Competence by xeniawinifredzoe


									 Actual Developments in Italy and in European
Context: IT-Training and Certification-Systems
                                                 AITTS and APO
     Advanced IT Trainings-System – Work-process oriented training
     Exchange of experiences, KIBNET Germany and Italy Delegation

                              Workshop in Berlin, 12th October 2005
                         The Fondazione Politecnico di Milano

   “Politecnico di                                        Abb
   Milano” technical                                      AICA
   University                                             AITEC
                                                          Cdb Web Tech
Founders                                                  CORCAB
Regione Lombardia                                         Provincia di Milano
                             Fondazione                   SIA
Provincia di Cremona                                      ----------
Comune di Cremona
                             Politecnico               Partecipants
Comune di Piacenza                                     All the partners of the Politecnico
UniverComo                                             Innovazione consortium
UniverLecco Sondrio                                    Esri Italia
Camera di Commercio di                                 Fondazione IBM
Milano                                                 H3G
AEM                           members                  HP
Banca Intesa                                           McKinsey & Co.
                              SIAM - Società
Indesit Company               Incoraggiamento Arti e   Sodalitas
Pirelli & C.                  Mestieri                 Value Partners
Siemens                                                Young&Rubicam
                                                              2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   2
                                          Our Mission

The Fondazione Politecnico is an agile structure that
aims to:
   promote applied research, education, and the
   dissemination of scientific culture for the
   development of the economic context
   move innovation to businesses and public
   administrations and foster the creation of new
   support the main projects of the “Politecnico di
   Milano” Technical University

                                           2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   3
                                                    eSkills Forum

The Fondazione Politecnico, together with AICA and
Federcomin (now AITech) is cooperating to the
European eSkills Metaframework, the European e-
competence framework and ICT qualification
framework, carried on by European Commission (DG
Enterprise, Education and Information Society),
CEDEFOP and CEPIS, within the eSkills Forum

                                                         2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   4
                                      Problem area in Italy

The present situation in Italy

   Different competences and job profiles models from training
   and labour institutions
   No shared ICT language among companies
   Different points of views on ICT job profiles
   No effective tools able to help people know their positioning in
   the labour market
   Different training and learning objectives
   No common reference certification system

                                                   2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   5
                                    Problem area in Italy

ICT jobs belong to the set of “knowledge intensive” professions
which legally require neither specific qualifications nor a
The CNEL (National Council for Economy and Labour), within
services, identifies the following ICT Associations nationwide
   Company Security Professionals Association
   IT Professionals Associations
   National Association for Informatics and Computer Science
   graduated people
   National Association for Public Administration IT Professionals
   Internet Workers and End Users National Association
   International WEBMASTER Association

                                                  2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   6
                                         Problem area in Italy

ANASIN (National Association for ICT vendors, now AITech, Italian
Association for IT), identifies the following ICT job profiles nationwide:
   Solution Pre-Sales
   Security Manager
   SW developer – Object Oriented – SW Engineering
   Database Administrator
   Local networks Specialist – System Specialist
   Networks Administrator
   TLC Architectures specialist – Data Communication Engineering
   Technical assistance operator
   Technical help desk operator

                                                        2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   7
                                        Problem area in Italy

In other studies from institutions like Isri (Institute for studies on
industrial relations), SDA Bocconi and others, IT professions are
very close to internet and its applications:

   Sound editor
   Multimedia developer
   Antivirus developer
   Information broker

                                                      2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   8
                                          Problem area in Italy

ICT Qualifications in Italy:

   ECDL, focus on examen, target end users

   EUCIP, focus        on      both   process   and   examen,                  target

   IFTS, focus on both process and examen (not only for ICT)

                                                       2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   9
                                           European approaches comparison

                                        Italian Models   Euroepan Models (APO – KibNet,           e-Skills UK, SFIA
                                                             Career Space, Eucip)
Competence analysis approach            Top down         Top down                                 Top down
                                                         Bottom up
Competence analysis starting point      Job profiles     Business process                         Business process

Competence formalisation level          Low              Low - Medium                             high
Competence building process             Not possible     Not available                            Possible
Managerial competences                  Partly present   Present                                  Present in SFIA

Focus on learning outcomes              Present          Partly present                           Present

Focus on learning process               Not present      Present                                  Not present

Learning metaskills - cognitive rules   Not present      Partly present                           Not available

Holism versus reductionism              Reductionism     Holism                                   Reductionism

Reference targets                       Young people     Both young people and professionals      Both young people
                                                                                                      and professionals

                                                                                         2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   10
                   European approaches comparison

Focus on competences           Focus on profiles
Knowledge modularization       Preservation of the real context
Job profiles flexibility       complexity (holistic approach)
Learning modularization        Focus on the organic learning
Focus on learning outcomes     process as a whole

Competences ≡ knowledge (and   Competences ≡ knowledge (and
skills) put into action        skills) put into action

                                               2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   11
                                        European Union line

In Italy, CNEL underlines that the European Union’s stances of both
1988 and 1992 distinguished the concept of activity from the concept
of profession.

