Biology CP Name Date Period
Part 1 – Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
HW #1 Introduction
1. Compare and contrast inorganic and organic compounds on the following basis:
Description: Inorganic Organic
Elements present in each Do NOT contain H and C together Always C and H (may also contain N,
O, P, and S)
Are they found in living things? YES YES
Are they produced in living things? YES YES
2. Classify each of the following as Organic (O) or Inorganic (I).
___O__ C284H432N84O79S7 __I___HBr ___O__ C56H58Cl14CuN16S4 __I__B3H3N6 _O___ C14H8O4
___O_ C10H12N3O3PS2 __I__GaCl3 __I__SiH4 __O__C19H22N2S __O__C9H8O4
a. Carbon b. Hydrogen
2. Match the element to the description
c. Nitrogen d. Oxygen
Can form 4 bonds __a_____
Can form single, double or triple covalent bonds _____a, c,(d-double bonds only)__
Found in all organic compounds _a,b_______
3. A scientist analyzes several foods and determines the following (each answer is used only once):
Grams per Serving
Food Protein Carbohydrate Lipids Cholesterol Fiber
A 103.9 0 26.9 334 0
B 0 0 38.4 0 0
C 36.3 203.4 1.0 0 25
D 0.2 102.3 0.1 0 10.2
E 0 200 0 0 0
____DC_1) Which of the above foods is most likely a lowfat bran muffin? In class we reviewed the
____B_2) Which of the above foods would be the oil you mix in salad dressing?
answers highlighted in
____E__3) Which of the above foods is most likely a cola?
____A_4) Which of the above foods is most likely a piece of steak? yellow. Note, the answers
____CD_5) Which of the above foods is most likely a pear? for 1 and 5 highlighted in
green are a better fit.
4. True or False?
__T___ Monomers are the building blocks of polymers.
__F__ Dehydration synthesis produces monomers from polymers
__F_ Organic compounds are found in living things while inorganic compounds are only found in the abiotic
5. Which of the following structures is an organic compound? (Label each as organic or inorganic.)
6. What are the four types of macromolecules we will study in this class?
a. _________carbohydrates_________ c. _____lipids________________
b. ____________proteins__________ d. _____nucleic acids____________________
6. Which of the above categories includes DNA? _____nucleic acids______________________
7. Define the word structure: The arrangement of and relations between the parts or elements of something complex._
8. Define the word function: _______An activity or purpose natural to or intended for a person or thing___________
9. The major theme of Biology is “Form leads to Function.” Give an everyday analogy of this theme and explain how it
applies to Biochemical molecules. Make sure you use the two, bold-faced words in questions 7 and 8 in your answer.
__The basic structure of biochemical molecules determine the function __A spoon is used for transferring foods
(specifically a soup spoon can transfer liquids)______
___A, C___1. What do glucose, fructose, and galactose have in common? (choose all that apply)
a) they are monosaccharides c) they are isomers (iso = same; mer = part)
b) they are disaccharides d) they are proteins
Answer Questions 2 and 3 using numbers:
2. Hydrolysis of a trisaccharide produces ____3____ molecules of simple sugars.
3. Synthesis of a disaccharide requires ___2_____ molecules of a monosaccharide.
4. The structure below is table sugar, tell me as much as you can about 1) what types of food it is found in, 2) the
classification of the type of molecule it is
___________1) bread, pasta, crackers___________________________________________________
___________2) carbohydrate, dissacharide___________________________________________________________
___________3) carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen________________________________________________________
___________4) dissolves in water_________________________________________________________
__________5)_Hydrolysis-sucrose is broken down to two monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) with the addition of
5. What is the general name for a carbohydrate made of many simple sugars? ____polysaccharides_______
6. What is the name of the simple sugar used to synthesize starch, glycogen and cellulose?___glucose____
7. Use the words in italics to fill in the following concept map: polysaccharide, simple sugar, intermediate molecule.
Simple sugar two combinedintermediate moleculemany combinedpolysaccharide
8. Fill in the following chart by listing the three important polysaccharides above in the first column below.
TYPE OF ORGANISM SIMPLE SUGAR USED FUNCTION OF THE
THAT SYNTHESIZES TO SYNTHESIZE THE POLYSACCHARIDE IN
POLYSACCHARIDE THE POLYSACCHARIDE THE ORGANSIM
starch plants glucose Energy storage
glycogen animals glucose Energy storage
cellulose plants glucose structure
9. Complete the following analogies:
a) glycogen is to animals as starch is to ___________plants____________________
b) glucose and fructose are to sucrose as _______glucose_______ is to starch.
