Welcome to Junior Ventures
2012 JUNIOR VENTURES WORKBOOK
HOW TO DEVELOP A BUSINESS OF YOUR OWN &
PITCH IT TO OTHERS!
The “Staffing Plan” Kit
Emily LeFevre, Ventures Program Coordinator
Organizational Structure & Staffing Plan
Organizing who does what can be the most challenging part of starting a business. Organizational
structure describes the way a company arranges people and jobs to complete its goals. A
company’s organizational structure should encourage productivity and a supportive working
environment, and should allow teams to work cooperatively and effectively together. -- Dana
Griffin, Demand Media, smallbusinesschron.com
Instructions: As a team, work through steps 1 – 6 by discussing the below questions in order to
determine your business staffing needs.
Step 1: What staff do you need?
Think about what your business does and consider what type of employees you need to get it
First, identify your direct service or front lines staff…
o What staff do you need to create/build your product/service?
o What staff do you need to deliver your product/service directly to the client?
Second, identify your management staff...
o What staff do you need to manage the staff that is creating/building your
o What staff do you need to manage the staff that is delivering your product/service to
Third, identify your support or operations staff...
o Do you need staff to hire new staff?
o Do you need staff to manage your budget?
o Do you need staff to handle payroll?
o Do you need staff to raise money?
o Do you need staff to provide technology support, either for your product or
o Do you need staff to provide administrative/custodial support for your employees?
o Do you need staff to market or publicize your business?
Fourth, identify your leadership staff...
o What staff do you need to be in charge of business and employee decisions?
Step 2: How big does your staff need to be?
Think about the categories of employees you need and consider how many of each you need.
How many roles do you have to fill in each category, and how many people do you need to
serve in each capacity?
Are there any roles that can be combined and served by one person?
Step 3: What will your staff be called?
Now that you know what roles you need filled, it’s time to assign official job titles to each employee.
The title should designate the role that the staff plays
Use the Internet and website: www.about.com to search for common job titles within
Step 4: How will your staff be structured?
Now that you know the title of each employee you’ll need, it’s time to structure the hierarchy of
responsibility for your staff.
Assign each employee to a group based upon what their function/role is within your
o Think in terms of categories of employment: direct service staff, support staff,
management, and leadership. Grouping staff in terms of skills and knowledge will
increase productivity and efficiency.
Assign each employee to be managed by someone and/or to manage someone
o Employees lowest in the staff hierarchy will not be responsible for managing anyone,
while employees highest in the staff hierarchy will not be managed by anyone
Step 5: Research Average Salary
Now that you know your staffing model--the roles and hierarchy of each staff member, it’s time to
assign each employee with a salary.
Use the Internet and website www.salary.com to determine an acceptable salary to assign
o Under the tab “Salary,” select “US Salary Wizard”
o Enter the ‘job title’ and ‘city’ to search for the median salary for that position
o NOTE: If the exact job title cannot be found, you may need to try different variations
of your job title to find a position most similar
Step 6: Write Job Descriptions
Now that you know your staffing requirements, it’s time to write job descriptions for each position in
order to be able to recruit and hire to fill your staffing needs.
For each position, summarize the job, list key responsibilities/duties, and identify any
EXAMPLES OF CATEGORIES OF EMPLOYMENT:
NOTE: Employees can play more than one of the roles below, depending on how you choose to
structure your organization.
Leadership -- people responsible for making decisions about how the business is run
Management -- people responsible for managing the staff who deliver your product/service
Direct Service Staff -- people responsible for delivering your product/service (i.e. creation/sales of
the product OR provision of the service)
Operations Staff -- people responsible for the logistics of running a business
- Finance -- people responsible managing money (i.e. payroll and budget)
- HR -- people responsible for managing staffing
- IT -- people responsible for managing technology
- Administrative -- people responsible for managing administrative tasks
Development Staff -- people responsible for raising money (i.e. grant writing and fundraising)
Communications Staff -- people responsible for publicizing your business
EXAMPLES OF TITLE DESIGNATIONS:
President/Founder/Chief → Director → Manager → Associate/Coordinator/Specialist → Assistant
CREATING AN ORGANIZATIONAL CHART USING WORD
Select “Insert,” “Smart Art,” then choose “Hierarchy” and “Organizational Chart”
You can add positions using the “Add Shape” selection
You can move the order of positions by using the “Promote” or “Demote” selection to move
them up or down the staffing hierarchy
WRITING A JOB DESCRIPTION
Think of a job description as a “snapshot” of a job. The job description needs to communicate
clearly and concisely what responsibilities and tasks the job entails and to indicate, as well, the key
qualifications of the job – the basic requirements (specific credentials or skills) – and, if possible,
the attributes that underlie superior performance. -- Judith Lindenberger, “How to Write a Job
Instructions: As a team, use the tips below and the ‘Job Description Worksheet’ to help you draft
job descriptions for each position you will need to hire for.