A profession is a set of activities and the same activity can belongs to
many professions

In that way, the European Community jurisprudence regulates more
activities than professions.

                                                       2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   12
                    eCCO project: Research Objectives

Defining a scientific model based on knowledge and competences,
integrating the different European contributions in order to get:
    A common language
    Flexibility of job profiles. They are
       Mixes of competences (clusters)
       identified coherently by both a reference ICT process and company
       Renewable continuously
   Methods of generating new job profiles
   Suggestions on learning measures supporting the effective acquisition
   of competences
   Certifications can address knowledge and competences rather than
   job profiles

                                                       2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   13
                   eCCO project: research approach

What are knowledge and competences?

According to a bottom up approach, they can be
defined as following:
  Knowledge ≡ know how, know what, know why
  Knowledge object (KO) ≡ the smallest self-consistent set of
  Competence ≡ sets of KOs put into action
  Job profile ≡ sets of competences, associated to the concept
  of “key performance”, “distinctive working results –

                                               2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   14
                       eCCO project: research approach

Technical issues:

  Finding good reference authorities to carry out the top – down analysis
  process to identify KOs
  Managing complexity: the choice of very small areas of analysis is a must
  Deciding the right breakdown level as well as KOs dimension
  Working out effective and significant construction rules

                                                          2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   15
                                   eCCO project: research approach


 e_skills         Objects                      Elements (descriptors)                                  Values

                              •   Name
                              •   Short description
                              •   Target (professional, user)
 ICT –        Knowledge       •   Level (basic, intermediate, high)
 related      Competences     •   Type: (“hard”, “soft”)
                                                                                                value for
 Job          Standard        •   Know-how, know-what, know-why (reference discipline)
 profiles     profiles        •   Action verb
                              •   Understanding (reference discipline)
                              •   Contexts (place, business process, period of time)
                              •   Reference qualification
                              •   Reference Institutions
                              •   Learning contents

Each e-skills area can be defined by a set of relevant objects, primitive
elements and a “dynamic” dictionary with special, sound rules                2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   16
                                eCCO project: research approach

    Eucip skills                         eCCO KOs                    eCCO skills

Ethernet Skills                                    Knowledge           Action Verb
                         eCCO ID            Type
Required                                           Verb Phrase         Phrase
                                                                          to be able to
                      ethernet switches      H       to connect

Connect in cascade    ethernet cascade
                                             H       to connect
                                                                          to be able to
switches                   linkage                                           connect

                      ethernet linkage       H      to know what

                       crossed ports         H      to know what                     -

                       crossed cables        H      to know what                     -

                        coax cables          H      to know what                     -

 EUCIP Network Manager Decomposition: Hard/Core KOs
                                                                   2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   17
                                        eCCO project: research approach
                    KNOLEDGE OBJECT
                                               VERB                  KNOLEDGE OBJECT
Relational database architecture
                                            Select       Database software
Hierarchical database architecture
                                            Exploit      Data abstraction
Matrix database architecture
                                            Apply        Principles of object-based logical models
Object-oriented database architecture
                                            Apply        Entity relationship data model
Physical level data abstraction
                                            Apply        Object-oriented data mode
Conceptual level data abstraction
                                            Define       Database entities
View level data abstraction
                                            Define       Database entities defined by composition
Object-based logical data model
                                            Define       Database entities defined by normalization
Record-based logical data model
                                            Design       Database entity keys
Physical data model
                                            Design       Attribute domain integrity
Database FOREIGN KEY constraints
                                            Use          Database design tools
Database PRIMARY KEY constraints
                                            Use          Oracle Designer 2000
Database UNIQUE constraints
                                            Use          ERWin
Database CHECK constraints
                                            Create       Physical database
Database data types
                                            Modify       Physical database
Database data nullability
                                            Create       Database objects
Database file groups
Database file placement                     Modify       Database objects

Database growth strategies                               Modifications of databases to support object
Database space requirements
                                                         Modifications of databases to support
Database objects include constraints        Apply
                                                         partitioned views
Database indexes                            Troubleshoot Failed database object creation
Database stored procedures
Database tables
Database triggers
                                           SW Developer EUCIP profile: KOs and
Database user-defined functions            Skills: Design and implementing databases -
Database views                                                                        2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   18
                                           KOs and skills
                                     eCCO project: research approach

