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					                Physiology of a Muscle Cell at the Neuromuscular Junction

                                                                                  muscle fiber (cell)
                                      Neuromuscular Junction
                                                                sarcoplasmic reticulum

                                              acetylcholine receptor site
         motor nerve ending




                                                                               actin            calcium ions




motor impulse                                                                                   myosin
                                                           calcium linkages
                      acetylcholine (neurotransmitter)                   myosin crossbridges
                Physiology of a Muscle Cell at the Neuromuscular Junction

                                                                                  muscle fiber (cell)
                                      Neuromuscular Junction
                                                                sarcoplasmic reticulum

                                              acetylcholine receptor site
         motor nerve ending




                                                                                                calcium ions
                                                                               actin




                                                   muscle fiber contracts



                                                         calcium linkages
motor impulse                                                                                       myosin

                      acetylcholine (neurotransmitter)                      myosin crossbridges
   Physiology of a Muscle Cell at the Neuromuscular Junction

                                                    muscle fiber (cell)
                     Neuromuscular Junction


                     acetylcholinesterase
motor nerve ending




                                                                  calcium ions
   Physiology of a Muscle Cell at the Neuromuscular Junction


                     Neuromuscular Junction

                                            acetylcholine
                     acetylcholinesterase
motor nerve ending




                                                               calcium ions
   Physiology of a Muscle Cell at the Neuromuscular Junction


                      Neuromuscular Junction



motor nerve ending

                     acetylcholinesterase   acetylcholine
                                            broken down

                                                               calcium ions
   Physiology of a Muscle Cell at the Neuromuscular Junction

                                                                  muscle fiber (cell)
                     Neuromuscular Junction
                                              sarcoplasmic reticulum            calcium ions


motor nerve ending




                                                               actin
                                                                                 calcium pump




                                 muscle fiber relaxes


                                                                                myosin

                                                        myosin crossbridges
Maladies of the Muscular System
                                                                      aerobic
                                                                      cellular
                       (glycogen)                     (myoglobin)
                                                                    respiration
Rx—Muscle Fatigue -C6H12O6                         + 6O2                           6CO2            + 6H2O + E
                        glucose                         oxygen                    Carbon dioxide      water   energy


                                      anerobic
                                       cellular
                                     respiration


                     2C3H6O3 + e
                       lactic acid                 energy


                    -lactic acid = burn of muscle aches, lowered pH
                     prevents stimulus
Rx—Muscle Cramps - C6H12O6, O2                                             E for calcium pump
                           glucose                  oxygen


                    -leads to sustained calcium linkages for cross-
                     bridging
                    -rigor mortis
Rx—Myasthenia gravis -an autoimmune disease
                     -white blood cells attack and destroy acetylcholine
                      receptor sites, leading to muscle weakness
                     -potentially life-threatening when respiratory
                      muscles are affected
                     -affects young women and old men
                     -treated with immunosuppression

                                                              muscle fiber (cell)
                                     Neuromuscular Junction
                                                                        calcium ions
Rx—Botulism                                       sarcoplasmic reticulum

                     motor nerve ending
                                           botulin
                                            toxin
                                                                 actin
                                                                          calcium pump




                motor impulse                                             myosin
                          acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) myosin crossbridges
Rx—Botulism -Siege of Stalingrad and Leningrad, 1942
            -food poisoning, from rotting vegetation and canned foods
            -caused by bacterium Clostridium botulinum, an obligate
             anaerobe
             -bacteria produce acetylcholine inhibitor botulin, the most
              deadly substance known to man
             -causes flaccid paralysis of the skeletal muscles, death by
              respiratory failure
             -treated with antibiotics and hyperbaric chamber therapy

Rx—Tetanus -“lockjaw”
           -caused by Clostridium tetani, an obligate anaerobe
           -bacteria produce acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
            tetanospasmin
           -causes spastic paralysis of the skeletal muscles, death by
            respiratory failure, muscle contractions can break back
             -treated with muscle relaxants, antibiotics and hyperbaric
              chamber therapy
Rx—Tetanus
                                                      muscle fiber (cell)
                          Neuromuscular Junction


                          acetylcholinesterase
     motor nerve ending




                                                   actin            calcium ions




                                                                    myosin
Rx—Tetanus
                                                                    muscle fiber (cell)
                          Neuromuscular Junction

                                                 tetanospasmin
                          acetylcholinesterase
     motor nerve ending