c) synthesis is to build as hydrolysis is to _____break down____________
d) simple sugar is to glucose as polysaccharide is to _starch, glycogen, and celulose_____(3 possible answers)
10. List 3 foods that contain a large amount of carbohydrate:
11. Define synthesis (dehydration synthesis) of carbohydrates ___combine monosaccharides into disaccharides or
polysaccharides with the production of water (H2O)___
12. Define hydrolysis of carbohydrates__breakingapart polysaccharides or disaccharides into monosaccharides with
the addition of water_______________________________________________________________________
13. What is the name of the process by which plants make glucose? ____photosynthesis______
14. Name two carbohydrate molecules that a plant synthesizes or makes from glucose.
__________starch__________________ and _________________cellulose_______________
15. Animals cannot make glucose. How do they obtain it? Consume carbohydrates; break them down into glucose by
16. Name the carbohydrate molecule that animals make from glucose. ____glycogen_________________
Choose from the following to answer questions 17 and 18. Choose all answers that apply.
a. used as a reactant in cell respiration d. used as a form of energy
b. composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen e. contain many covalent bonds
c. form plant cell walls f. contain –OH (hydroxyl groups)
__b, e, f__17. Which of the above is considered a structural characteristic of carbohydrates?
__a,d,c__18. Which of the above is considered a functional characteristic of carbohydrates?
_________19. Which of the following IS a carbohydrate? Choose all that apply.
a. sucrose d. lactose g. carbon dioxide
b. water e. DNA h.glucose
c. polysaccharide f. cellulose i. simple sugar
__b,d_____20. Which of the following is composed of at least one molecule of glucose?
(choose all that apply)
a. galactoseb. cellulose c. lactose d. glycogen
__d_______22. Which of the following is a TRUE statement
a. carbohydrates contain many atoms of nitrogen
b. monosaccharides can be hydrolyzed to form disaccharides
c. cellulose can be hydrolyzed to form glucose and fructose molecules
d. glycogen can be synthesized from glucose molecules
____b,d,e______23. Which of the following terms could be used to describe table
sugar?(Choose all that apply)
a. monosaccharide c. polymer e. disaccharide
b. dimer d. organic compound f. monomer
Table Sugar (Sucrose)
_b,c,f________24. Which of the following are inorganic compounds found in all living things?
a. glucose c. water e. table sugar
b. NaCl d. starch f. oxygen
_a,b,d___ 25. Synthesis of a carbohydrate from monomers could produce (choose all that apply)
a. starch c. glucose e. fructose
b. dimers d. polysaccharides f. DNA
26. Describe in your own words (not using pictures) the structural difference between cellulose and glycogen.
Cellulose is a polysaccharide that forms long unbranched molecules which are linked together to form tough flexibl
fibers (fibrils). Glycogen is also a polysaccharide, but it forms branched molecules.
