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```					Other Regression Models

Andy Wang
CIS 5930-03
Computer Systems
Performance Analysis
Regression With
Categorical Predictors
• Regression methods discussed so far
assume numerical variables
• What if some of your variables are
categorical in nature?
• If all are categorical, use techniques
discussed later in the course
• Levels - number of values a category
can take

2
Handling
Categorical Predictors
• If only two levels, define bi as follows
– bi = 0 for first value
– bi = 1 for second value
• This definition is missing from book in
section 15.2
• Can use +1 and -1 as values, instead
• Need k-1 predictor variables for k levels
– To avoid implying order in categories

3
Categorical Variables
Example
• Which is a better predictor of a high
rating in the movie database,
– winning an Oscar,
– winning the Golden Palm at Cannes, or
– winning the New York Critics Circle?

4
Choosing Variables
• Categories are not mutually exclusive
• x1= 1 if Oscar
0 if otherwise
• x2= 1 if Golden Palm
0 if otherwise
• x3= 1 if Critics Circle Award
0 if otherwise
• y = b0+b1 x1+b2 x2+b3 x3
5
A Few Data Points
Title                   Rating Oscar Palm NYC
Gentleman’s Agreement    7.5   X          X
Mutiny on the Bounty     7.6   X
Marty                    7.4   X     X    X
If                       7.8         X
La Dolce Vita            8.1         X
Kagemusha                8.2         X
The Defiant Ones         7.5              X
Reds                     6.6              X
High Noon                8.1              X

6
And Regression Says . . .
• y  7.8  .1x1  .2x2  .4 x3
ˆ
• How good is that?
• R2 is 34% of variation
– Better than age and length
– But still no great shakes
• Are regression parameters significant at
90% level?

7
Curvilinear Regression
• Linear regression assumes a linear
relationship between predictor and
response
• What if it isn’t linear?
• You need to fit some other type of
function to the relationship

8
When To Use
Curvilinear Regression
• Easiest to tell by sight
• Make a scatter plot
– If plot looks non-linear, try curvilinear
regression
• Or if non-linear relationship is suspected
for other reasons
• Relationship should be convertible to a
linear form

9
Types of
Curvilinear Regression
• Many possible types, based on a variety
of relationships:
– y  ax
b

–y ab x
– y  ab x
• Many others

10
Transform Them
to Linear Forms
• Apply logarithms, multiplication,
division, whatever to produce something
in linear form
• I.e., y = a + b*something
• Or a similar form
• If predictor appears in more than one
transformed predictor variable,
correlation likely!

11
Sample Transformations
• For y = aebx, take logarithm of y
– ln(y) = ln(a) + bx
– y’ = ln(y), b0 = ln(a), b1 = b
– Do regression on y’ = b0+b1x
• For y = a+b ln(x),
– t(x) = ex
– Do regression on y = a + bln(t(x))

12
Sample Transformations
• For y = axb, take log of both x and y
– ln(y) = ln(a) + bln(x)
– y’ = ln(y), b0 = ln(a), b1 = b, t(x) = ex
– Do regression on y’ = b0 + b1ln(t(x))

13
Corrections to Jain p. 257
Nonlinear                  Linear
y  a  b / t ( x), t ( x)  1 / x
y  a b/ x

y  1/(a  bx)        y'  a  bx, y'  1 / y
y  x /(a  bx)       y'  a  bx, y'  x / y
y'  b0  b1 x, y'  ln y,
y  ab   x

b0  ln a, b1  ln b
ln x

y  a  bx     n   y  a  bt ( x) n , t ( x)  e    n

14
Transform Them
to Linear Forms
• If predictor appears in more than one
transformed predictor variable,
correlation likely!
• For y = a + b(x_1 . x_2 + x_2) take log of both
x and y
– ln(y) = ln(a) + x_1 x_2 ln(b) + x_2 ln(b)

15
General Transformations
• Use some function of response variable
y in place of y itself
• Curvilinear regression is one example
• But techniques are more generally
applicable

16
When To Transform?
• If known properties of measured system
suggest it
• If data’s range covers several orders of
magnitude
• If homogeneous variance assumption of
residuals (homoscedasticity) is violated

17
Transforming Due To
Homoscedasticity
• If spread of scatter plot of residual vs.
predicted response isn’t homogeneous,
• Then residuals are still functions of the
predictor variables
• Transformation of response may solve
the problem

