communities largely due to local disputes over issues such as the costs municipal departments

such as fire, police, and transportation departments (City of Orange). In 1863, East Orange

separated from Orange, and in 1909 it incorporated as its own independent city (City of Orange).
       Over time, each of the Oranges developed a greater unique identity. The demographics

of the Oranges shifted most significantly in the 1960’s, perhaps due in a large part to the

desegregation of schools during the Civil Rights movement (Worth, 2010). Other possible

factors that likely affected the shifting demographics of East Orange and the surrounding

Oranges also include the construction of Route 280 through the center of East Orange in 1958,

the different forms of government among each Orange, and the influence of suburbs, schools,

shopping, and hospitals to the West (Worth, 2010).

The Students:

       The race/ethnicity characteristics of the schools we looked at are predominately African

American with the percentages ranging from 94% - 97.9%. There is very little representation of

Hispanic students (.3% - 5%), White students (0 - .3%) and Asian students (0-.2%) in all three

schools. There is a large percentage of students that are eligible for free lunch which indicates

that many the students are living in poverty. The percentage of students that are eligible for free

lunch range from 54% - 71%. At all three schools, there are quite a few students that are

students with disabilities, ranging from 17.4% - 24.5%.

       The student mobility rate is high (much higher than the NJ average) ranging from 13.9%

-43.5%. The major difference between the schools seem to be the mobility rate. Although still

higher than the NJ average, the mobility rate at the Whitney E. Houston Academy is lower than

the other two schools. This may indicate that the schools are connecting to the students in a way

that is personal and meaningful to them, inspiring them to learn and succeed. Since they are

succeeding, parents may try to keep their children in this school and try to remain in East

Orange.
       Overall the students in this district are predominately African American (averaging

97.1%) compared to the students in New Jersey as whole, which have a 17.4% representation of

African Americans. This district also has a much lower representation of Hispanic (1.1%) White

(.1%) and Asian (.1%) students than the NJ average of 19.4% Hispanic, 54.9% White, and 8.1%

Asian. In East Orange, many more students are eligible for free lunch when compared to the NJ

district average, averaging 64% in East Orange compared to the NJ average of 26.5%. Finally,

the mobility rate in this district is much higher than the NJ average. In East Orange it averages

30.7% compared to 10.5% in NJ.

       Across the board, students taking the NJASK 3-8 in language arts from these three

schools (Whitney Houston Academy, Patrick F. Healy and East Orange High School) average

scores 32% lower than that of students taking the same tests in their state. Comparing each of

the schools to each other, it appears that Patrick F. Henry school has the smallest percentage of

students who are proficient or above in language arts (21.1-39%) compared to Whitney Houston

Academy (41-60%) and East Orange High School (56.2%).

       Across the board, students taking the NJASK 3-8 in Mathematics from these three

schools (Whitney Houston Academy, Patrick F. Healy and East Orange Campus High School)

average scores 33% lower than that of students taking the same tests in their state. Comparing

each of the schools to each other, it appears that Patrick F. Henry school has the smallest

percentage of students who are proficient or above in language arts (19.3-28.4%) compared to

Whitney Houston Academy (46.75.4%) and East Orange High School (37.5%).

       In both Language Arts and Mathematics, students at Whitney Houston Academy

performed much better on these assessments throughout the years when compared to the Patrick

F. Healy School and East Orange High school. Factors contributing to this differential could be
that the teachers at the Whitney Houston Academy really care about their students and have high

expectations for all of them. Since the class sizes are small, the teachers are able to get to know

their students on a more personal level. This school focuses on the arts and allows its students to

excel using all of their talents. This makes learning more personal and gets the students excited

to learn by connecting the core subjects with creative ones.

    On the NJASK 3 and 4, the average percentage of students who scored proficient or better in

both subjects was about 15 points higher in the East Orange school district than in the district

factor group (DFG). On the NJASK 6 and 8 and the HSPT11, however, the average percentage

of scores at proficiency level or above in the East Orange District were lower than those in the

DFG by an average of about 6 points. This suggests a shift in achievement of East Orange

students somewhere between fourth and sixth grade, perhaps due to rising family responsibilities

and/or peer pressure.

