IV . Organic Substances
1. Always contain carbon and hydrogen, may also include other elements
2. Covalently bonded chains, rings or small molecules
3. Classified according to # or carbons, bond type and/or functional groups
a. Prefixes = # of carbons
meth = 1 eth = 2 prop = 3 but = 4 pent = 5
hex = 6 hept = 7 oct = 8 non = 9 dec = 10
b. alkanes : simplest organic compounds – only single
i. Cn H2n+2
ii. –ane ending
c. alkene : 1 or more double bond in structure
i. Cn H2n( only works for one double bond)
ii. –ene ending
d. alkyne : 1 or more triple bonds in structure
i. Cn H2n-2
ii. –yne ending
e. alcohol : hydroxide group attached somewhere
i. follows pattern for alk designation
ii. anol ending – single bonds
iii. enol ending – double bonds
iv. ynol ending – triple bonds
***Identify substituents attached to the molecule by location, quantity and
alphabetically by name. ( These changes will take place at the beginning of the
Chains of one or more carbon ( methyl,ethyl,propyl,butyl,pentyl…..)
Halogens ( chloro,bromo,iodo,fluoro)
What if…….there is a ring ?
Cyclo should preceed the name
What if there are double, triple bonds ?
Identify which carbon they are on, by counting from the end closest to the
What if there are multiple double or triple bonds?
Identify which carbon they are on by counting from the end closest to the
first one and keep numbering from then on.
What if there are other atoms attached and multiple bonds.
Number the carbons based on the location of the multiple bond and use
those numbers to identify the locations of the other atoms attached.
What if there are attachments and more than one multiple bond.
Number the carbons based on the location of the first multiple bond and
indicate the attachments first, then the location of the multiple bonds by number and
with a prefix tucked into the final part of the name.