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Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing An Introduction What’s the difference? Quotations must be identical to the original. must match source document word for word must be attributed to the original author http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_quotprsum.html Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words be attributed to the original source is usually shorter than the original passage Summarising involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s) necessary to attribute summarised ideas to original source summaries are significantly shorter than the original take a broad overview of the source material Why should I use them? provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing give examples of several points of view on a subject call attention to a position that you agree or disagree with highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own expand the breadth or depth of your writing How do I start? Read the entire text, noting key points and main ideas Summarise in your own words main idea of the article Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the article Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly Paraphrasing A paraphrase is... your own rendition of important information and ideas, presented in a new form one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea Paraphrasing Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because... it is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage it helps you control the temptation to quote too much the mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original 6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing 1. Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning 2. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase 3. At the top write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase 4. Check your rendition with original • accurately expresses all the essential information 5. Use quotation marks to identify terms or phrases borrowed exactly from the source 6. Record the source (including the page) so you can credit it easily Summarising A summary is much shorter than the original text should communicate the main idea of the text the main supporting points written ‘in your own words’ in a very brief form should give someone who has not read the original a clear and accurate overview of the text Summarising To summarise Record the author, title, year of publication and source of the text Skim the text. Note any sub-headings, or try to divide the text into sections Read the text carefully. Use a dictionary if necessary, and be prepared to read very difficult texts more than once. Pay special attention to the first and last paragraphs Try to identify the main idea or argument Identify the topic sentence in each paragraph Identify the main support for the topic sentence What’s plagiarism? Plagiarism is using others’ ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information. To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you use: another person’s idea, opinion, or theory; any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings—any pieces of information— that are not common knowledge; quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words; or paraphrase of another person’s spoken or written words http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/plagiarism.shtml Good or Bad? ORIGINAL text, from page 1 of Lizzie Borden: A Case Book of Family and Crime in the 1890s by Joyce Williams et al.: The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century American history. As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide of immigrants. With industry came urbanization the growth of large cities (like Fall River, Massachusetts, where the family lived) which became the center of production as well as of commerce and trade. Here’s an unacceptable paraphrase that is plagiarism: The increase of industry, the growth of cities, and the explosion of the population were three large factors of nineteenth century America. As steam-driven companies became more visible in the eastern part of the country, they changed farm hands into factory workers and provided jobs for the large wave of immigrants. With industry came the growth of large cities like Fall River where the Bordens lived which turned into centers of commerce and trade as well as production. WHY???? The preceding passage is considered plagiarism for two reasons: the writer has only changed around a few words and phrases, or changed the order of the original’s sentences. the writer has failed to cite a source for any of the ideas or facts. If you do either or both of these things, you are plagiarizing. NOTE: This paragraph is also problematic because it changes the sense of several sentences (for example, "steam-driven companies" in sentence two misses the original’s emphasis on factories). Good or Bad? Here’s an ACCEPTABLE paraphrase: Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of northeastern industrial cities of the nineteenth century. Steam-powered production had shifted labor from agriculture to manufacturing, and as immigrants arrived in the US, they found work in these new factories. As a result, populations grew, and large urban areas arose. Fall River was one of these manufacturing and commercial centers (Williams 1). WHY???? This is acceptable paraphrasing because the writer: accurately relays the information in the original uses her own words. lets the reader know the source of his/her information. Example 1 Passage from Book • Ancient Egyptians believed that Osiris, a good and wise king, was the first pharaoh. He spread knowledge to other parts of the world, while his wife, Isis, ruled Egypt in his place. Good Example 1 Highlighted Passage Ancient Egyptians believed that Osiris, a good and wise king, was the first pharaoh. He spread knowledge to other parts of the world, while his wife, Isis, ruled Egypt in his place Paraphrased Passage King Osiris was the first pharaoh and spread knowledge. Queen Isis ruled Egypt when he was gone. Poor Paraphrasing King Osiris was an ancient Egyptian King and the first pharaoh. He was good and wise because he spread knowledge to other parts of the world. His wife Isis ruled Egypt in his place. Exercise 1 Remember the Rules Read the passage carefully Find the main ideas Highlight important words or phrases Put the main points in your own words Exercise 1 Passage from the book o Upon returning home, Osiris was murdered by his evil brother Set, who cut Osiris’s body into pieces and dumped it in the Nile River. Isis found the body and put it back together by winding linen bandages around it. Paraphrased Passage Osiris’s brother Set killed Osiris by cutting his body into pieces, and Isis put the body back together. Poor Paraphrasing Osiris was murdered and Isis found the body Exercise 2 Remember the Rules o Read the passage carefully o Find the main ideas o Highlight important words or phrases o Put the main points in your own words Passage from Book In 1857, a British expedition led by Richard Burton and John Speke set out to find the great lakes shown on Ptolemy’s map. After reaching Lake Tanganyika, the two men split up because Burton was ill. Remember to highlight the key words In 1857, a British expedition led by Richard Burton and John Speke set out to find the great lakes shown on Ptolemy’s map. After reaching Lake Tanganyika, the two men split up because Burton was ill. Which one is the best? 1. Richard Burton and his friend looked for the great lakes shown on Ptolemy’s map. The men split up. 2. In 1857, Richard Burton and John Speke searched for the great lakes on Ptolemy’s map, but split up as Burton was ill. 3. Two men from Britain looked for the great lakes but had to split up because one was ill Paraphrasing Passage from Book Speke discovered Victoria Nyanza and was convinced that the White Nile flowed from it. A second expedition proved him right when he found the outlet of the Nile at a waterfall which he named Ripon Falls. Paraphrased Passage Speke discovered Victoria Nyanza and later found the outlet of the Nile which he called the Ripon Falls. "While the Sears Tower is arguably the greatest achievement in skyscraper engineering so far, it's unlikely that architects and engineers have abandoned the quest for the world's tallest building. The question is: Just how high can a building go? Structural engineer William LeMessurier has designed a skyscraper nearly one-half mile high, twice as tall as the Sears Tower. And architect Robert Sobel claims that existing technology could produce a 500-story building." From Ron Bachman, "Reaching for the Sky." Dial (May 1990): 15. 1. "The Antarctic is the vast source of cold on our planet, just as the sun is the source of our heat, and it exerts tremendous control on our climate," [Jacques] Cousteau told the camera. "The cold ocean water around Antarctica flows north to mix with warmer water from the tropics, and its upwellings help to cool both the surface water and our atmosphere. Yet the fragility of this regulating system is now threatened by human activity." From "Captain Cousteau,“ Audubon (May 1990):17. Answer 1. According to Jacques Cousteau, the activity of people in Antarctica is jeopardizing a delicate natural mechanism that controls the earth's climate. He fears that human activity could interfere with the balance between the sun, the source of the earth's heat, and the important source of cold from Antarctic waters that flow north and cool the oceans and atmosphere ("Captain Cousteau" 17). 5. The Sears Tower is a world marvel, and it is unknown how much higher skyscrapers of the future will rise. However, the design of one twice as tall as the Sears Tower is already on the boards, and an architect, Robert Sobel, thinks we currently have sufficient know-how to build a skyscraper with over 500 stories (Bachman 15).
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