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Table demonstrating similarities in the stages of SIETAR Europa

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Table demonstrating similarities in the stages of SIETAR Europa Powered By Docstoc
					        This workshop has been cancelled
                           SIETAR EUROPA 2005
                Your Culture, My Culture, Our Opportunity:
             Intercultural Tools, Theories, and Best Practices
        for Education, Society, and Business in a Polarized World

“Moving from my culture to your culture: What happens to racial identity?”
      Kimberly Cressy, Martha Merrill, Peggy Pusch, Ken Williams

  1. Title of presentation: Moving from my culture to your culture: What
     happens to racial identity?

  2. 250-word abstract:
     Much of intercultural communication theory focuses on a single sojourner
     interacting with a host society in which s/he is an equal or, in material and
     power terms, a superior. Alternatively, much of racial identity theory
     presumes that groups are interacting on the basis of inequality. With the
     diversification thrust of study abroad programs, students are faced with
     great difficulty as they try to negotiate learning environments that have
     been constructed within a racial base of values, behaviors, beliefs and
     ways of doing things that are different from their own. In this session,
     chaired by Martha Merrill of the School for International Training, Peggy
     Pusch of the Intercultural Communication Institute will discuss ICC theory,
     Ken Williams of SIT will discuss racial identity theory, and Kim Cressy, an
     independent researcher formerly with SIT Study Abroad, whose recent MA
     thesis focused on racial identity issues in a study abroad group in Latin
     America, will discuss the intersections between the two. Participants
     should not expect “answers,” as those are contextual, but should expect a
     heightened awareness of issues to be considered in international
     education program design for groups sojourning interculturally and in
     training designs for such groups.
  3. Presenter information:
         a. Kimberly Cressy
            Independent Researcher
            Kimberly.cressy@sbcglobal.net
            1-773-472-2962
            3260 N. Clark Street, #507
            Chicago, IL 60657
            Not currently a SIETAR member
            No prior SIETAR presentations
         b. Martha Merrill
            Associate Professor, International Education, School for
     International Training
            Martha.Merrill@sit.edu
            1-802-258-3302


                                                                                1
               Kipling Road
               Brattleboro, VT 05302
               SIETAR-USA member through SIT institutional membership
               SIETAR-USA presentations: 2004 Bloomington (session with Rich
        Rodman), 2003 Portland (session), 2002 Minneapolis (closing keynote)
           c. Peggy Pusch (Designated contact)
               Associate Director, Intercultural Communication Institute
               mdpusch@pobox.com
               1-503-297-4622 (O), 1-503-892-5264 (H)
               8835 SW Canyon Lane, Suite 238
               Portland, OR 97225
               SIETAR-USA member
               SIETAR presentations: many, including 2004 Bloomington “Fireside
        Chat” with Rob Pusch
           d. Kenneth Williams
               Assistant Professor and Degree Chair, Social Justice for
               Intercultural Relations, School for International Training
               Ken.Williams@sit.edu
               1-802-258-3565
               Kipling Road
               Brattleboro, VT 05302
               SIETAR-USA member through SIT institutional membership
               No prior SIETAR presentations
4. Session length and format: Panel, 90 minutes
5. Short biography of each presenter:
                   i. Kimberly Cressy
Kimberly Cressy, a Chicago-based researcher who graduated from the School
for International Training, wrote her thesis on racial issues among US Americans
studying abroad. She has worked for SIT Study Abroad, the Experiment in
International Living and Culture Contact (Munich) and is researching diversity,
cross-cultural, and leadership programs for youth.

                 ii. Martha Merrill
Martha Merrill, who holds degrees in Russian literature, Creative Writing, Higher
Education Administration, and Islamic Studies, is an Associate Professor at SIT,
where she teaches Intercultural Communication and international education. She
worked on university reform in Kyrgyzstan (1996-2001) and has been involved in
international education for more than 20 years.

                   iii. Peggy Pusch
Peggy Pusch, associate director of The Intercultural Communication Institute,
executive director of SIETAR USA, co-founded and was President of The
Intercultural Press. Current and past offices: Chair of the Board, the International
Partnership for Service-Learning and Leadership (2003-present); President of
NAFSA (1995-96); President (2000-03) of SIETAR-USA; and faculty, Summer
Institute for Intercultural Communication.



                                                                                   2
                 iv. Ken Williams
Kenneth Williams, who has a certificate of Education and a BA from the
University of the West Indies, and Master's degrees from London School
of Economics and Columbia University, is completing his doctorate in
Organization and Leadership at Columbia University. He is an assistant
professor at SIT.