                                            VERB               KNOLEDGE OBJECT
                                          Use      Database software
                  KNOLEDGE OBJECT
                                          Use      Presentation software
Database design
                                          Use      Presentation software
Database implementation
                                          Use      Web mail software
Database components implementation
                                          Design   Database
Database performance
                                          Design   Database components
Management methodology
                                          Create   Database
Design methodology
                                          Create   Database components
Structured programming
                                          Manage   Database
                                          Design   Database
                                          Manage   Database index
                                          Design   Database index
                                          Manage   Database stored procedure
                                          Design   Database stored procedure
                                          Manage   Database trigger
                                          Design   Database trigger
SW Developer ANASIN profile:
                                          Create   Database
KOs and Skills: Design and
implementing databases - KOs and skills
                                                                           2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   19
        eCCO project: research approach

                         SW Developer profile –
            Design and implementing databases:
         Differences between EUCIP and Anasin

             entity keys
                Database                    database
              FOREIGN KEY                    trigger
                constraints                                            Create
                                database                              database
Database    Database             stored
 UNIQUE PRIMARY KEY                                                    Design
                               procedures                            methodology
constraints constraints
               AND - linkage
               OR - linkage                 2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   20
                                         eCCO project: research approach

ICT related job profiles                KIBNET                               EUCIP
Title                              Software developer                 Software developer
Reference Skills           To communicate                  To communicate in write form
eCCO ID                    communication                   Write communication
Knowledge Verb phrase      To write / to talk / …          To write
Type                       soft                            soft
Reference Skills                                           To perform rapid prototype
eCCO ID                                                    Rapid prototype
Knowledge Verb phrase                                      To perform
Type                                                       hard
Reference Skills                                           To use programming design methods
eCCO ID                    Modular design / model design   Object oriented design / top down design /
                                                           structured programming
Knowledge Verb phrase      To know-what / To programme     To programme
Type                       hard                            hard

   An EXAMPLE of comparison by elements
                                                                               2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   21
                                         eCCO project: research approach

                                                                            Data models
                  KNOLEDGE OBJECT                  query
Write     Database query
Write     Presentation code generators
Project   Database tables
                KNOLEDGE OBJECT                                  code
                                                                                                  Data Types
           Data models                                        generators
           Data types
           Data formats

             SW Developer profile –                                         Data formats
Design and implementing databases:
                            KibNet                                    2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   22
                          eCCO project: major Outcomes/Results
                     Creation Date
                     Title                                          KO contains
                     ID          Hard                       0       KO
                     Description Soft             KO
 Training     0                                                                    P contains
 Courses      n                                                                    KO
                                   Reference      Skill
                                   Process                          P contains S
   programmes                  0
                                               Competence                                  Users
                                     1                                                  Competences
       Learning process                                             UCc                   clusters
       – Context                                                    contains C

                           The Set of            Profile        n
                          Standard profiles
     Qualification                 0                            0
     programmes                    n                            n

ICT-related job profiles according to the draft of The eCCO Data
Conceptual Design: EER-Schema                                                        2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   23
                        eCCO project: major Outcomes/Results

                                                         Administration tool
        End User                                              (Java)

                                                         Semantic Network –
                           KO interaction              Inductive module (Java)
        Web Site
         (JSP)                                    • KO, Skill & Competence
                                                    management (ontology)
                                                  • Profiles matching

                   eCCO DBMS

                                                              KO – Skill -
                     User Profiles                            Competence         Synonyms

eCCO Information System: Architecture
          (Reference contact: Mr Paolo Locatelli, )
                                                                                   2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   24
                                           Major Advantages

A strong portability obtained by using Java Language
A simple way of interaction with the user obtained by Web
Publishing model
A strong opening to the certification world by associating to KOs and
    learning requirements
    specified courses
    defined assessment levels
 expressed simply by new properties belonging to the semantic
    network nodes
A strong context-suitable tendency derived from the inductive skill of
the tool’s core module
An effective way of knowledge representation reached by using
ontologies (RDF/OWL)
A strong spread to Web Services paradigm in order to assure new
future developments on Semantic Web platforms (thanks to RDF
structure of an RDF/OWL ontology)

                                                     2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   25
                                          Key features



New meaningful combinations available

Personalization (tailored combinations)

                                           2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   26
                                 Conclusion and outlook

Finding agreement within the many reference communities of
experts, companies, training and labour bodies, ….
Forming national and transnational partnerships
Linking with the various international “Job Market places”
Appling to other knowledge areas such as health and safety
(here KOs may also call up and be identified by multimedia
formats i.e. texts, as well as pictures, movies and sounds)
Constructing learning paths (to become an effective knowledge -
learning management tool)

                                                 2005 – FONDAZIONE POLITECNICO DI MILANO   27
Thank you !

                              Clementina Marinoni
                  Fondazione Politecnico di Milano
                                  Via Garofalo, 39
                                     20133 Milano
                                Tel. 02 2399 9168
                                Fax 02 2399 9155

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