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					Tittle, Charles R. & Mark C. Stafford. 1992. Urban theory,
urbanism, and suburban residence. Social Forces 70(3): 725-744.

What do urban theories predict about life in SUBURBS?
Tittle, Charles R. & Mark C. Stafford. 1992. Urban theory,
urbanism, and suburban residence. Social Forces 70(3): 725-744.

What do urban theories predict about life in SUBURBS?


     rural        town        suburb         city


   (Does URBANISM increase as we approach the city?)
Tittle, Charles R. & Mark C. Stafford. 1992. Urban theory,
urbanism, and suburban residence. Social Forces 70(3): 725-744.

What do urban theories predict about life in SUBURBS?


     rural        town        suburb         city


   (Does URBANISM increase as we approach the city?)

   Different theories  different predictions?
“Classical” theory?
       Wirth & anomie: more urbanism  more disorders?
“Classical” theory?
       Wirth & anomie: more urbanism  more disorders?
       (suburbs should be between towns & cities)
“Classical” theory?
       Wirth & anomie: more urbanism  more disorders?
       (suburbs should be between towns & cities)

Compositional theory?
     Gans & Oscar Lewis: indirect effects only?
“Classical” theory?
       Wirth & anomie: more urbanism  more disorders?
       (suburbs should be between towns & cities)

Compositional theory?
     Gans & Oscar Lewis: indirect effects only?
     (only personal characteristics matter – “mix” of people)
“Classical” theory?
       Wirth & anomie: more urbanism  more disorders?
       (suburbs should be between towns & cities)

Compositional theory?
     Gans & Oscar Lewis: indirect effects only?
     (only personal characteristics matter – “mix” of people)

Subculture theory?
       Fischer: more urbanism  more intense subgroups?
“Classical” theory?
       Wirth & anomie: more urbanism  more disorders?
       (suburbs should be between towns & cities)

Compositional theory?
     Gans & Oscar Lewis: indirect effects only?
     (only personal characteristics matter – “mix” of people)

Subculture theory?
       Fischer: more urbanism  more intense subgroups?
       (more homogeneity means less deviant behavior?)
       (larger population means more intense interactions?)
“Classical” theory?
       Wirth & anomie: more urbanism  more disorders?
       (suburbs should be between towns & cities)

Compositional theory?
     Gans & Oscar Lewis: indirect effects only?
     (only personal characteristics matter – “mix” of people)

Subculture theory?
       Fischer: more urbanism  more intense subgroups?
       (more homogeneity means less deviant behavior?)
       (larger population means more intense interactions?)

Theories about URBAN life not designed to explain SUBURBS?
So what are suburbs really like?
      Low crime? High conformity? More ties to neighbors?
So what are suburbs really like?
      Low crime? High conformity? More ties to neighbors?

How do Tittle & Stafford find out?
So what are suburbs really like?
      Low crime? High conformity? More ties to neighbors?

How do Tittle & Stafford find out?
      1972 survey – 2000 people from New Jersey, Iowa & Oregon
So what are suburbs really like?
      Low crime? High conformity? More ties to neighbors?

How do Tittle & Stafford find out?
      1972 survey – 2000 people from New Jersey, Iowa & Oregon
      full “urban spectrum” – from rural to central cities
So what are suburbs really like?
      Low crime? High conformity? More ties to neighbors?

How do Tittle & Stafford find out?
      1972 survey – 2000 people from New Jersey, Iowa & Oregon
      full “urban spectrum” – from rural to central cities
      attitude questions – nine acts that could be “morally wrong”?
So what are suburbs really like?
      Low crime? High conformity? More ties to neighbors?

How do Tittle & Stafford find out?
      1972 survey – 2000 people from New Jersey, Iowa & Oregon
      full “urban spectrum” – from rural to central cities
      attitude questions – nine acts that could be “morally wrong”?
              petty theft
              larceny
              illegal gambling        (crimes)
              assault
              marijuana use
              tax cheating
So what are suburbs really like?
      Low crime? High conformity? More ties to neighbors?

How do Tittle & Stafford find out?
      1972 survey – 2000 people from New Jersey, Iowa & Oregon
      full “urban spectrum” – from rural to central cities
      attitude questions – nine acts that could be “morally wrong”?
              petty theft
              larceny
              illegal gambling        (crimes)
              assault
              marijuana use
              tax cheating
              lying to spouse
              sitting during anthem         (deviance)
              cheating in personal life
     Anonymity & Rural-Urban Continuum

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
    Rural     Town       Suburb          City
     Anonymity & Rural-Urban Continuum

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
    Rural     Town       Suburb          City
      Tolerance & Rural-Urban Continuum

1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
      Rural     Town       Suburb         City
      Tolerance & Rural-Urban Continuum

1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
      Rural     Town       Suburb         City
        Alienation & Rural-Urban Continuum

0.80


0.60


0.40

0.20


0.00
        Rural      Town       Suburb         City
-0.20
        Alienation & Rural-Urban Continuum

0.80


0.60


0.40

0.20


0.00
        Rural      Town       Suburb         City
-0.20
       Weak Bonds & Rural-Urban Continuum

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00
        Rural     Town       Suburb         City
       Weak Bonds & Rural-Urban Continuum

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00
        Rural     Town       Suburb         City
        Deviance & Rural-Urban Continuum

0.25

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00
        Rural     Town       Suburb        City
-0.05

-0.10
        Deviance & Rural-Urban Continuum

0.25

0.20

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00
        Rural     Town       Suburb        City
-0.05

-0.10

				
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