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“SPECS” of Normal Development - CalSWEC

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					                       Supplemental Handout:
                           The SPECS of
                        Normal Development




Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.2, 2012   1
                                                                   Birth to One Year

Age     Social                 Physical Growth            Physical                      Emotional                 Cognitive               Sexual
        Development                                       Development                   Development               Development             Development
Birth   Prefers female voice   Weight range               Sees well at 8 - 12 inches    Consciousness of self     Alertness states:       The full range of sexual
                               for full-term:                                           begins with the early      active alert           behaviors includes
        Can identify           5 ½ - 10 ½ lbs.            Sense of taste, smell,        mental representation      quiet alert            penile erection, vaginal
        mother figure          Average wt.:               touch, and hearing well-      of a special person        drowsy                 lubrication or orgasm
        through                 Boys 7 ½ lbs.             developed                     created by the child.
        auditory and            Girls 7 lbs                                                                       Responds to bell
        olfactory senses                                  Reflexes include:             Learns about love
        within 48 hours        Length range                sucking                      and trust through         Undifferentiated cry
        of birth               for full term:              fencing posture              touching and holding      for needs
                               18 - 22 inches              grasping
        Bonding process                                    startling                                              Responses to
        initiated              Head is large (¼ of                                                                surroundings are very
                               total body size)                                                                   reflexive
                                                          Hands kept fisted
                               Rapid brain
                               development                Movement is active,
                                                          random, flailing
                               Abdomen is large           and uncontrolled
                               Arms and legs thin

                               Fontanels open             Lifts head

                               Small for
                               Gestational Age (SGA)
                               if full-term weight is
                               less than 5 lbs.

                               Premature if less than
                               37weeks, gestation




                               Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.2, 2012                                  2
                                                            Birth to One Year, Continued

Age      Social                  Physical Growth            Physical                      Emotional                 Cognitive                 Sexual
         Development                                        Development                   Development               Development               Development
1-3      Spontaneous smile       Average weight gain is     Will visually track objects   Continued                 Will begin to vocalize    Parental roles of care-
Months   develops                about 1 ounce per day      to midline at one month       development of sense      in ways other than        giving are being defined
                                                                                          of trust in the world     crying                    that will assist the child
         Begins to smile         By three months, will      Can lift head to 45° by one   through interactions                                in learning social rules,
         responsively            grow about 2 inches in     month                         with the primary          Differentiated types of   roles, expectations and
                                 length from birth                                        caretaker                 crying develops           gender identity later
         Alert to presence of                               By two months:
         people                  Rapid brain                                              Temperament is            Gurgling, squealing
                                 development                -    can visually track       present and clear to      and cooing occur
         Makes eye contact       continues                       objects past midline     caregivers
                                                            -    can lift head to 90°                               Interactive
         Vocalizes sounds                                                                 Feelings of pleasure      vocalization begins,
                                                            By three months:              and unhappiness           and child initiates
         Bonding process                                                                  present by 3 months       babbling
         continues as child is                              -    can visually track
         able to identify                                        objects 180°                                       Laughter
         caretaker                                          -    can put hands
                                                                 together
                                                            -    muscle control in
                                                                 upper body is good
                                                            -    can lift chest up with
                                                                 arm support
                                                            -    can be held in sitting
                                                                 position and hold
                                                                 head steady
                                                            -    beginning to develop
                                                                 hand-eye
                                                                 coordination
                                                            -    rolls over




                                 Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.2, 2012                                  3
                                                                Birth to One Year, Continued