HW #3 Lipids
1. What are the smallermolecules that make up fats and oils? _1-glycerol and 3-fatty acids__
2. What is the process by which lipid molecules are synthesized or made?____dehydration synthesis___
3. What is the difference between the chemical structures of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?
__saturated fatty acids contain ONLY carbon-carbon single bonds
__unsaturated fatty acids contain BOTH carbon-carbon single bonds and carbon-carbon double
4. Use your notepacket and draw the structural formula of an imaginary saturated fatty acid using 5 carbons:
H HHH O
H C CCCC OH
5. Redraw your molecule as an unsaturated fatty acid (use 5 carbons):
H H O H O
H C CCCC OH H C CCCC OH
H HHH H HH
6. What did you add and/or subtract to build the unsaturated fatty acid?______hydrogen atoms were removed
(subtracted) and double bonds were formed (added)_________________________
8. What is a monounsaturated fatty acid?_______a monounsaturated fatty acid contains one carbon-carbon double
9. What is a polyunsaturated fatty acid?___a polyunsaturated fatty acid contains more than one one carbon-carbon double
10. Is your unsaturated fatty acid monounsaturated or polyunsaturated?_____answers will vary
11. Describe the difference between an oil and a fat:
a) Which contains saturated fatty acids? _____fats__________________________________________
b) Give three examples of foods that have fat in them ___butter, lard, bacon____
c) Give three examples of foods that have oil in them __salad dressing, seeds, nuts___________________
12. Which is healthier? (circle one bold-faced word or words per line)
A) Unsaturated or saturated lipid
B)solid or liquid lipid at room temperature
C) animal fat orplant oil
HW #4 Nucleic Acids
1. Complete the following analogies:
a) amino acid is to protein as nucleotides are to ____nucleic acids_____________________________
b) nucleotide is to DNA as simple sugar is to ___dissacharide, polysaccharide, complex
carbohydrate__________(3 possible answers)
c) enzyme is to protein as RNA is to ____nucleic acid________________________________
d) sugar, phosphate group and nitrogen base are to nucleic acids as amino group, carboxyl group and R
group are to ____amino acids or peptides________________________
2. What are the main elements found in nucleic acids? C, H,O,N,P
3. What are the monomer units of nucleic acids?_____nucleotides____________________________
4. Which molecule is in the nucleic acid category but does not form polymers? ATP
5. What are the three parts of a nucleotide? 5 Carbon sugar, phosphate group and nitrogen base
6. What is the relationship of RNA to DNA? RNA contains the sugar ribose and DNA contains the sugar
7. DNA codes for the production of what other type of organic compound? proteins
8. Which of these contain deoxyribose?
a. ATP b. DNA c. RNA
9. Which of these contain ribose?
a. ATP b. DNA c. RNA
10. Which of these stores information?
a. ATP b. DNA c. RNA
11. Which of these stores energy?
a. ATP b. DNA c. RNA
12. Label the nitrogen bases, sugars, and phosphates in the diagram below.
REVIEW OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
1) What are the four major groups of organic molecules and what are the subunits of each group?
GROUP UNITS USED TO SYNTHESIZE
MOLECULES IN THE GROUP
Carbohydrates Monosaccharides/simple sugars
Lipids glycerol and fatty acids
Nucleic Acids nucleotides
proteins amino acids/Peptides
2) Fill in the reactants and products missing in the hydrolysis of the four major organic compounds:
Organic Compound Hydrolysis=hydro (add water) and lysis (split)
Macromolecule + H2O
carbohydrate Polysaccharide + H2O Monosaccharides
lipid Triglyceride+H2O glycerol + fatty acids
protein Polypeptide + H2O amino acids/peptides
nucleic acid DNA or RNA+ H2O nucleotides
Answer questions 3 to 11 by listing the letters of the following compounds, which apply to each statement. There maybe
more than one answer per question.
a) polypeptides b) lipids c) simple sugars e) polysaccharides
f) amino acids g) nucleotides h) nucleic acids i) glycerol and fatty acids
3. Which of the above are broken down by hydrolysis?______a, b, e, h______A,B,E,H__________________________
4. Which of the above are the simple units used to synthesize organic compounds?_c, f, g,i__C,F,G,I_____
5. Which of the above are made up of many amino acids? _____a________A____
6. Which of the above are used to make a triglyceride like oil? _____i___I____________________
7. Which of the above are used as reactants in the synthesis of glycogen? _____c____C_________
8. Which of the above are components of DNA? ________g_____G_____
9. Which of the above are carbohydrates? _____________c,e_____C,E_______
10. Which of the above contain nitrogen? ________a, f, g, h___A,F,G,H_________
11. Which of the above contain Phosphorus? _______g, h_____G,H____________
END OF UNIT VOCABULARY SCAVENGER HUNT
Directions: Search through the notes for the term (or terms) that apply to each statement
