overview of petroleum engineering. - Petroleum engineers run the by wangnianwu


									Fundamentals of Petroleum Engineering:

 Petroleum Engineering.
 Overview.
 Preparation.
 Day in the Life.
 Earnings.
 Employment.
 Career Path Forecast.
 Conclusion.

   An engineering discipline concerned with the
    activities related to the production
    of hydrocarbons, which can be either crude oil
    or natural gas.
   Petroleum engineers search the world for
    reservoirs containing oil or natural gas. Once these
    resources are discovered, petroleum engineers
    work with geologists and other specialists to
    understand the geologic formation and properties
    of the rock containing the reservoir, determine the
    drilling methods to be used, and monitor drilling
    and production operations.

   They design equipment and processes to achieve
    the maximum profitable recovery of oil and gas.
   Because only a small proportion of oil and gas in a
    reservoir will flow out under natural forces,
    petroleum engineers develop and use various
    enhanced recovery methods.

   These include injecting water, chemicals, gases, or
    steam into an oil reservoir to force out more of the
    oil, and computer-controlled drilling or fracturing to
    connect a larger area of a reservoir to a single
   A bachelor's degree in engineering is required for
    almost all entry-level engineering jobs.

   Admissions requirements for undergraduate
    engineering schools include a solid background in
    mathematics (algebra, geometry, trigonometry,
    and calculus) and science (biology, chemistry, and
    physics), and courses in English, social studies,
    humanities, and computer and information
   Bachelor's degree programs in engineering typically are
    designed to last 4 years.

   In a typical 4-year college curriculum, the first 2 years are spent
    studying mathematics, basic sciences, introductory
    engineering, humanities, social sciences, Reservoir
    Petrophysics, Petroleum Engineering Systems, and Physical
    Geology during these years.

   In the last 2 years, a petroleum engineering program include
    courses in Drilling and Production Systems, Geostatistics, Well
    Performance, Reservoir Fluids, Petroleum Project Evaluation,
    Engineering Ethics, and Well Completion and Stimulation.
   A degree in petroleum engineering can lead to many career paths.
    While most work directly for oil and gas production companies, the
    options for work are broad and cross over many industries. Petroleum
    engineers focus on a wide range of projects and activities. Some
    focus on production challenges, identifying, testing, and
    implementing methods for improving oil and gas production. They
    might focus on economics, helping a team determine the optimum
    number of wells appropriate for a given operation.

   A petroleum engineer may focus on safety issues, or maintenance
    support, identifying and planning upgrades of equipment or systems.
    A petroleum engineer may choose to teach, or to serve as a
    consultant to investors, banks, or other financial services firms.
   The type of job a petroleum engineer has will often
    determine whether how much they work inside or
    outside. Many petroleum engineers work on job
    sites, but others work in an office setting.

   There are strong international travel opportunities
    for petroleum engineers, as it is very much a
    global business. Many companies have offices and
    sites in multiple countries and transfers are
   According to a 2005 salary survey by the National
    Association of Colleges and Employers, bachelor's
    degree candidates in petroleum engineering received
    starting salary offers averaging $61,516 a year. They
    are among the highest paid engineers.

   The Society of Petroleum Engineers conducts a global
    salary survey of members. For the most recent survey
    (2004), worldwide, respondents (all ages, education
    levels, and years in the field) reported an average
    income of $101,634.
   Petroleum engineers, held about 16,000 jobs in
    2004, mostly in oil and gas extraction,
    professional, scientific and technical services, and
    petroleum refining. Employers include major oil
    companies and hundreds of smaller, independent
    oil exploration, production, research institutes, and
    service companies. Most petroleum engineers
    work where oil and gas are found. Large numbers
    are employed in Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma,
    Alaska, and California, and many work overseas in
    other oil-producing countries.
   According to the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor
    Statistics, petroleum engineers are expected to have a decline in
    employment through 2014 because most of the potential petroleum-
    producing areas in the United States and the world already have
    been explored.

   Even so, favorable opportunities are expected for petroleum
    engineers because the number of job openings is likely to exceed the
    relatively small number of graduates.

   All job openings should result from the need to replace petroleum
    engineers who transfer to other occupations or leave the labor force.
    Petroleum engineers work around the world and, in fact, the best
    employment opportunities may be in other countries.

   Petroleum Engineering is key to discovering
    new deposits around the world and help add to
    the global energy reserves well into the future.

   Petroleum Engineering is also the key to
    producing cleaner and safer fuels for home
    heating, transportation and air travel.

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