        Furthermore, the gap between the East Orange school district and the DFG results in

Mathematics was greater than the gap in Language Arts achievement. This suggests that East

Orange has a sub-par Mathematics program. The lower results in East Orange secondary schools

in general may suggest that it is difficult to recruit the best qualified teachers for these schools, or

perhaps that students may have their time divided between school, work, family, friends, sports,

and other responsibilities during the adolescent and teenage years. Finally, the gap could have

something to do with the level of support from the East Orange community and parents, which

could be low due to the high level of poverty in the city. There are several factors that likely

play a role in these results so it is difficult to pick a single one for sure.

        Overall, the assessment results are lower in the East Orange school district than the state

average. Interestingly, the gap between district and state results is very different when you
compare the elementary school (grades 3 and 4) assessments to secondary school (grades 6, 8,

and 11) assessments. For the NJASK 3 and 4, the average in percentages of students scoring at a

proficient level in the district is about 6 points lower than the state average. In the secondary

schools, however, this gap widens significantly, with the two averages differing by about 31

points.

          The pattern here between the district and state is similar to the pattern between the district

and DFG in some ways, yet also different in some ways. It is similar because, in both

comparison, the results were better for the East Orange NJASK 3 and 4 scores than the East

Orange NJASK 6 and 8 and HSPT11 scores. While none of the East Orange district average

scores were higher than the average state scores, the gap was much smaller for the NJASK 3 and

4 than for the secondary tests. It is different because in the district to DFG comparison, the

district actually scored higher than the DFG in grades 3 and 4, while the results of the district

compared to the state were always lower (with one exception where the district scored 0.4

percentage points higher than the state on the NJASK 4 assessment for Mathematics).

          Again, results signify that there was a significant downward shift in achievement of East

Orange students between their elementary and secondary assessments. The gap between district

and state results is much wider than the gap between district and DFG in secondary schools,

largely because the state average has the highest and medium achieving schools to raise the

average whereas the DFG is based upon mostly poorly-achieving schools. In a big picture

analysis, this signifies that this country’s schools are very far from equal, with the poorer areas

performing much lower than the more wealthy areas.

          The conclusions we can draw for our analyses of the East Orange school district and the

three schools we looked at is that in urban districts, there seems to be a higher number of
students that are living in poverty, as there is a high number of students eligible for free lunch.

There also seems to be a high number of students that are classified as having a disability. That

may indicate that some students are considered to have a disability because of behavioral

problems or possibly cultural or linguistic differences than the schools community and they are

being misunderstood. The mobility rate is also quite high, which may show that the parents have

to move around a lot due to financial issues as the majority of residents rent their dwellings. In

fact, there could be some students who get evicted from their homes and have no choice but to

move.

        Also, an interesting statistic that can be observed is that, from the NJASK 3 progressively

to the HSPT 11, students in these three schools seem to have an upward trend (that is they

improve consistently) in the percentages of students that are proficient and above in both

Language arts and Mathematics. However, there seems to be a dip in statistics on the NJASK6

in both the Whitney Houston Academy and Patrick F. Healy School. The percentages of

students proficient and above from these two schools go down from the NJASK 4 to the NJASK

6 and then back up again when they take the NJASK 8.
                                              FORM A
                   (Completed one for the group and submit it with the Group Report)
                               Community Demographic Characteristics

http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?
In the box labeled “Get a Fact Sheet for your community,” insert the name of the target community and
select New Jersey. This will take you to the information needed to complete Form A. MAKE SURE YOU
USE THE INFORMATION FOUND IN THE 2000 tab.