                                                                 actin            calcium ions




                                                                                  myosin
Rx—Tetanus
                                                                        muscle fiber (cell)
                             Neuromuscular Junction

                                                     tetanospasmin

     motor nerve ending




                                                                     actin            calcium ions
                          acetylcholinesterase




                                                 muscle remains
                                                   contracted

                                                                                      myosin
Rx—Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy -a recessive, sex-linked, X-linked
                                genetic disease
                               -affects boys, onset in late childhood,
                                early puberty
                               -passed down from mother to son
                               -recessive gene codes for the
                                abnormal absence of the muscle
                                protein dystrophin
                               -muscle cells burst upon contraction
                                and die
                               -muscle tissue progressively replaced
                                with fibrous connective (scar) tissue
Rx—Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy -a recessive, sex-linked, X-linked
                                genetic disease
                               -affects boys, onset in late childhood,
                                early puberty
                               -passed down from mother to son
                               -recessive gene codes for the
                                abnormal absence of the muscle
                                protein dystrophin
                               -muscle cells burst upon contraction
                                and die
                               -muscle tissue progressively replaced
                                with fibrous connective (scar) tissue
Rx—Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy -a recessive, sex-linked, X-linked
                                genetic disease
                               -affects boys, onset in late childhood,
                                early puberty
                               -passed down from mother to son
                               -recessive gene codes for the
                                abnormal absence of the muscle
                                protein dystrophin
                               -muscle cells burst upon contraction
                                and die
                               -muscle tissue progressively replaced
                                with fibrous connective (scar) tissue
Rx—Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy -a recessive, sex-linked, X-linked
                                      genetic disease
                                     -affects boys, onset in late childhood,
                                      early puberty
                                     -passed down from mother to son
                                     -recessive gene codes for the
                                      abnormal absence of the muscle
                                      protein dystrophin
                                     -muscle cells burst upon contraction
        Normal female Normal male
                                      and die
                                     -muscle tissue progressively replaced
        Carrier female Affected male  with fibrous connective (scar) tissue

If Dave, who is a normal male, and Diane, who is a carrier for Duchenne
Muscular Dystrophy, have 3 children, how many, according to the odds,
should have Muscular Dystrophy? ¼ x 3 = ¾ = 1
Rx—Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

If Darryl, who is a male with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, and Debbie,
who is a carrier for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, have 9 children by in
vitro fertilization, how many, according to the odds, should have
Muscular Dystrophy?
Rx—Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

If Darryl, who is a male with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, and Debbie,
who is a carrier for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, have 9 children by in
vitro fertilization, how many, according to the odds, should Muscular
Dystrophy?              2/4 x 9 = 18/4 = 4 2/4 = 4 or 5

                                -disease progresses from extremities to
                                 torso, death from respiratory failure
                                -no cure
                                -dystrophic = “condition of incorrect
                                 feeding”
Rx—Atrophy -atrophic = “condition of no feeding”
           -from lack of nervous stimulation, muscle degenerates
            -often a result of immobilization due to casting or paralysis

Rx—Hypertrophy -hypertrophic = “condition of too much feeding”
Rx—Atrophy -atrophic = “condition of no feeding”
           -from lack of nervous stimulation, muscle degenerates
            -often a result of immobilization due to casting or paralysis

Rx—Hypertrophy -hypertrophic = “condition of too much feeding”


    average heart
Rx—Atrophy -atrophic = “condition of no feeding”
           -from lack of nervous stimulation, muscle degenerates
            -often a result of immobilization due to casting or paralysis

Rx—Hypertrophy -hypertrophic = “condition of too much feeding”


    average heart




        average blood vessels
Rx—Atrophy -atrophic = “condition of no feeding”
           -from lack of nervous stimulation, muscle degenerates
            -often a result of immobilization due to casting or paralysis

Rx—Hypertrophy -hypertrophic = “condition of too much feeding”


    average heart




        average blood vessels


                                obese blood vessels
Rx—Atrophy -atrophic = “condition of no feeding”
           -from lack of nervous stimulation, muscle degenerates
            -often a result of immobilization due to casting or paralysis

Rx—Hypertrophy -hypertrophic = “condition of too much feeding”


                                average heart
    average heart




        average blood vessels


                                obese blood vessels
Rx—Atrophy -atrophic = “condition of no feeding”
           -from lack of nervous stimulation, muscle degenerates
            -often a result of immobilization due to casting or paralysis