18
What Transformation
To Use?
• Compute standard deviation of residuals
at each y_hat
– Assume multiple residuals at each predicted
value
• Plot as function of mean of observations
– Assuming multiple experiments for single
set of predictor values
• Check for linearity: if linear, use a log
transform
19
Other Tests for
Transformations
• If variance against mean of
observations is linear, use square-root
transform
• If standard deviation against mean
squared is linear, use inverse (1/y)
transform
• If standard deviation against mean to a
power is linear, use power transform
• More covered in the book
20
General Transformation
Principle
For some observed relation between
standard deviation and mean, s  g (y )

1
let h( y )         dy
g(y )
transform to w  h(y )

and regress on w
21
Example: Log
Transformation
• If standard deviation against mean is
linear, then s  g ( y)  ay

So
1
h( y )      dy  a ln y
ay

22
Confidence Intervals
for Nonlinear Regressions
• For nonlinear fits using general (e.g.,
exponential) transformations:
– Confidence intervals apply to transformed
parameters
– Not valid to perform inverse transformation
on intervals (which assume normality)
– Must express confidence intervals in
transformed domain

23
Outliers
• Atypical observations might be outliers
– Measurements that are not truly
characteristic
– By chance, several standard deviations out
– Or mistakes might have been made in
measurement
• Which leads to a problem:
Do you include outliers in analysis or
not?

24
Deciding
How To Handle Outliers
1. Find them (by looking at scatter plot)
2. Check carefully for experimental error
3. Repeat experiments at predictor values
for each outlier
4. Decide whether to include or omit
outliers
– Or do analysis both ways
Question: Is first point in last lecture’s
example an outlier on rating vs. age plot?
25
Rating vs. Age
9.0

8.5

8.0

Rating 7.5
7.0

6.5

6.0
0     20   40    60   80
Age
26
Common Mistakes
in Regression
• Generally based on taking shortcuts
• Or not being careful
• Or not understanding some
fundamental principle of statistics

27
Not Verifying Linearity
• Draw the scatter plot
• If it’s not linear, check for curvilinear
possibilities
• Misleading to use linear regression
when relationship isn’t linear

28
Relying on Results
Without Visual Verification
• Always check scatter plot as part of
regression
– Examine predicted line vs. actual points
• Particularly important if regression is
done automatically

29
Some Nonlinear Examples

30
Attaching Importance
To Values of Parameters
• Numerical values of regression parameters
depend on scale of predictor variables
• So just because a parameter’s value seems
“large,” not an indication of importance
• E.g., converting seconds to microseconds
doesn’t change anything fundamental
– But magnitude of associated parameter
changes

31
Not Specifying
Confidence Intervals
• Samples of observations are random
• Thus, regression yields parameters with
random properties
• Without confidence interval, impossible
to understand what a parameter really
means

32
Not Calculating Coefficient
of Determination
• Without R2, difficult to determine how
much of variance is explained by the
regression
• Even if R2 looks good, safest to also
perform an F-test
• Not that much extra effort

33
Using Coefficient of
Correlation Improperly
• Coefficient of determination is R2
• Coefficient of correlation is R
• R2 gives percentage of variance
explained by regression, not R
• E.g., if R is .5, R2 is .25
– And regression explains 25% of variance
– Not 50%!

34
Using Highly Correlated
Predictor Variables
• If two predictor variables are highly
regression
• E.g., likely to be correlation between an
executable’s on-disk and in-core sizes
– So don’t use both as predictors of run time
• Means you need to understand your
predictor variables as well as possible

35
Using Regression Beyond
Range of Observations
• Regression is based on observed
behavior in a particular sample
• Most likely to predict accurately within
range of that sample
– Far outside the range, who knows?
• E.g., regression on run time of
executables < memory size may not
predict performance of executables >
memory size
36
Using Too Many
Predictor Variables
• Adding more predictors does not
necessarily improve model!
• More likely to run into multicollinearity
problems
• So what variables to choose?
– Subject of much of this course

37
Measuring Too Little
of the Range
• Regression only predicts well near
range of observations
• If you don’t measure commonly used
range, regression won’t predict much
• E.g., if many programs are bigger than
main memory, only measuring those
that are smaller is a mistake

38
Assuming Good Predictor
Is a Good Controller
• Correlation isn’t necessarily control
• Just because variable A is related to
variable B, you may not be able to control
values of B by varying A
• E.g., if number of hits on a Web page
correlated to server bandwidth, but might
not boost hits by increasing bandwidth
• Often, a goal of regression is finding
control variables
39
White Slide

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 views: 0 posted: 3/22/2013 language: English pages: 40