Age      Social                      Physical Growth            Physical                       Emotional                Cognitive                 Sexual
         Development                                            Development                    Development              Development               Development
4–6      Will begin to resist if a   Will gain 5 – 6 ounces     Movements are                  Emotions present and     Is aware of the           Exploration of body
months   toy is pulled away          per week                   controlled and purposeful      visible to others        presence of objects       may now include
         from them                                              – no longer reflexive          include:                                           fingers and toes, arms
                                     Birth weight often                                         -    happy              Attention to objects      and legs
         Will actively engage        doubled by 5 months        Can grasp rattle                -    sad                begins as a critical
         with adult in               of age                     purposefully                    -    angry              component of              Parental roles of care-
         interaction                                                                            -    pain               cognitive development     giving continue to be
                                     By six months of age,      Able to bear some weight        -    fear                                         defined that will assist
         Ability to feed self        2-3 more inches in         on legs                         -    protest            Able to laugh as a        the child in learning
         crackers or other           length will be added to                                                            response                  social rules, roles,
         items                       length at 3 months of      If put in sitting position,                                                       expectations and
                                     age                        there is no head lag                                    Vocalizes desires and     gender identity later
         Vocalization used to                                                                                           eagerness through a
         interrupt others/gain       Rapid brain                Child uses hands to rake                                range of sounds
         attention                   development                for objects s/he wants to
                                     continues                  pick up                                                 Will look for objects
         Will begin to initiate
         social contact                                         By 5-6 months, may be                                   Initiates own noises,
                                                                able to sit and pull self to                            and imitates speech
         Imitates facial                                        sitting                                                 sounds
         expressions
                                                                Moves objects from hand                                 Will turn toward voices
         Works to get a toy                                     to hand
         that is visible, but out
         of reach                                               Stands if holding on to
                                                                something
         Wants to form an
         attachment to a
         specific person(s),
         often his/her
         caregiver




                                     Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.2, 2012                                    4
                                                           Birth to One Year, Continued

Age      Social                 Physical Growth            Physical                      Emotional                 Cognitive                    Sexual
         Development                                       Development                   Development               Development                  Development
7 – 12   Development of         Gains 2 – 3 ounces per     May pull to standing          Ability to explore        Can imitate sound            When unclothed, may
months   attachment to          week                       position                      environment and play      sequences                    begin to explore body
         caregiver continues                                                             leads to continued                                     and handle genitals
         to strengthen          Birth weight triples by    Can support weight on         understanding of and      May use “mama” or
                                the age of one year        legs                          trust in environment      “dada”                       Becomes clear on
         Interactive play                                                                                          indiscriminately at 7        differentiating between
         begins                 Adds 3 – 4 inches from     Cruising walk while           Attachment to             months, but will be          people, and begins to
                                6-month height by the      holding on to something       caregiver strengthens     used properly by 10          make observations
         Can play peek-a-boo    age of one year            for balance may begin                                   months of age                about these people,
                                                                                         Enjoys interactions                                    laying a foundation for
         Will initiate          Rapid brain                Thumb-finger grasp            with caregiver            By 10 months, may            gender roles and
         interactions           development                develops                                                begin to label specific      identity development
                                continues                                                By the age of 1 year,     objects with sounds
         May shout or use                                  By the age of one year,       beginning to become
         other sounds for                                  will stand alone well and     curious about             By 12 months
         attention                                         begin to walk                 environment and            -    may use 3 or
                                                                                         willing to explore              more words
         Shyness or anxiety                                By the age of one year, is                                    other than mama
         around strangers may                              starting to drink from a      Begins to move                  and dada
         occur                                             cup                           towards developing         -    object
                                                                                         autonomy                        permanence
         Separation anxiety                                                                                              beginning to
                                                                                                                         develop
         Stranger anxiety                                                                                           -    early problem
                                                                                                                         solving skills arise
         By 12 months, will                                                                                         -    mastery of task is
         play ball with other                                                                                            important
         people beside                                                                                              -    foundation for
         caregiver                                                                                                       attention span
                                                                                                                         laid
         Demonstrates clear                                                                                         -    shakes head “no”
         wants




                                Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.2, 2012                                    5
                                                                     One to Two Years

