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					Biology CP         Name          Date   Period


                  UNIT 2B:
             Basic Biochemistry
      Part 1 – Carbohydrates, Lipids, Nucleic Acids
HW #1 Introduction
1. Compare and contrast inorganic and organic compounds on the following basis:

            Description:                               Inorganic                                   Organic

Elements present in each                  Do NOT contain H and C together         Always C and H (may also contain N,
                                                                                  O, P, and S)

Are they found in living things?          YES                                     YES

Are they produced in living things?       YES                                     YES

2. Classify each of the following as Organic (O) or Inorganic (I).

___O__ C284H432N84O79S7          __I___HBr       ___O__ C56H58Cl14CuN16S4      __I__B3H3N6         _O___ C14H8O4

___O_ C10H12N3O3PS2        __I__GaCl3     __I__SiH4       __O__C19H22N2S           __O__C9H8O4

                                                                                     a. Carbon               b. Hydrogen
2. Match the element to the description
                                                                                     c. Nitrogen             d. Oxygen
            Can form 4 bonds __a_____
            Can form single, double or triple covalent bonds _____a, c,(d-double bonds only)__
            Found in all organic compounds _a,b_______

3. A scientist analyzes several foods and determines the following (each answer is used only once):

                                                     Grams per Serving
               Food         Protein         Carbohydrate  Lipids             Cholesterol       Fiber
               A            103.9           0             26.9               334               0
               B            0               0             38.4               0                 0
               C            36.3            203.4         1.0                0                 25
               D            0.2             102.3         0.1                0                 10.2
               E            0               200           0                  0                 0

        ____DC_1) Which of the above foods is most likely a lowfat bran muffin?                In class we reviewed the
        ____B_2) Which of the above foods would be the oil you mix in salad dressing?
                                                                                               answers highlighted in
        ____E__3) Which of the above foods is most likely a cola?
        ____A_4) Which of the above foods is most likely a piece of steak?                     yellow. Note, the answers
        ____CD_5) Which of the above foods is most likely a pear?                              for 1 and 5 highlighted in
                                                                                               green are a better fit.

4. True or False?

__T___ Monomers are the building blocks of polymers.
__F__ Dehydration synthesis produces monomers from polymers
__F_    Organic compounds are found in living things while inorganic compounds are only found in the abiotic

5. Which of the following structures is an organic compound? (Label each as organic or inorganic.)
                    organic                              organic

                              inorganic                                                                  organic

6. What are the four types of macromolecules we will study in this class?

a. _________carbohydrates_________                c. _____lipids________________

b. ____________proteins__________                d. _____nucleic acids____________________

6. Which of the above categories includes DNA? _____nucleic acids______________________

7. Define the word structure: The arrangement of and relations between the parts or elements of something complex._

8. Define the word function: _______An activity or purpose natural to or intended for a person or thing___________

9. The major theme of Biology is “Form leads to Function.” Give an everyday analogy of this theme and explain how it
applies to Biochemical molecules. Make sure you use the two, bold-faced words in questions 7 and 8 in your answer.

__The basic structure of biochemical molecules determine the function __A spoon is used for transferring foods
(specifically a soup spoon can transfer liquids)______

HW #2Carbohydrates
___A, C___1. What do glucose, fructose, and galactose have in common? (choose all that apply)

            a) they are monosaccharides          c) they are isomers (iso = same; mer = part)

            b) they are disaccharides            d) they are proteins

Answer Questions 2 and 3 using numbers:

2. Hydrolysis of a trisaccharide produces ____3____ molecules of simple sugars.

3. Synthesis of a disaccharide requires ___2_____ molecules of a monosaccharide.

4. The structure below is table sugar, tell me as much as you can about 1) what types of food it is found in, 2) the
                                              classification of the type of molecule it is

___________1) bread, pasta, crackers___________________________________________________

___________2) carbohydrate, dissacharide___________________________________________________________

___________3) carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen________________________________________________________