1. Lipid units that DO NOT have C-C double bonds. These are less healthy than unsaturated fatty acid chains.
_________saturated fatty acids___________________________________________
2. This molecule is a single nucleotide that is named after its three phosphate groups. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
3. These compounds do NOT contain both carbon and hydrogen. CO2 is an example. ____inorganic compounds______
4. This type of protein is responsible for speeding chemical reactions like the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and
5. A lipid, this molecule is composed of glycerol and 3 unsaturated fatty acid chains. __triglyceride________
6. This monosaccharide is used as a reactant in dehydration synthesis to make glycogen, starch or cellulose.
7. A general term for a molecule composed of two simple sugars. _disaccharide____________
8. The type of covalent bond that joins amino acids during dehydration synthesis of a protein. ___peptide______
9. The general name for a large carbohydrate, protein or nucleic acid that is composed of many
monomer units. _________________________polymer__________________
10. This molecule holds the information for building proteins. It is found in the nucleus of the cell.
11. A general name for the smallest unit of a carbohydrate, protein or nucleic acid. _______monomer______________
12. Two of these units are used to make table sugar. ____monosaccharides________________
13. These molecules are unusual lipids that have ring structures. They can be sex hormones or molecules found in animal
cell membranes.__________steroids/ sterols__________
14. A general term that includes dipeptides and polypeptides. ____proteins______________
15. This process will add water to a polymer and break it into monomer units. ________hydrolysis_______________
16. A molecule composed of nucleotides that functions to help when making proteins from DNA.
17. This healthier lipid subunit is characterized by a carboxyl group and carbons that are double bonded
to each other. __________unsaturated fatty acids __________
18. A group of amino acids that functions to do a job in the body. _enzyme_____________
19. This polymer is composed of glucose monomers and functions to store energy in plants. _______starch_________
20. These small units make up a molecule that contains adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine.
21. A triglyceride, this molecule is found in animal products and is solid at room temperature. _______fat__________
22. This entire group of molecules does NOT dissolve in water. _________lipids________________
23. A carbohydrate that functions to make the cell wall in plant cells. ________cellulose_____________
24. A lipid that functions to build the cell membrane in all organisms. ____phospholipids________________
25. Monomer units of carbohydrates. They are used to make polysaccharides. ______monosaccharides____________
26. A term that describes any molecule that contains BOTH carbon and hydrogen atoms. ____organic__________
27. When you eat a potato, you undergo hydrolysis to produce ___glucose (from starch)________.
28. You then take that molecule and undergo dehydration synthesis in your cells to form __glycogen____.
29. These molecular groups are found on organic molecules. They are associated with the site of bonding to form larger
molecules during dehydration synthesis. _____hydroxyl and carboxyl groups__________________
30. These monomer units make up a polypeptide. __peptides/ amino acids_________
31. Any lipid composed of three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule. __triglyceride__________
32. A group of organic compounds that includes simple sugars, table sugar and starch. _carbohydrates________
33. The process by which 3 molecules of water are removed from four amino acids to make a
polypeptide. ______dehydration synthesis_________
34. A general term that includes fats, oils, estrogen, phospholipids and waxes. This group of
organic molecules do not have polymer or monomer units.________lipids________
35. The molecule that results when amino acids are combined during dehydration synthesis.
_________________polypeptide/ protein____________________ (two answers).
36. Cellular fuel. ___ATP__________
37. General name for a molecule that contains C, H, O and N (no P). _____amino acid/ peptide/ protein______
38. General name for a molecule that only contains C, H and O. Their name means hydrated
39. A major group of organic molecules that contains C, H, O, N and P. _____nucleic acids___________.
40. Triglycerides that have fatty acid chains that are saturated with hydrogens. ________fats