Rx—Hypertrophy -hypertrophic = “condition of too much feeding”
               -How is this like a uranium mine?
                                average heart
    average heart




        average blood vessels


                                obese blood vessels      hypertrophic
                                                         blood vessels
Rx—Atrophy -atrophic = “condition of no feeding”
           -from lack of nervous stimulation, muscle degenerates
            -often a result of immobilization due to casting or paralysis

Rx—Hypertrophy -hypertrophic = “condition of too much feeding”
                                                       hypertrophic heart
                                average heart
    average heart




        average blood vessels


                                obese blood vessels       hypertrophic
                                                          blood vessels
Rx—Anabolic Steroid Use -36% female’s body mass is muscle,
                         42% male’s body mass is muscle
                        -unnatural and illegal use of the male hormone
                         testosterone to accelerate muscle growth
                        -stimulate muscle growth, legitimate medical
                         use in treating muscle-wasting diseases and
                         atrophy
                        -42% female’s blood red blood cells,
                         47% male’s blood red blood cells
                        -stimulates red blood cell production,
                         legitimate medical use in treating anemia
                        -increase muscle strength and stamina
                        -increased oxygen-carrying capacity
                        -increased aggressive behavior
Rx—Anabolic Steroid Use -bloated faces, shriveled testes and infertility,
                         liver damage, liver cancer, predisposition to
                         coronary heart disease, mental disorders
                        -increased libido  criminal sex drive
                        -increase maleness, decreased femaleness
                         in women, interruption of menstrual cycle
                         and infertility




   Blood
Testosterone
   Level




                    Time
Rx—Anabolic Steroid Use -bloated faces, shriveled testes and infertility,
                         liver damage, liver cancer, predisposition to
                         coronary heart disease, mental disorders
                        -increased libido  criminal sex drive
                        -increase maleness, decreased femaleness
                         in women, interruption of menstrual cycle
                         and infertility

                                    Normal
                                  Testosterone
                                  Level setting

   Blood
Testosterone
   Level

                                                  How is this like a furnace
                                                     and a thermostat?
                    Time
Rx—Anabolic Steroid Use -bloated faces, shriveled testes and infertility,
                         liver damage, liver cancer, predisposition to
                         coronary heart disease, mental disorders
                        -increased libido  criminal sex drive
                        -increase maleness, decreased femaleness
                         in women, interruption of menstrual cycle
                         and infertility

                                    Normal
                                  Testosterone
                                  Level setting

   Blood
Testosterone                         Actual
   Level                          Testosterone
                                     Level


                                          How is this like a furnace, a
                    Time                  thermostat, and a spaceheater?
Rx—Anabolic Steroid Use -bloated faces, shriveled testes and infertility,
                         liver damage, liver cancer, predisposition to
                         coronary heart disease, mental disorders
                        -increased libido  criminal sex drive
                        -increase maleness, decreased femaleness
                         in women, interruption of menstrual cycle
          Artificial     and infertility
               Testosterone
                  Level
                                       Normal
                                     Testosterone
                                     Level setting

   Blood
Testosterone                            Actual
   Level                             Testosterone
                                        Level




                              Time
Rx—Strains -muscles or tendons overstretched and torn
           -gracilis most often strained muscle
           -muscle tissue replaced with fibrous connective (scar)
            tissue; muscle more susceptible to re-injury
Rx—Tendonitis -inflammation of a tendon
                -most often a chronic overuse injury
Rx—Shin Splints -chronic overuse injury consisting of any or all of four
                 syndromes
     1. Stress fracture -of the tibia

     2. Stress syndrome -tibia becomes serrated on muscle insertion

     3. Tendonitis -inflammation of tendon connecting Tibialis anterior
                    to tibia
     4. Compartment syndrome -overdevelopment of Tibialis anterior
                              or accumulation of fluid due to injury
                              puts pressure on nerve ending and
                              blood vessels  pain
Rx—Poliomyelitis -caused by virus attacking nerve cells which innervate
                  skeletal muscles
                 -results in muscle fatigue, weakness, atrophy, and
                  paralysis
                 -vaccine developed by Jonas Salk in 1954 began the
                  near-eradication of the virus

Rx—Tempormandibular Joint (TMJ) Syndrome -caused by clenching of
                                          jaw muscles or misalign-
                                          ment of jaw
                                              -pain, headache, ringing
                                               ears, clicking jaw, insom-
                                               nia, teeth sensitive to heat
                                               or cold, backache, dizzi-
                                               ness
                                              -most often treated with
                                               dental orthotics

				
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posted:3/22/2013
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