Quoting_ Paraphrasing and Summarising by ajizai


									Quoting, Paraphrasing and

     An Introduction
          What’s the difference?

Quotations must be identical to the original.

 must match source document word for word

 must be attributed to the original author

Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from
source material into your own words

 be attributed to the original source

 is usually shorter than the original passage
Summarising involves putting the main idea(s) into
your own words, including only the main point(s)

 necessary to attribute summarised ideas to original source

 summaries are significantly shorter than the original

 take a broad overview of the source material
           Why should I use them?

provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing
refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing
give examples of several points of view on a subject
call attention to a position that you agree or disagree with
highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or
passage by quoting the original
distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to
cue readers that the words are not your own
expand the breadth or depth of your writing
                 How do I start?

 Read the entire text, noting key points and main ideas

 Summarise in your own words main idea of the article

 Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in
  the article
 Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you
  believe should be quoted directly
A paraphrase is...

 your own rendition of important information and
  ideas, presented in a new form
 one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate
  documentation) to borrow from a source
 a more detailed restatement than a summary, which
  focuses concisely on a single main idea

Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because...
 it is better than quoting information from an
  undistinguished passage
 it helps you control the temptation to quote too much

 the mental process required for successful
  paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of
  the original
       6 Steps to Effective Paraphrasing

 1.   Reread the original passage until you understand
  its full meaning

 2. Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase

 3. At the top write a key word or phrase to indicate
  the subject of your paraphrase
4. Check   your rendition with original
   • accurately expresses all the essential information

5. Use quotation marks to identify terms or phrases
      borrowed exactly from the source

6. Record the source (including the page) so you can
      credit it easily
A summary is

 much shorter than the original text

 should communicate the main idea of the text

 the main supporting points

 written ‘in your own words’
 in a very brief form

 should give someone who has not read the original
  a clear and accurate overview of the text
To summarise

 Record the author, title, year of publication and source
  of the text
 Skim the text. Note any sub-headings, or try to divide
  the text into sections
 Read the text carefully. Use a dictionary if necessary,
  and be prepared to read very difficult texts more than
 Pay special attention to the first and last paragraphs
 Try to identify the main idea or argument
 Identify the topic sentence in each paragraph
 Identify the main support for the topic sentence
                 What’s plagiarism?

 Plagiarism is using others’ ideas and words without clearly
  acknowledging the source of that information.

 To avoid plagiarism, you must give credit whenever you use:
    another person’s idea, opinion, or theory;

    any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings—any pieces of information—
     that are not common knowledge;

    quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words; or

    paraphrase of another person’s spoken or written words

                                              Good or Bad?
ORIGINAL text, from page 1 of Lizzie Borden: A Case Book of Family and Crime in the 1890s by Joyce Williams et al.:

The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the
population were the three great developments of late nineteenth century
American history. As new, larger, steam-powered factories became a
   feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm
   hands into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide of
   immigrants. With industry came urbanization the growth of large
   cities (like Fall River, Massachusetts, where the family lived) which
   became the center of production as well as of commerce and trade.
Here’s an unacceptable paraphrase that is plagiarism:

The increase of industry, the growth of cities, and the
explosion of the population were three large factors of
nineteenth century America. As steam-driven companies
became more visible in the eastern part of the country,
they changed farm hands into factory workers and
provided jobs for the large wave of immigrants. With
industry came the growth of large cities like Fall River
where the Bordens lived which turned into centers of
commerce and trade as well as production.
The preceding passage is considered plagiarism for two
the writer has only changed around a few words and
phrases, or changed the order of the original’s
the writer has failed to cite a source for any of the ideas
or facts.
If you do either or both of these things, you are
NOTE: This paragraph is also problematic because it
changes the sense of several sentences (for example,
"steam-driven companies" in sentence two misses the
original’s emphasis on factories).
              Good or Bad?
Here’s an ACCEPTABLE paraphrase:

Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of
northeastern industrial cities of the nineteenth century.
Steam-powered production had shifted labor from
agriculture to manufacturing, and as immigrants arrived
in the US, they found work in these new factories. As a
result, populations grew, and large urban areas arose.
Fall River was one of these manufacturing and
commercial centers (Williams 1).
This is acceptable paraphrasing because the
accurately relays the information in the original
uses her own words.
lets the reader know the source of his/her
                 Example 1
              Passage from Book