   6. Target audience:
         a. Intermediate and advanced
         b. Education (higher education) plus:
   Research, domestic diversity, global diversity, cultural transitions,
   communication/dialogue, and intrapersonal dimensions

   7. Equipment and Audio-Visual Requirements
         a. Overhead projector & screen
         b. Flip chart

   8. Room size and set-up:
        a. Number of participants:
                i. desired: 20-25
               ii. max: 30-35
        b. Room set-up: classroom

   9. Session Description

Much of intercultural communication theory focuses on a single sojourner
interacting with a host society in which s/he is an equal or, in material and power
terms, a superior. Alternatively, much of racial identity theory presumes that
groups are interacting on the basis of inequality. Racial identity theories have
been developed from the intersection between racial perceptions of others and of
self, and assume one group is dominant. With the diversification thrust of study
abroad programs, students are faced with the difficulty of trying to negotiate
learning environments that have been constructed within the dominant base of
values, behaviors, beliefs and ways of doing things that are different from those
of “minority” students. In this session, chaired by Martha Merrill of the School for
International Training, Peggy Pusch of the Intercultural Communication Institute
will discuss ICC theory, Ken Williams of SIT will discuss racial identity theory,
and Kim Cressy, an independent researcher formerly with SIT Study Abroad,
whose recent MA thesis focused on racial identity issues in a study abroad group
in Latin America, will discuss the intersections between the two. Participants
should not expect “answers,” as those are contextual, but should expect a
heightened awareness of issues to be considered in international education
program design for groups sojourning interculturally and in training designs for
such groups. Additionally, the paper is based on research conducted either with




                                                                                   3
US citizens or within the US, and thus may not be fully applicable to the
European situation.

Conflict between individuals within groups is framed by their experiences and the
context within which these experiences were developed. Racial identity theory
posits that individuals’ identity development begins from one of unconscious
understanding of racial relations to one where s/he values people from all racial
and ethnic backgrounds. According to racial identity theory, individuals who are
further along the racial identity continuum show more heightened awareness of
racial relations and are more inclined to see racial issues than is someone at the
initial stage of racial identity development. It is expected that individuals who
have grown up in an environment that has been contextualized by oppressive
racial relations (especially if s/he was a minority in this setting) will be further
along the racial identity development continuum. Therefore, movement from one
environment to another can challenge an individual’s existing perceptions.

Peggy Pusch will discuss the process of identity recognition and change that
occurs as a result of a significant other-culture living experience, using Bennett’s
Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity as one way of demonstrating the
impact of this experience on individual sojourners. Pusch, in addition, will
suggest that certain intensity and risk factors present in intercultural contact
situations, identified by Michael Paige, impact how people respond to an
intercultural experience and how they perceive themselves in the world and
ultimately within their own society. Drawing on some of the research conducted
with students in service-learning programs, she will suggest that at least one
service-learning program sets up conditions that reduce the influence of program
designers based in the dominate culture in the U.S.

The aspect of the presentation presented by Ken Williams additionally examines
the interactions and interpretations of students in an international graduate study
program. In this program, international students of color were generally less
inclined to frame their interactions and conflicts with individuals different from
themselves by using terms such as race, in contrast to how American students of
color framed such interactions. International students of color were more inclined
to consider their conflicts with people who were different from them as due to
cultural differences, believing that intercultural awareness and sensitivity could
help to resolve their conflicts. However, not all international students felt this way;
a small number of international students diverged from this view. A majority of
American students of color, on the other hand, were more disposed to see
interpersonal conflict among ethnically and racially diverse individuals as a result
of both racial and intercultural insensitivity, with race as the more important
cause of conflicts. However, a significant proportion of students saw cultural
barriers as critical to the misunderstandings.

Data for this research was collected initially through focus groups, followed by in-
depth interviews with clusters of students, in some instances, and with individuals



                                                                                      4
in others. The initial focus group involved discussions with people of color of U.S.
domestic and international origin. During this focus group, it became clear that
students would share more honestly in clusters where their views would not be
discounted by those having opposing views. It was decided to put students in
dyads or clusters with others who shared similar views. The rationale for this was
to allow students to share their opinions as freely as possible. Individual
interviews were conducted with students when it was deemed that greater
disclosure would occur when the student was alone.