Age       Social                  Physical Growth            Physical                      Emotional                 Cognitive               Sexual
          Development                                        Development                   Development               Development             Development
13 – 18   Interactions with       By 18 months,              Able to walk backwards        Attachment to the         May scribble            Continued exploration
months    others will expand                                                               caregiver lays the                                of body, grounded in
                                  Height:                    Enhancement of balance        foundation for            Vocabulary develops     curiosity
          Has good                29 – 32 inches             and stability                 conscience
          understanding of                                                                 development               Increase in number of   Interactions with others
          caregiver, and will     Weight                     Mastery and integration                                 words in vocabulary     lead to further
          begin to have           21 – 29 pounds             of body                       Internalization of        and reaches up to 20    understanding of
          expectations of how                                                              caregiver, who            words by 18 months      behaviors and social
          their caregiver                                    Feeds self, able to use       becomes part of                                   rules and roles for
          responds                                           utensils                      oneself                   Begins using double-    gender
                                                                                                                     syllable words by 15
          Reciprocal                                         Can take off clothing on      Belief that if I hurt     months
          connectedness forms                                their own                     another, I hurt myself
                                                                                           begins to develop         Receptive and
          Has desires to obtain                              Walks up steps                                          expressive language
          objects or toys to                                                                                         abilities develop
          play with                                          Throws a ball
                                                                                                                     Pulls at a wet diaper
          Begins to imitate
          behaviors of                                                                                               Can name objects and
          caregivers                                                                                                 body parts

          Will grab others hand                                                                                      Tries to sing
          to get attention
                                                                                                                     Able to follow simple
          Curiosity arises, may                                                                                      instructions
          ask “what’s that?”

          Hand toy to adult if
          unable to operate it




                                  Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.2, 2012                               6
                                                                   One to Two Years

Age       Social                Physical Growth            Physical                      Emotional                 Cognitive                  Sexual
          Development                                      Development                   Development               Development                Development
19 - 24   Imitation of          By the age of 2 years:     Puts on clothing              Develops sense of         Can combine 2              Sense of curiosity leads
months    household behaviors                                                            autonomy, or              different words            to early understanding
          in play becomes       Height:                    Able to wash hands            willingness and ability                              of the body and bodily
          helpful                32 – 36 inches                                          to move around and        Follows 2 – 3 step         functions
                                                           Develops more complex         explore world             directions
                                Weight:                    motor skills such as:
                                22 – 31 pounds             -   able to climb             Types of attachment       Can recognize pictures
                                                           -   able to throw ball        visible
                                                               overhand                   -    secure              Understanding of
                                                           -   kicks ball forward         -    insecure            symbols allows for
                                                           -   jumps in place                                      child to use phrases
                                                           -   can pedal tricycle                                  and short sentences.

                                                           Gains muscle control for                                Will add “ing”, plurals,
                                                           toilet training                                         and possessives to
                                                                                                                   words




                                Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.2, 2012                                 7
                                                                          Two to Three Years

Age           Social                    Physical Growth            Physical                      Emotional                 Cognitive                 Sexual
              Development                                          Development                   Development               Development               Development
2 – 3 Years   Imitation becomes         By the age of 3:           Focuses on mastery of         Children strive for a     By the age of 3, has a    Behaviors continue to
              primary means of                                     more complex activities       sense of autonomy.        vocabulary of up to       reflect self-exploration
              play                      Height:                    -   standing on one foot                                300 words                 and masturbation
               -   early imitation      33 – 42 inches             -   running                   Emotional reactions
                   of parent/                                      -   jumping                   may be strong as child    At age 3, can now         Easily re-directed by
                   caregiver            Weight:                    -   climbing                  struggles with need       carry on a                parents based on
                   behaviors            24 – 42 pounds             -   more skillful use of      for independence          conversation              culturally accepted
               -   later, as child                                     one hand                                                                      standards
                   approaches 3                                    -   balancing on toes         Has a desire to be seen   May have a short
                   years of age, will                                                            and accepted as an        attention span            Begins understanding
                   begin to imitate                                Shows a strong desire to      individual                                          of gender roles
                   other children                                  continue to attempt to                                   Displays curiosity and
                                                                   accomplish tasks, even if     Identifies preferences     will ask questions       Interest in watching
              Play is often parallel                               they aren’t realistically                                such as                  others when undressing
              play, done near, but                                 possible – this helps                                    -    what                or using the bathroom
              not with, other                                      develop the skills to                                    -    where
              children                                             achieve the tasks                                        -    who                 Will ask caregivers
                                                                                                                                                     questions about sexual
              Behavior is easily                                   Fine motor skills are                                    Develops a basic         body parts, especially
              guided                                               enhanced                                                 sense of time            breasts and penis
                                                                   -    can draw specific
              Strives to                                                shapes                                              Uses past tense
              understand social                                    -    controls movement
              and gender related                                        of pencil or crayon
              rules and roles
                                                                   More control over bladder
              Has difficulty sharing                               and sphincter muscles