___________4) dissolves in water_________________________________________________________

__________5)_Hydrolysis-sucrose is broken down to two monosaccharides (glucose and fructose) with the addition of

5. What is the general name for a carbohydrate made of many simple sugars? ____polysaccharides_______

6. What is the name of the simple sugar used to synthesize starch, glycogen and cellulose?___glucose____

7.   Use the words in italics to fill in the following concept map: polysaccharide, simple sugar, intermediate molecule.

Simple sugar    two combinedintermediate moleculemany combinedpolysaccharide

8. Fill in the following chart by listing the three important polysaccharides above in the first column below.

                             TYPE OF ORGANISM              SIMPLE SUGAR USED                FUNCTION OF THE
                             THAT SYNTHESIZES              TO SYNTHESIZE THE               POLYSACCHARIDE IN
    POLYSACCHARIDE                  THE                     POLYSACCHARIDE                   THE ORGANSIM

         starch                        plants                       glucose                      Energy storage

        glycogen                       animals                      glucose                      Energy storage

        cellulose                      plants                       glucose                         structure

9. Complete the following analogies:

        a) glycogen is to animals as starch is to ___________plants____________________

        b) glucose and fructose are to sucrose as _______glucose_______ is to starch.

        c) synthesis is to build as hydrolysis is to _____break down____________

        d) simple sugar is to glucose as polysaccharide is to _starch, glycogen, and celulose_____(3 possible answers)

10. List 3 foods that contain a large amount of carbohydrate:




11. Define synthesis (dehydration synthesis) of carbohydrates ___combine monosaccharides into disaccharides or
polysaccharides with the production of water (H2O)___

12. Define hydrolysis of carbohydrates__breakingapart polysaccharides or disaccharides into monosaccharides with
the addition of water_______________________________________________________________________

13. What is the name of the process by which plants make glucose? ____photosynthesis______

14.    Name two carbohydrate molecules that a plant synthesizes or makes from glucose.

                  __________starch__________________ and _________________cellulose_______________

15. Animals cannot make glucose. How do they obtain it? Consume carbohydrates; break them down into glucose by

16. Name the carbohydrate molecule that animals make from glucose. ____glycogen_________________

Choose from the following to answer questions 17 and 18. Choose all answers that apply.

      a. used as a reactant in cell respiration                          d. used as a form of energy

      b. composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen                         e. contain many covalent bonds

      c. form plant cell walls                                           f. contain –OH (hydroxyl groups)

__b, e, f__17. Which of the above is considered a structural characteristic of carbohydrates?

__a,d,c__18. Which of the above is considered a functional characteristic of carbohydrates?

_________19. Which of the following IS a carbohydrate?               Choose all that apply.

                   a. sucrose                         d. lactose                 g. carbon dioxide

                   b. water                           e. DNA                     h.glucose

                   c. polysaccharide                  f. cellulose               i. simple sugar

__b,d_____20. Which of the following is composed of at least one molecule of glucose?
              (choose all that apply)

                   a. galactoseb. cellulose       c. lactose       d. glycogen

__d_______22. Which of the following is a TRUE statement
              a. carbohydrates contain many atoms of nitrogen
              b. monosaccharides can be hydrolyzed to form disaccharides
              c. cellulose can be hydrolyzed to form glucose and fructose molecules
              d. glycogen can be synthesized from glucose molecules

____b,d,e______23. Which of the following terms could be used to describe table
                     sugar?(Choose all that apply)

                a. monosaccharide       c. polymer               e. disaccharide

                b. dimer                d. organic compound      f. monomer

                                                                                                 Table Sugar (Sucrose)

_b,c,f________24. Which of the following are inorganic compounds found in all living things?

                a. glucose              c. water                 e. table sugar

                b. NaCl                 d. starch                f. oxygen

_a,b,d___ 25. Synthesis of a carbohydrate from monomers could produce (choose all that apply)

                          a. starch             c. glucose                         e. fructose
                          b. dimers             d. polysaccharides                 f. DNA

26. Describe in your own words (not using pictures) the structural difference between cellulose and glycogen.

         Cellulose is a polysaccharide that forms long unbranched molecules which are linked together to form tough flexibl
fibers (fibrils). Glycogen is also a polysaccharide, but it forms branched molecules.