Study abroad provides an ideal setting in which to explore racial identity
development. Temporarily removing someone from her typical environment
provides a means by which an individual inevitably begins asking new and/or
deeper questions of herself and her society. As evidenced in one of the
presenter’s, Kim Cressy’s, research, new and/or heightened awareness of racial
identity does occur among students studying abroad, and increasing numbers of
study abroad organizations are working to increase diversity. The 2004 Open
Doors report indicated that there has been a 129% increase of U.S. students
studying abroad over the past decade. In 1993/94 approximately 71,150 students
studied abroad, as compared to 174,629 in 2002/03. While the percentage of
students of color studying overseas during these years increased by 137%, in
2003 they made up only 17% of the total number of students studying abroad.
Although it is good to see an increase, albeit a small one, in these numbers, new
issues are bound to arise as the racial make-up of U.S. students attending study
abroad programs changes. If applicable theories and frameworks can be
developed so that we can apply them to the evolving needs of a changing group
of U.S. students, then we can begin to describe, explain, predict, generate,
influence, and assess their needs and challenges. However, no current
framework in addresses the intersection of intercultural theories and racial
identity development.

Attached is a table Cressy has created to demonstrate the similarities of the
stages of Bennett’s intercultural sensitivity model, Helms and Hardiman’s White
identity development model, and Atkinson, Morten and Sue’s minority identity
development model. Stages where there are similarities have been placed
above/below each other. By showing how clearly ICC theory and racial identity
theory overlap, we will then make our case as to why it is imperative to begin
addressing the need for research and training in this area.

Some questions that apply to both ICC theory and racial identity theory,
according to Cressy, include:
           How relevant are these identity theories when taken in a context so
             different than originally intended?
           How does the development of one’s identity change when a person
             is placed in a country where the host country’s racial composition
             differs from that of one’s home country?




                                                                                   5
   How do the host nationals’ self-perceptions of identity challenge
    and impact a guest’s own development?




                                                                        6
  Table demonstrating similarities in the stages of the following models:



Bennett’s Intercultural        Minority Identity               White Identity
     Sensitivity            Development (Atkinson,          Development (Helms
                                 Morten, Sue)                 and Hardiman)



Devptl Model of Denial (don’t       Defense       Minimization           Acceptance               Adaptation
IC Sensitivity  believe in          Isolation…    ..separation....       (of cultural             ……
(Bennett)       cultural                                                 differences..
                change…



Minority Ident.   Conformity                 Dissonance              Resistance &          Introspection
Devpt model       (accepting, w/o       (beginning to struggle)       Immersion            (struggle of self-
(Atkinson,        examination)                                       (with symbols         awareness)
Morten and Sue)   White                                              of one’s racial
                  superiority                                           identity)

White Ident.      Acceptance (of               Resistance                        Redefinition
Devpt model       White             (first becoming aware of White     (attempting to redefine Whitenes
(Helms &          superiority)                  identity)
Hardiman)




                                                                                       7
   10. Presenters’ Biographies
          a. Kimberly Cressy

EDUCATION
M.A. International Education, School for International Training, Brattleboro, VT May 2004
Concentration: Education Exchange Management
B.A. Communications, Boston College, Boston, MA, May 1996
Minor: Germanic Studies and study abroad in Salzburg, Austria

PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE
University Relations Manager
SIT Study Abroad, Brattleboro, VT August--December 2004


                                                                  evelopment initiatives.

Program Coordinator for Latin America & the Caribbean region
SIT Study Abroad, Brattleboro, VT 2003-2004


                    nistrative and logistical services to students.


Group Leader
Experiment in International Living, Summers 2003 and 2004
                                                                     Chile and Ecuador.
                                 -cultural, and re-entry orientations.
                                                                  -learning programs.

Program and Research Assistant
Stanford University, Overseas Resource Center, Summer 2002



Program Assistant / Youth Advocate
BRIDGES/World PULSE, San Francisco, California, 2001 . 2002
                                      , service-learning projects for Bay Area non-profit.

               -income youth on intercultural and community leadership programs.

Fair Trade Educator
Global Exchange Fair Trade Craft Store, San Francisco, California, January 2001-June 2001



English Teacher
Harmon Hall, Oaxaca, Mexico, February 2000 -November 2000



CONFERENCES AND PRESENTATIONS
Graduate Capstone: Race and its impact among US Americans Studying Abroad, presented at
the School for International Training, May 2004.
Session: Intercultural Theory and Racial Identity Development in Study Abroad, accepted for
presentation at NAFSA’.s national conference, June 2005.