Characteristics                                       Target Community                 U.S.
                                                      (n)            %                  %
Total population                                    69,824           ---               ----
                                             Age
Median age                                            33             ----           35.3
                                             Race
White                                                2,683          3.8%           75.1%
Black or African American                            62,462         89.5%          12.3%
American Indian/Alaska Native                         177            .3%            .9%
Asian                                                 302            .4%           3.6%
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander                       51            .1%            .1%
Some other race                                      1,496          2.1%           5.5%
Two or more races                                    2,653          3.8%           2.4%
                                     Hispanic Representation
Hispanic/Latino (of any race)                        3,284          4.7%           12.5%
                                    Housing Units (Occupied)
Owner-occupied                                       6,918          26.6%          66.2%
Renter-occupied                                      19,106         73.4%          33.8%
                                  Selected Social Characteristics
High school graduate or higher (population           31,482         72.4%          80.4%
25 years and over)
Bachelor’s degree or higher (population 25           6,545          15%            24.4%
years and over)
Foreign-born                                         12,759         18.3%          11.1%
Speaks a language other than English at              9,826          15.3%          17.9%
home (population 5 years and older)
                                Selected Economic Characteristics
Median household income                             $32,346           ---         $41,994
Per capita income                                   $16,488           ---         $21,587
Families below poverty level                         2,573          15.9%          9.2%
Individuals below poverty level                      13,159         19.2%          12.4%

                           Information obtained from the U.S. Census Bureau
                                                   FORM B
                          (Complete individually and submit it with the Group Report)

                                              Student Information


 Your Name:         Kim Lettorale

 Target District:        East Orange

 Target School: Whitney E. Houston Academy


 1. Selected Characteristics of the Student Population

                              Student Race/Ethnicity (Report Percentages)

                                                          School                 New Jersey
   African American                                       99.4%                    17.4

   Hispanic                                                 .3%                     19.4

   White                                                    .3%                     54.9

   Asian                                                    0%                          8.1

   Native American                                          0%                          0.2

   Other                                                    0%                          --

                      Other Relevant Student Characteristics (Report Percentages)

                                                          School                 New Jersey
   Percentage of students eligible for free or             61%                     26.5
   reduced-price lunch (Indicator of poverty)
   Percentage of students of Limited English               10.6%                    19%
   proficiency (LEP)

   Percentage of students with disabilities                17.4%                    5.4%
   (IEP)

   Student mobility rate                                   13.9%                    10.5%


*information on this page obtained from schooldigger.com and NJ Department of Education
                                  Percentages of Students Performing at
                              Proficiency Level or Above in the Target School

   Type of Assessment                    School         District       DFG           State

                                              NJASK 3
   Language Arts Literacy                47.8%          55.7%         37.1%         59.8%
   Mathematics                           61.2%          73.7%         59.4%         78.3%
                                              NJASK 4
   Language Arts Literacy                43.3%          45.3%         35.9%         59.7%
   Mathematics                           75.4%          77.6%          59%          77.2%
                                              NJASK 6
   Language Arts Literacy                41.2%          35.1%         37.9%         65.5%
   Mathematics                           55.9%          42.8%         50.7%         72.1%
                                              NJASK 8
   Language Arts Literacy                 60%           53.6%          60%          82.9%
   Mathematics                           46.7%          34.8%         44.6%          69%
                                              HSPT 11
   Language Arts Literacy          n/a
   Mathematics

*information on this page obtained from schooldigger.com and NJ Department of Education


 a. How do students in the target school compare to New Jersey students in general?

     Students in this school score about 19% lower in language arts literacy assessments and
     about 14% lower in mathematics assessments when compared to New Jersey students in
     general. There is a greater gap in the scores between the students in this school and NJ
     students in general as the student gets older and enters the higher grades.


 b. What story do the assessment results summarized above tell you about the students in the
    target school? (Your response should address all three subject areas tested.)