                                                                   Can button clothes




                                        Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.2, 2012                                    8
                                                                       Three to Five Years

Age         Social                   Physical Growth            Physical                      Emotional                 Cognitive                Sexual
            Development                                         Development                   Development               Development              Development
3-5 Years   Play moves from          At age 3, average is 3     Has good sense of             Development of            By the age of 4 ½,       Sexual behaviors
            parallel to more         feet tall and 33 pounds    balance and can easily        initiative occurs         knows approximately      include masturbation,
            interactive with other                              complete a variety of                                   1500 words               and may include sexual
            children                 Gains of about 4 – 5       tasks including:              Child is often self-                               play with other, same
                                     pounds a year and 3 –       -   running                  directed and confident    Recognizes colors        age children
            Toys are often the       4 inches a year             -   balancing on toes
            focus of play                                        -   jumping                  Learning how to           Can name coins such      Vocabulary may include
                                     Brain growth slows          -   catching and             control emotions and      as penny, nickel and     sexual words, or foul
            Play helps teach         considerably, with the          throwing                 behavior                  dime                     language
            social rules             brain having reached
                                     4/5ths of its adult size   Good hand-eye and hand-       Crying and temper         By the age of 5,         May have questions
            Cooperative play can                                finger control                tantrums decrease         vocabulary is            about body parts or
            occur                                                                                                       approximately 2,000      behaviors
                                                                Has control of bladder        Tears may turn on and     words
            By the age of 5, play                               and bowel                     off at will                                        Behaviors and
            becomes more                                                                                                “WHY” is a common        questions are based in
            cooperative and is                                  May appear                    Better able to delay      question                 curiosity
            clearly governed by                                 uncoordinated at times        gratification
            rules                                               of rapid growth                                         Thought is very          May pretend to be of
                                                                                              Conscience                egocentric               opposite sex in play
            Improved ability to                                 Fine motor skills improve     development occurs as
            share                                               including:                    child begins to           Does not realize other   May try to compare
                                                                -    cutting with scissors    understand right and      people have their own    body parts with other
                                                                -    drawing                  wrong                     perspectives             children
                                                                -    writing
                                                                                              Self esteem is            Thinking may be          Seeking to understand
                                                                                              dependent upon other      illogical or magical     gender roles and
                                                                                              people’s reactions to                              identity
                                                                                              them                      Draws figures with 6
                                                                                                                        parts

                                                                                                                        Short and long term
                                                                                                                        memory improve

                                                                                                                        Learning letters and
                                                                                                                        numbers

                                     Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.2, 2012                                 9
                                                                School Age Years (6-11)