HW #3 Lipids

1. What are the smallermolecules that make up fats and oils? _1-glycerol and 3-fatty acids__


2. What is the process by which lipid molecules are synthesized or made?____dehydration synthesis___

3. What is the difference between the chemical structures of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids?

    __saturated fatty acids contain ONLY carbon-carbon single bonds

    __unsaturated fatty acids contain BOTH carbon-carbon single bonds and carbon-carbon double

4. Use your notepacket and draw the structural formula of an imaginary saturated fatty acid using 5 carbons:

               H HHH O

           H C CCCC OH

               H HHH

5. Redraw your molecule as an unsaturated fatty acid (use 5 carbons):

               H        H O                                                  H            O

           H C CCCC OH                                                    H C CCCC OH

               H HHH                                                         H HH

         monounsaturated                                                polyunsaturated
6. What did you add and/or subtract to build the unsaturated fatty acid?______hydrogen atoms were removed
(subtracted) and double bonds were formed (added)_________________________

8. What is a monounsaturated fatty acid?_______a monounsaturated fatty acid contains one carbon-carbon double

9. What is a polyunsaturated fatty acid?___a polyunsaturated fatty acid contains more than one one carbon-carbon double

10. Is your unsaturated fatty acid monounsaturated or polyunsaturated?_____answers will vary

11. Describe the difference between an oil and a fat:

            a) Which contains saturated fatty acids? _____fats__________________________________________

            b) Give three examples of foods that have fat in them ___butter, lard, bacon____

            c) Give three examples of foods that have oil in them __salad dressing, seeds, nuts___________________

12. Which is healthier? (circle one bold-faced word or words per line)

                            A) Unsaturated or saturated lipid
                            B)solid or liquid lipid at room temperature
                            C) animal fat orplant oil

HW #4 Nucleic Acids
    1. Complete the following analogies:

        a) amino acid is to protein as nucleotides are to ____nucleic acids_____________________________
        b) nucleotide is to DNA as simple sugar is to ___dissacharide, polysaccharide, complex
            carbohydrate__________(3 possible answers)
        c) enzyme is to protein as RNA is to ____nucleic acid________________________________
        d) sugar, phosphate group and nitrogen base are to nucleic acids as amino group, carboxyl group and R
        group are to ____amino acids or peptides________________________

    2. What are the main elements found in nucleic acids?      C, H,O,N,P

    3. What are the monomer units of nucleic acids?_____nucleotides____________________________

    4. Which molecule is in the nucleic acid category but does not form polymers?      ATP

    5. What are the three parts of a nucleotide?       5 Carbon sugar, phosphate group and nitrogen base

    6. What is the relationship of RNA to DNA?         RNA contains the sugar ribose and DNA contains the sugar

    7. DNA codes for the production of what other type of organic compound?            proteins

    8. Which of these contain deoxyribose?
            a. ATP              b. DNA                 c. RNA

    9. Which of these contain ribose?
            a. ATP              b. DNA                 c. RNA

    10. Which of these stores information?
            a. ATP              b. DNA                 c. RNA

    11. Which of these stores energy?
            a. ATP              b. DNA                 c. RNA

     12. Label the nitrogen bases, sugars, and phosphates in the diagram below.

                                                                                  Nitrogen bases



1) What are the four major groups of organic molecules and what are the subunits of each group?


                            GROUP                      UNITS USED TO SYNTHESIZE
                                                       MOLECULES IN THE GROUP

                         Carbohydrates                  Monosaccharides/simple sugars

                              Lipids                         glycerol and fatty acids

                          Nucleic Acids                            nucleotides

                             proteins                         amino acids/Peptides

2) Fill in the reactants and products missing in the hydrolysis of the four major organic compounds:

                 Organic Compound             Hydrolysis=hydro (add water) and lysis (split)

                                                 Reactant(s)                   Product(s)
                                             Macromolecule + H2O

                    carbohydrate             Polysaccharide + H2O          Monosaccharides

                         lipid                  Triglyceride+H2O          glycerol + fatty acids

                       protein                 Polypeptide + H2O          amino acids/peptides

                     nucleic acid             DNA or RNA+ H2O                  nucleotides

Answer questions 3 to 11 by listing the letters of the following compounds, which apply to each statement. There maybe
   more than one answer per question.

         a) polypeptides                b) lipids               c) simple sugars       e) polysaccharides

         f) amino acids                 g) nucleotides          h) nucleic acids       i) glycerol and fatty acids