Key Elements of a Job Description
1. Job title
The first step in writing an effective JD is developing the title for the job. The job title should accurately
reflect the type of work performed (for example, "clerk," "processor," or "analyst"). It should also
indicate the level of work being performed (for example, "senior analyst", or "lead accountant").
Job titles in your organization should correspond to similar jobs in the industry. You should also ensure
that the job titles are compatible with your organization's culture.
Tips for developing a job title
Don't exaggerate or inflate job titles. For example, use the job title "janitor" instead of the inflated
Avoid potentially discriminating job titles that refer to age, gender, or race. For example, avoid
using titles such as "girl Friday" and "salesman."
Consider whether the job title will be used in more than one department. For example, you
might need to decide whether "accounting manager" or "manager" is a more appropriate job
2. Job summary
A job summary describes the primary reason for and function of the job. It also provides an overview of
the job and introduces the job responsibilities section.
The job summary should describe the job without detailed task descriptions. Its length should range
from one sentence to a paragraph, depending on the complexity of the job.
Example of a job summary
A job summary for a human resources director might be the following: Manages human resources
function and day-to-day human resources management activities throughout organization, including
employee recruiting, orientation, compensation, benefits, and related programs. Manages all HR
functions, staff, and HR department budget.
3. Key responsibilities/duties
The key responsibilities of a job are the essential functions that the jobholder performs. The key
responsibilities section of the JD should include an overview of the job's essential functions that
describes the basic aspects of the job and its primary responsibilities. JDs should include only higher-
level responsibilities — minor task descriptions provide too much detail for the scope and purpose of
Begin each job responsibility with a present tense action verb, and describe the area of responsibility in
action terms. Normally, there will be 7 to 10 responsibilities, depending on the job.
Examples of key responsibilities
Develops marketing programs directed at increasing product sales and awareness.
Writes programming code to develop various features and functionality for commercial software
Designs and develops user interfaces for commercial software products.
Supervises technical support employees in providing technical support to organization clients.
Manages development of advertising and various marketing collateral materials.
Tips for writing key responsibilities
Arrange responsibilities in a logical order, such as the sequence in which they are performed,
their relative importance, or the percentage of time each responsibility takes.
Include information regarding the frequency of the task and/or the percentage of time spent
performing the task.
4. Minimum job requirements
This section describes the minimum knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are required to perform
the job. Recruiters and human resources personnel use KSAs to guide recruiting efforts and determine
whether candidates are minimally qualified.
To determine the minimum requirements of a job, ask yourself what the job candidate needs to possess
in terms of:
Education — the type and minimum level, such as high school diploma and bachelor's degree.
Experience — the type and minimum level, such as three to five years of supervisory
experience, five years of editing experience, and two years of experience with content
Special skills — such as languages spoken and computer software proficiencies.
Certifications and licenses — such as industry certifications and practitioners' licenses.
Remember to list only the minimum knowledge, skills, and abilities required to perform the job, not the
ideal attributes you look for in a candidate.
Examples of job requirements
The job requirements for an accounting manager might include the following: Requires BS/BA degree
in accounting or business administration, plus a minimum of four years' experience in either public
accounting or professional-level corporate accounting (alternative to BS/BA in accounting/business
administration requirement is MBA degree or CPA experience). Must have experience managing fixed
assets accounts, depreciation schedules, account reconciliation, GAAP, and managerial accounting.
Must be detail-oriented and have solid understanding of financial and managerial accounting concepts.
Tips for writing job requirements
Include only the minimally acceptable requirements. Do not inflate requirements.
Be specific and realistic about the necessary requirements.
Do not consider the particular education, experience, or skill level of current jobholders. Include
only what the job requires.
Indicate why each requirement is necessary to perform the job. Relate the requirement to how
and why the job is done (for example, "ability to read and comprehend instruction manuals to
remedy minor equipment malfunctions").