                                                                                              8
Papers Dialogue: .Ethical Considerations in Increasing Access to Students of Color, accepted for
presentation at the SIT 40th Anniversary Conference

            b. Martha Merrill
        Martha Merrill, who holds degrees in Russian literature, Creative Writing,
Higher Education Administration, and Islamic Studies, is an Associate Professor
at the School for International Training, where she teaches Intercultural
Communication as well as international education courses. She has been
involved in international education professionally for more than 20 years, at
institutions including Rockland Community College, the County College of Morris,
the New College for Global Studies at Radford University, International House
(New York), the American University – Central Asia, and the Inner Asian and
Uralic National Resource Center at Indiana University. While at the County
College of Morris, she received seven international education grants from the
State of New Jersey and later compiled an index of all of the international
education grants given by the state during the Kean administration.
        From 1996-2001, Dr. Merrill worked on university reform in Kyrgyzstan.
Her Fulbright to Kyrgyzstan was renewed twice, for the maximum time allowable,
a total of three years. She later became the academic vice president at the (then)
American University in Kyrgyzstan (now AUCA). In September 2000, she was
awarded a Certificate of Honor for Service to the Kyrgyz Republic by President
Askar Akayev. After her return to the US, she and David Mould received one of
the first nine Fulbright Alumni/ae grants ever given, for a project linking students
at Ohio University and at the American University in Kyrgyzstan in a problem-
based learning course assisting NGOs in Kyrgyzstan. She currently runs the
“Kyrgyzstan News” Internet news list for 60+ members.
        Dr. Merrill is a member of the Board of the International Partnership for
Service-Learning and Leadership, with which she has been associated since its
founding, and is secretary of the Board of the Alliance of Universities for
Democracy, an alliance of reforming universities in East and Central Europe,
Russia, and Eurasia, and the US universities that work with them.
        She has studied at the Summer Institute for Intercultural Communication,
completed the requirements of its Intercultural Foundations Certificate, and is
certified to give the Intercultural Development Inventory.

            c. Peggy Pusch
Margaret D. (Peggy) Pusch is the Associate Director of the Intercultural
Communication Institute in Portland, Oregon, USA, which sponsors the Summer
Institute for Intercultural Communication and a Master’s programme with the
University of the Pacific.
        Peggy is on the faculty of SIIC, a cross-cultural trainer and consultant, and
an author and editor. Her overseas living experience was in Japan, but she
travels abroad frequently to conduct training or present at conferences and
seminars. She co-founded and was President of the Intercultural Press, Inc., for
over 15 years. Prior to that, Peggy was the programme coordinator at the
International Student Center at Syracuse University,



                                                                                               9
       Peggy received the Senior Interculturalist Award from the International
Society for Intercultural Education, Training, and Research in 1988, the Tribute to
Women in Industry Award from the YMCA, Portland, Maine, in 1992, and the
Outstanding Leadership in International Education Award from Region VIII of
NAFSA: Association of International Educators in 1994. She was honoured at the
2003 conference of the European Association for International Educators (EAIE)
in Vienna, Austria.
       Peggy has been President of NAFSA: Association of International
Educators, the Society for Intercultural Education, Training, and Research, The
Portland Stage Company (an equity theatre), and the Spurwink School (which
serves developmentally challenged children). She is currently Chair of the Board
of Trustees of the International Partnership for Service-Learning and Leadership
and serves on the board of the Association for International Practical Training.
       Jeannine Hermans and Peggy Pusch have conducted training courses for
the SAFSA Professional Section of the European Association for International
Education (EAIE) for over seven years.

           d. Ken Williams
Kenneth Williams, who has a certificate of Education and a BA from the
University of the West Indies, and Master's degrees from London School of
Economics and Columbia University, is completing his doctorate in Organization
and Leadership at Columbia University. He is degree chair of Social Justice in
Intercultural Relations and an assistant professor at SIT, where he teaches
courses in Social Identity, Research Methods, Organizational Behavior and
Multicultural Team Effectiveness, Organizational Behavior and Leadership, and
Multicultural Organizational Development. In his course on Social Identity he
explores the intrapersonal and interpersonal aspects of oppression. In this
course he pays particular attention to the Social Construction of Identity and
examines the form this takes from a Global level. He also gets students to
investigate how the various “ISMS” including race impact oneself and others.
There is a deep analysis of the various Racial Identity Models and how they
apply to students’ everyday interactions. Currently he is working on developing
diversity competencies for an international graduate program and the formulation
of curriculum activities to ensure students and faculty acquire designated
diversity competencies. Williams has been involved in diversity training and
workshops on racism and other Social Justice Issues in the Netherlands, and in
the United States. His doctoral dissertation, which focuses on Leadership and
School Violence in a School District in Massachusetts, United States, takes a
look at how racial relations contribute to the problem of school violence.




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