 3. Which of the above are broken down by hydrolysis?______a, b, e, h______A,B,E,H__________________________

 4. Which of the above are the simple units used to synthesize organic compounds?_c, f, g,i__C,F,G,I_____

 5. Which of the above are made up of many amino acids? _____a________A____

 6. Which of the above are used to make a triglyceride like oil? _____i___I____________________

 7. Which of the above are used as reactants in the synthesis of glycogen? _____c____C_________

 8. Which of the above are components of DNA? ________g_____G_____

 9. Which of the above are carbohydrates? _____________c,e_____C,E_______

 10. Which of the above contain nitrogen? ________a, f, g, h___A,F,G,H_________

 11. Which of the above contain Phosphorus? _______g, h_____G,H____________


Directions: Search through the notes for the term (or terms) that apply to each statement

1. Lipid units that DO NOT have C-C double bonds. These are less healthy than unsaturated fatty acid chains.
_________saturated fatty acids___________________________________________

2. This molecule is a single nucleotide that is named after its three phosphate groups. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

3. These compounds do NOT contain both carbon and hydrogen. CO2 is an example. ____inorganic compounds______

4. This type of protein is responsible for speeding chemical reactions like the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and
fructose. ______enzyme_____________

5. A lipid, this molecule is composed of glycerol and 3 unsaturated fatty acid chains. __triglyceride________

6. This monosaccharide is used as a reactant in dehydration synthesis to make glycogen, starch or cellulose.

7. A general term for a molecule composed of two simple sugars. _disaccharide____________

8. The type of covalent bond that joins amino acids during dehydration synthesis of a protein. ___peptide______

9. The general name for a large carbohydrate, protein or nucleic acid that is composed of many

monomer units.    _________________________polymer__________________

10. This molecule holds the information for building proteins. It is found in the nucleus of the cell.

11. A general name for the smallest unit of a carbohydrate, protein or nucleic acid. _______monomer______________

12. Two of these units are used to make table sugar. ____monosaccharides________________

13. These molecules are unusual lipids that have ring structures. They can be sex hormones or molecules found in animal
cell membranes.__________steroids/ sterols__________

14. A general term that includes dipeptides and polypeptides. ____proteins______________

15. This process will add water to a polymer and break it into monomer units. ________hydrolysis_______________

16. A molecule composed of nucleotides that functions to help when making proteins from DNA.

17. This healthier lipid subunit is characterized by a carboxyl group and carbons that are double bonded

to each other. __________unsaturated fatty acids __________

18. A group of amino acids that functions to do a job in the body. _enzyme_____________

19. This polymer is composed of glucose monomers and functions to store energy in plants. _______starch_________

20. These small units make up a molecule that contains adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine.

21. A triglyceride, this molecule is found in animal products and is solid at room temperature. _______fat__________

22. This entire group of molecules does NOT dissolve in water. _________lipids________________

23. A carbohydrate that functions to make the cell wall in plant cells. ________cellulose_____________

24. A lipid that functions to build the cell membrane in all organisms. ____phospholipids________________

25. Monomer units of carbohydrates. They are used to make polysaccharides. ______monosaccharides____________

26. A term that describes any molecule that contains BOTH carbon and hydrogen atoms. ____organic__________

27. When you eat a potato, you undergo hydrolysis to produce ___glucose (from starch)________.

28. You then take that molecule and undergo dehydration synthesis in your cells to form __glycogen____.

29. These molecular groups are found on organic molecules. They are associated with the site of bonding to form larger
molecules during dehydration synthesis. _____hydroxyl and carboxyl groups__________________

30. These monomer units make up a polypeptide. __peptides/ amino acids_________

31. Any lipid composed of three fatty acids and a glycerol molecule. __triglyceride__________

32. A group of organic compounds that includes simple sugars, table sugar and starch. _carbohydrates________

33. The process by which 3 molecules of water are removed from four amino acids to make a

polypeptide. ______dehydration synthesis_________

34. A general term that includes fats, oils, estrogen, phospholipids and waxes. This group of

organic molecules do not have polymer or monomer units.________lipids________

35. The molecule that results when amino acids are combined during dehydration synthesis.

_________________polypeptide/ protein____________________ (two answers).

36. Cellular fuel. ___ATP__________

37. General name for a molecule that contains C, H, O and N (no P). _____amino acid/ peptide/ protein______

38. General name for a molecule that only contains C, H and O. Their name means hydrated

carbons. ___________carbohydrate___________________

39. A major group of organic molecules that contains C, H, O, N and P. _____nucleic acids___________.

40. Triglycerides that have fatty acid chains that are saturated with hydrogens. ________fats


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