• Ancient Egyptians believed that Osiris, a good
  and wise king, was the first pharaoh. He spread
  knowledge to other parts of the world, while his
  wife, Isis, ruled Egypt in his place.
          Good Example 1

             Highlighted Passage

Ancient Egyptians believed that Osiris, a good
and wise king, was the first pharaoh. He spread
knowledge to other parts of the world, while his
wife, Isis, ruled Egypt in his place
            Paraphrased Passage

King Osiris was the first pharaoh and spread
knowledge. Queen Isis ruled Egypt when he was
            Poor Paraphrasing

King Osiris was an ancient Egyptian King and
the first pharaoh. He was good and wise
because he spread knowledge to other parts of
the world. His wife Isis ruled Egypt in his place.
                  Exercise 1
           Remember the Rules

 Read the passage carefully
 Find the main ideas
 Highlight important words or phrases
 Put the main points in your own words
                   Exercise 1

             Passage from the book

o Upon returning home, Osiris was murdered by his
  evil brother Set, who cut Osiris’s body into pieces
  and dumped it in the Nile River. Isis found the
  body and put it back together by winding linen
  bandages around it.
            Paraphrased Passage

Osiris’s brother Set killed Osiris by cutting his
body into pieces, and Isis put the body back
         Poor Paraphrasing

Osiris was murdered and Isis found the body
                 Exercise 2

         Remember the Rules

o Read the passage carefully

o Find the main ideas

o Highlight important words or phrases

o Put the main points in your own words
           Passage from Book

In 1857, a British expedition led by Richard
Burton and John Speke set out to find the great
lakes shown on Ptolemy’s map. After reaching
Lake Tanganyika, the two men split up because
Burton was ill.
Remember to highlight the key words

In 1857, a British expedition led by Richard
Burton and John Speke set out to find the great
lakes shown on Ptolemy’s map. After reaching
Lake Tanganyika, the two men split up because
Burton was ill.
           Which one is the best?
1. Richard Burton and his friend looked for the great

     lakes shown on Ptolemy’s map. The men split up.

2.   In 1857, Richard Burton and John Speke
     searched for the great lakes on Ptolemy’s map,
     but split up as Burton was ill.

3. Two men from Britain looked for the great lakes

     but had to split up because one was ill
            Passage from Book

Speke discovered Victoria Nyanza and was
convinced that the White Nile flowed from it. A
second expedition proved him right when he
found the outlet of the Nile at a waterfall which
he named Ripon Falls.
         Paraphrased Passage
Speke discovered Victoria Nyanza and later
found the outlet of the Nile which he called the
Ripon Falls.
"While the Sears Tower is arguably the greatest achievement
in skyscraper engineering so far, it's unlikely that architects
and engineers have abandoned the quest for the world's tallest
building. The question is: Just how high can a building go?
Structural engineer William LeMessurier has designed a
skyscraper nearly one-half mile high, twice as tall as
the Sears Tower. And architect Robert Sobel claims that
existing technology could produce a 500-story building." From
Ron Bachman, "Reaching for the Sky." Dial (May 1990): 15.
1. "The Antarctic   is the vast source of cold on our planet, just as
the sun is the source of our heat, and it exerts tremendous
control on our climate," [Jacques] Cousteau told the camera.
"The cold ocean water around Antarctica flows north to mix
with warmer water from the tropics, and its upwellings help to
cool both the surface water and our atmosphere. Yet the
fragility of this regulating system is now threatened by human
activity." From "Captain Cousteau,“ Audubon (May 1990):17.

1. According to Jacques Cousteau, the activity of people in
Antarctica is jeopardizing a delicate natural mechanism that
controls the earth's climate. He fears that human activity
could interfere with the balance between the sun, the source
the earth's heat, and the important source of cold from
Antarctic waters that flow north and cool the oceans and
atmosphere ("Captain Cousteau" 17).
5. The Sears Tower is a world marvel, and it is unknown how
much higher skyscrapers of the future will rise. However,
the design of one twice as tall as the Sears Tower is already
on the boards, and an architect, Robert Sobel, thinks we
currently have sufficient know-how to build a skyscraper with

over 500 stories (Bachman 15).

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