Age      Social                  Physical Growth            Physical                      Emotional                 Cognitive                Sexual
         Development                                        Development                   Development               Development              Development
6 – 11   Relationships with      Growth during this         Fine and gross motor          Children seek to          Can consider two         Sex play with other
Years    people and peers        time is slow and           coordination increasingly     become industrious, or    thoughts                 same age children may
         outside the family      steady –                   better, and children enjoy    self-directive,           simultaneously           occur and can include:
         become very             approximately 3 - 4        doing activities that allow   productive and goal                                 -   self-exploration
         important               inches per year            them to use these skills,     oriented                  Improved concept of       -   simulation
                                                            such as art, music or                                   time                      -   kissing
         Friends often of the    Height:                    athletics                     Self-awareness                                      -   hugging
         same gender, based       42 - 52 inches                                          improves                  Problem solving skills    -   peeking
         on common interests                                Strength and coordination                               enhance and allow for     -   touching
         or proximity            Weight:                    increase in activities such   Introspection becomes     understanding of          -   exposure of
                                 40 - 79 pounds             as                            possible                  cause and effect              genitals
         Sports become a                                     -   riding a bicycle
         good way to relate to   Body proportions are        -   skating                  Children can              Become qualitative       Behaviors are usually
         other children and      similar to adult            -   swimming                 understand that other                              limited in type and
         play                                                                             people have thoughts,     Concrete thinking        frequency
                                 Girls may experience a     May begin puberty             opinions and feelings
         Other interests also    growth spurt                                                                       A strong sense of        Behaviors are based on
         of importance:                                                                   Sensitive to criticism    fairness                 curiosity
          -   school
          -   clubs                                                                                                 Can understand           Easily redirected to
          -   activities                                                                                            similarities and         stop
                                                                                                                    differences
         Rules and roles                                                                                                                     Gender identity clear,
         become very                                                                                                Memory improves          often tied to social
         important in guiding                                                                                                                rules and roles
         behavior                                                                                                   Reading and math
                                                                                                                    skills grow              Media and peers can
         Needs affection and                                                                                                                 influence identity and
         affirmation from                                                                                           Able to take other’s     roles
         adults                                                                                                     perspectives

         Conflict may arise                                                                                         Language enhances
         when peer group                                                                                            relationships
         values differ from                                                                                          -    active listening
         parent values                                                                                               -    asking questions

                                 Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.2, 2012                                10
                                                               Adolescents (12 – 21 Years)

Age       Social                  Physical Growth            Physical                       Emotional                Cognitive                Sexual
          Development                                        Development                    Development              Development              Development
12 – 15   Social relationships    By the age of 15:          Puberty occurs                 Primary focus is on      Formal operations may    Often, the early
Years     important - centered                                                              identity formation       be reached – but not     adolescent is
(Early)   in peer group           Height:                    Rapid physical growth of                                everyone achieves this   ambivalent about
                                  5’ 4 “                     bones and muscles              Attitudes and            level of cognitive       sexual relationships
          Strong identification                                                             behaviors becoming       development. It
          with peer group         Weight:                    Menstruation begins for        individualized, no       includes:                Often are shy,
                                  65 + pounds                girls (11 – 14 years of age)   longer based on values                            embarrassed and self-
          Social status &                                                                   and expectations of       -    Able to think      conscious
          acceptance are          Growth spurts              Male sex organs grow in        the family and culture         hypothetically
          important               common:                    size, testicles begin to                                 -    Logical thinking   May develop one on
                                   -  Boys: 12-15 years      produce semen                  Peer group strong         -    Ability to think   one friendships with
          Move toward                 of age                                                influence on identity          about thought      person of opposite sex
          independence from        -  Girls: 11-14 years     Brain development              and esteem                -    Development of
          parents                     of age                 increases                                                     insight            Interest in sexual
                                                                                            Emotionally labile in     -    Systematic         relationships increases
                                                             Sleep is important, and        early adolescence              problem solving
                                                             may occur at different                                                           Masturbation may
                                                             times than adults              Emotional response to                             occur
                                                                                            puberty also occurs
                                                                                                                                              Attractions may arise to
                                                                                                                                              people of same,
                                                                                                                                              opposite or both
                                                                                                                                              genders




                                  Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.2, 2012                                11
                                                               Adolescents (12 – 21 years cont’d)

