Introduction to Organic Molecules (Biochemistry)
The Molecule of Life
1. “Organic” means a molecule contains: CARBON
a. Exceptions CO2 and CO (Carbond Dioxide/Carbon Monoxide)
b. Organic food-no pesticides
c. Organic means “living”
d. Contain carbon and are found in living tissue
(Carbs, Proteins and Lipids are examples)
“Inorganic” means a non-carbon based molecule
2. Since Carbon has 4 valence electrons it can make 4 bonds.
Carbon loves to bond
Carbon can form long chains or rings
3. These bonds allow it to make long chains and rings
4. Carbons with different elements joins to make MACROMOLECULES
or larger molecules.
4 MAJOR types of Macromolecules/Organic Molecules
d) Nucleic Acids
Functional Groups- A group of atoms that react in predictable ways.
When you add stuff to the sides you make a different molecule
5. POLYMER AND MONOMER
Polymerization-the stringing together of small molecule units in order
to make a larger molecule
Many of the macromolecules are made of repeating small units called
Dimer-two molecular units joined together
When the monomer units come together they make long chains called
“Poly”=more than one
Dehydration Synthesis-each time a monomer is added to a chain water
must be removed.
“Synthesis”-means to make something
Hydrolysis -water MUST be added to break down a polymer
- “Hydro”-means water
- “ lysis”-means to break
“Hydrolysis”-The process by which water is added to break down the chains