       As the students progress through the grades, the discrepancy between their scores and the
       scores for NJ widens. In other words, as the students get older in this school, their scores
       are lower in both language arts and mathematics. Also the students have higher sores in
       mathematics overall than they do in language arts. The decline in scores as the students
       move through the grades may be because the focus has now shifted toward “teaching for
       the test” and the interest the students has at the lower grades is fading. The difference
       between mathematics and language arts shows me that the students are capable of
       achieving higher scores, but maybe there is a cultural disconnect with the language in the
       classroom that needs to be addressed.
                                                 FORM B
                        (Complete individually and submit it with the Group Report)

                                              Student Information


 Your Name:         Adam Leaman

 Target District:       East Orange

 Target School: Patrick F. Healy Middle School


 1. Selected Characteristics of the Student Population

                            Student Race/Ethnicity (Report Percentages)

                                                          School               New Jersey
   African American                                       97.9%                  17.4

   Hispanic                                                1.9%                    19.4

   White                                                    0%                     54.9

   Asian                                                    .2%                       8.1

   Native American                                          0%                        0.2

   Other                                                    0%                        --

                     Other Relevant Student Characteristics (Report Percentages)

                                                          School               New Jersey
   Percentage of students eligible for free or             77%                   26.5
   reduced-price lunch (Indicator of poverty)
   Percentage of students of Limited English                                       19%
   proficiency (LEP)

   Percentage of students with disabilities                24.5%                   5.4%
   (IEP)

   Student mobility rate                                   34.7%                   10.5%


*information on this page obtained from schooldigger.com and NJ Department of Education
                                    Percentages of Students Performing at
                                Proficiency Level or Above in the Target School

   Type of Assessment                      School         District         DFG            State

                                                NJASK 3
   Language Arts Literacy
   Mathematics
                                                NJASK 4
   Language Arts Literacy
   Mathematics
                                                NJASK 6
   Language Arts Literacy                  21.1%          35.1%           37.9%           65.5%
   Mathematics                             28.4%          42.8%           50.7%           72.1%
                                                NJASK 8
   Language Arts Literacy                  39.9%          53.6%            60%            82.9%
   Mathematics                             19.3%          34.8%           44.6%            69%
                                                HSPT 11
   Language Arts Literacy            n/a
   Mathematics

*information on this page obtained from schooldigger.com and NJ Department of Education

 a. How do students in the target school compare to New Jersey students in general?

     Students in this school score about 45% lower in language arts literacy assessments and about 43%
     lower in mathematics assessments on the NJ ASK6 when compared to New Jersey students in
     general. Similarly, on the NJ ASK8, Students in this school score about 43% lower in language arts
     literacy assessments and about 50% lower in mathematics assessments on the NJ ASK6 when
     compared to New Jersey students in general. This is a rather large divide between students at Patrick
     F. Healy Middle School and other students in New Jersey.


 b. What story do the assessment results summarized above tell you about the students in the target
    school? (Your response should address all three subject areas tested.)

       While still way below average, something is to be said about the considerable jump in language arts
       proficiency from 21% in 6th grade to 40% in 8th grade; the number of students proficient in this area
       of testing doubled. To me, this upward trend is optimistic. Math tells a different story. Math
       scores between grades averaged at around 45-50% less than the states proficiency scores. Also,
       from the NJASK 6 to the NJASK8, proficiency percentages dropped about 10% to a mere 19%. In
       middle school, the math curriculum changes pretty dramatically because teachers have three years
       to get students away from what they learned in elementary school (basic math – such as adding,
       subtracting, multiplying and dividing) and prepare them for what they will learn in high school
       (more abstract math, geometry, functions, etc…) This change in curriculum could have a negative
       effect on students that may have mastered math in elementary school but are now exposed to a
       more challenging curriculum.
                                               FORM B
                      (Complete individually and submit it with the Group Report)

                                            Student Information


Your Name:           Carly Sikorski

Target District:     East Orange

Target School:       East Orange Campus High School


1. Selected Characteristics of the Student Population

                          Student Race/Ethnicity (Report Percentages)

                                                        School               New Jersey
 African American                                         94                   17.4

 Hispanic                                                  5                     19.4

 White                                                    <1                     54.9

 Asian                                                    <1                        8.1

 Native American                                          <1                        0.2

 Other                                                    <1                        --

                   Other Relevant Student Characteristics (Report Percentages)