Age         Social                   Physical Growth            Physical                      Emotional                 Cognitive              Sexual
            Development                                         Development                   Development               Development            Development
16 - 21     Peer group’s             Girl’s adult stature is    Puberty and physical          Sense of self, apart      Emergence of formal    Pubertal changes
years       importance declines,     achieved                   maturation continue           from peers and family     operations continues   continue
(Middle &   and individual                                                                    stabilizes
Late)       friendships              Boys continue to grow      Bone and muscle growth                                                         Greater interest in
            strengthen                                          continue                      Self esteem based on                             sexuality
                                                                                              youth’s ability to live
            Dating and one-on-                                                                up to their own                                  Attraction to others of
            one relationships                                                                 standards of behavior                            same, opposite, or both
            become more                                                                                                                        genders
            significant                                                                       Individual identity
                                                                                              forms                                            Sexual intimacy,
            Relationships often                                                                                                                intercourse
            based on mutual                                                                   Perspective taking
            understanding,                                                                    abilities improve                                Decisions about sexual
            loyalty and intimacy                                                                                                               orientation, birth
                                                                                              Examination of other                             control, parenting and
            Youth allowed to                                                                  people’s values and                              partners arise
            have their own                                                                    beliefs may occur
            feelings and
            experiences that can                                                              Identity confusion may
            differ from others                                                                occur

            Self-revelation occurs                                                            Morality issues occur

            Intimacy is important

            Begin to develop
            expectations about
            their relationships
            with adults

            Conflicts with parents
            grow




                                     Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.2, 2012                            12
                                                                  “SPECS” of Normal Development
                                                                   Adulthood (21 and on…)

Age        Social                   Physical Growth            Physical                      Emotional                  Cognitive                 Sexual
           Development                                         Development                   Development                Development               Development
1-30       Commitment to                                       Peak of physical ability      In early adulthood,        Formalization of          Strong need for sexual
(early)    relationships may                                   about age 25                  Intimacy is a key          education or training     experimentation and
           occur                                                                             developmental issue.                                 intimacy
                                                                                                                        Work becomes an
           Decisions about                                                                   Seek an open,              essential outlet for      Physical responses peak,
           parenting and family                                                              supportive relationship    cognitive development     and may then slow as
           arise                                                                                                                                  pregnancy and family
                                                                                                                        Exploration of interest   roles appear
           Family stages of
           development impact
           personal relationships
           with others outside of
           home

30-65      Aging of one’s own                                  Vision changes may occur      In middle adulthood,       Maximum involvement       In middle adulthood,
(middle)   parents becomes an                                                                generativity, or what      in career occurs during   relationships out side of
           issue                                               Hand-eye coordination may     one does to make           middle adulthood          commitments may be
                                                               slow                          things better for future                             explored
           Changing roles may                                                                generations is             Work impacts financial
           occur as parents allow                              Decrease in muscle mass       important.                 and social aspects of     Renegotiation of sexual
           for adolescent child’s                                                                                       one’s identity            relationships occurs later
           independence                                                                                                                           in adulthood as a result
                                                                                                                        Later adulthood:          of physical changes and
           As children age,                                                                                             Looking to have less      emotional needs
           refocus on personal                                                                                          critical role in work
           relationship may
           occur

65+        Roles may change as                                 Chronic or degenerative       In later adulthood, a      Concerns about leaving    Sexualized behaviors
(later)    enter grand parenting                               illnesses                     sense of integrity is      the workforce and how     may cease
           roles                                                                             sought                     that impacts
                                                               Senses become less acute                                 relationships
           May develop adult                                                                 Seeking an
           relationships with                                                                understanding of one’s
           children                                                                          life

           Deal with concepts                                                                Ability to face death
           and issues around                                                                 without fear
           death and dying
                                    Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.2, 2012                                   13
Common Core | Child & Youth Development | Trainee’s Guide-Supplemental Materials | Version 1.2, 2012   14

				
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