                                                        School               New Jersey
 Percentage of students eligible for free or              54                   26.5
 reduced-price lunch (Indicator of poverty)
 Percentage of students of Limited English                5.4                       19
 proficiency (LEP)

 Percentage of students with disabilities                 19                        5.4
 (IEP)

 Student mobility rate                                   43.5                    10.5
                                  Percentages of Students Performing at
                              Proficiency Level or Above in the Target School

 Type of Assessment                      School         District          DFG           State

                                              NJASK 3
 Language Arts Literacy            n/a
 Mathematics
                                              NJASK 4
 Language Arts Literacy            n/a
 Mathematics
                                              NJASK 6
 Language Arts Literacy            n/a
 Mathematics
                                              NJASK 8
 Language Arts Literacy            n/a
 Mathematics
                                              HSPT 11
 Language Arts Literacy            56.2             60.3           64.5            88
 Mathematics                       37.5             39.4           46.3            75



a. How do students in the target school compare to New Jersey students in general?

    Students in this school score about 32% lower in Language Arts Literacy assessments and 50% lower
    in Mathematics assessments on the HSPT 11 when compared to New Jersey students in general. This
    represents a significant gap between the academic achievement of students of East Orange Campus
    High School and the average achievement of students in New Jersey.


b. What story do the assessment results summarized above tell you about the students in the target
   school? (Your response should address all three subject areas tested.)

      This data clearly shows that students at East Orange Campus High School score much lower than
      the average student in New Jersey. The data shows that East Orange Campus High School
      Mathematics performance is especially poor. Whereas the gap between Language Arts Literacy
      proficient or higher scores between this school and NJ schools on average was about 32%, the gap
      in Mathematics was a staggering 50%.
References

City of East Orange community demographics. Retrieved from http://www.eastorange-

       nj.org/departments/Planning/PEOPpdfs.

City of Orange Township historical overview. Retrieved from

       http://www.ci.orange.nj.us/history_main.html.

Gerrish, Jim, and Frederick Goode. "East Orange Time Line." East Orange Interactive Museum. Web. 08

       Oct. 2011. <http://eohistory.info/EOTimeLine/index.html>.

"New Jersey Department of Education | Report Card." Education Server Homepage. Stage of New Jersey,

       2010. Web. 07 Oct. 2011.

       <http://education.state.nj.us/rc/rc10/dataselect.php?datasection[1]=information>.

Pierson, David L. "1825 Franklin School." East Orange Interactive Museum. Web. 08 Oct. 2011.

       http://eohistory.info/EOTimeLine/1825.htm.

Robert Treat. Retrieved from http://eohistory.info/EOTimeLine/1666.htm

"United States - Fact Sheet." American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau, 2009. Web. 07 Oct. 2011.

       <http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/SAFFFacts?>

"Whitney E Houston Academy School, East Orange New Jersey / NJ School Profile, Ranking, and

       Reviews- SchoolDigger.com." SchoolDigger.com - School Rankings, Reviews and More – Public

       and Private Elementary, Middle, High Schools. Schooldigger.com, 2006-2011. Web. 07 Oct.

       2011.<http://www.schooldigger.com/go/NJ/schools/0423002050/school.aspx>.

"Whitney E Houston Academy School, East Orange New Jersey / NJ Ethnic Makeup Comparison

       SchoolDigger.com." SchoolDigger.com - School Rankings, Reviews and More - Public and

       Private Elementary, Middle, High Schools. Schooldigger.com, 2006-2011. Web. 07 Oct. 2011.

       http://www.schooldigger.com/go/NJ/schools/0423002050/school.aspx?entity=18

Worth, M. (26 Jan 2010). The edges of the Oranges. Retrieved from

       http://southorange.patch.com/articles/local-history-the-edges-of-the-oranges.
"1666." East Orange Interactive Museum. Web. 08 Oct. 2011.

               <http://eohistory.info/EOTimeLine/1666.htm>.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:0
posted:3/24/2013
language:English
pages:17