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Assessment-Driven Instruction - Curry School of Education

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					Assessment-Driven
    Instruction
Models of Reading Assessment
Models of Reading Assessment

        Deficit Model
Models of Reading Assessment

        Deficit Model

        Contextual Model
Models of Reading Assessment

        Deficit Model

        Contextual Model

        Stage Models
Models of Reading Assessment

        Deficit Model

        Contextual Model

        Stage Models

        Cognitive Model
The Cognitive Model
        of
Reading Assessment
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Is the child able to read texts
at his or her grade placement
level with automatic word
recognition and adequate
expression?
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Does the child make use of
context to monitor his or her
reading?
Before we go any further, let’s do a
brief sidebar on context. The role of
context in reading has long been a
controversial topic. Two competing
models of the reading process have
described this role very differently. We
will refer to these models as the Top-
Down and Bottom-Up models. Lets’
take a quick look at each.
Two Models of
  Reading
She combed her hair.
She combed her hair.
She combed her hair.
  Top-Down Model of Reading

 Brain cannot rapidly process print.

 Reader predicts the next word.

 Reader merely samples the print.

 Reader slows down if prediction is wrong.
She combed her
She combed her b
She combed her bangs.
She combed her bangs.
  Bottom-Up Model of Reading

 Brain processes almost every letter.

 Most of this processing is automatic.

 Reader does not need to predict words.

 Reader uses context for multiple meanings.
         Conclusion:
Research has clearly supported the
       Bottom-Up Model.
Is the child fluent?
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Does the child have adequate
sight word knowledge?


                  the
                  of
                  go
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Does the child have adequate
knowledge of decoding
strategies?
                 b
                 l
                 m ake
                 t
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Does the child have adequate
phonological awareness?
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Is the child able to comprehend
the language of the text?
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Does the child have an adequate
vocabulary for his or her age
and grade?      blue     wise
                   equator
                weary arrive Pacific
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Does the child have the
background knowledge
necessary to understand the
particular passage that he or
she is reading?
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Is the child able to use common
text structures to aid in
comprehension?
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Does the child have adequate
knowledge of the purposes for
reading and possess strategies
available to achieve those
purposes?
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Does the child have a set of
strategies that can be used to
achieve different purposes in
reading?
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
What does the child view as the
goal of reading in general?
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
Phonological                       Sight Word     Fluency
                    Decoding
 Awareness                         Knowledge     & Context



                                                  Automatic
                                                    Word
           Vocabulary                             Recognition


                               Background          Language        Reading
                               Knowledge         Comprehension   Comprehension
           Knowledge
           of Structure
                                                    Strategic
                                                   Knowledge



 Print             General           Specific    Knowledge
Concepts           Purposes          Purposes    of Strategies
                 for Reading       for Reading   for Reading
What concepts of print does the
child have?
What is the
Literacy Coach’s
role in reading
assessment?
    An LC’s Many Assessment Caps


   Tester
   Interpreter
   Profiler
   Cheerleader
   Booster
                 LC as Tester

 The LC will be part of the Assessment Team.

 The LC may administer diagnostic tests.
                LC as Interpreter
 The LC may be asked to interpret schoolwide achievement
  scores when they arrive.

 The LC will need to be able to reach sound conclusions about
  trends.

 These conclusions will need to communicated with honesty and
  tact.
              ITBS Percentile Ranks for Grade 3

       School     Last Year  This Year  Difference
_______________________________________________________

      Morristown         45             41        -4

      Harmony            57             62        +5

      District           49             51        +2

      State              48             50        +2
   Three Common Problems of Interpreting
      Group Achievement Test Scores


1. Misinterpreting of percentiles
2. Assuming that different groups of
   children are equivalent
3. Confusing achievement with norms
              ITBS Percentile Ranks for Grade 3

       School     Last Year  This Year  Difference
_______________________________________________________

      Morristown         45             41        -4

      Harmony            57             62        +5

      District           49             51        +2

      State              48             50        +2
Percentiles and Football

   G                  50              G




   Avoid differences in percentile ranks.
     Use NCEs or stanines instead.
  How NCEs are made




NCEs “flatten” the normal curve so that
differences are statistically equivalent.
      Interpreting Stanines


                               {
                                   9
Above Average   Stanines 7-9       8
                                   7
Borderline      Stanine 6          6
Average         Stanine 5          5
Borderline      Stanine 4          4



                               {
                                   3
Below Average   Stanines 1-3       2
                                   1
   Three Common Problems of Interpreting
      Group Achievement Test Scores


1. Misinterpreting of percentiles
2. Assuming that different groups of
   children are equivalent
3. Confusing achievement with norms
Test Scores and Auto Racing
             LC as Profiler
 The LC should present teachers with classroom
  profiles of test results.
 Such profiles might use a spreadsheet format.
 The point is to influence instruction!
 This means:
    Discussing options.
    Monitoring outcomes.
                                  Sample Excel File

       A               B         C       D             E          F        G   H
1    Student       Teacher   Grade   Terra Nova   Sep DIBELS Sep DIBELS
                                      Comp NS      ORF Level WC/Minute
2   Doe, Jane        Ellis    3        4             Low           52
3   Hall, Monte      Ellis    3        5                   Low    60
4   Perez, Juan      Ellis    3        1             High              8
5   Rogers, Fred     Ellis    3        5                   Low    61
6   Ruth, Babe       Ellis    3        7                Low      135
7   Yopp, Hallie    Ellis     3        3           Some            39
                LC as Cheerleader
   Look for the silver lining.
   Interpret test results intelligently.
   Focus on what your teachers are doing right!
   Offer constructive suggestions.
   Don’t avoid unpleasant truths.
                 LC as Booster

    Understand AYP requirements.
    Do your best to make sure classroom         instruction
     is data-driven. This is the very       best way to
     improve scores.
    Cautiously consider additional steps in light of
    1.   Ethical issues
    2.   Likelihood of effectiveness
    3.   Possible threat to professional climate.
How Can DIBELS
Drive Instruction?
?
How do we use DIBELS
to drive instruction at a
      grade level?
           Sample Beginning-of-Year
             DIBELS Distribution

Test        K            1           2           3
       A    S   L   A    S   L   A   S   L   A   S   L

ISF    7    23 70
LNF    3 10 87      5 15 80
PSF                 20 26 54
NWF                 18   20 62
ORF                              18 20 62 22 22 56
           Sample Beginning-of-Year
             DIBELS Distribution

Test        K            1           2           3
       A    S   L   A    S   L   A   S   L   A   S   L

ISF    7    23 70
LNF    3 10 87      5 15 80
PSF                 20 26 54
NWF                 18   20 62
ORF                              18 20 62 22 22 56
           Sample Beginning-of-Year
             DIBELS Distribution

Test        K            1           2           3
       A    S   L   A    S   L   A   S   L   A   S   L

ISF    7    23 70
LNF    3 10 87      5 15 80
PSF                 20 26 54
NWF                 18   20 62
ORF                              18 20 62 22 22 56
           Sample Beginning-of-Year
             DIBELS Distribution

Test        K            1           2           3
       A    S   L   A    S   L   A   S   L   A   S   L

ISF    7    23 70
LNF    3 10 87      5 15 80
PSF                 20 26 54
NWF                 18   20 62
ORF                              18 20 62 22 22 56
           Sample Beginning-of-Year
             DIBELS Distribution

Test        K            1           2           3
       A    S   L   A    S   L   A   S   L   A   S   L

ISF    7    23 70
LNF    3 10 87      5 15 80
PSF                 20 26 54
NWF                 18   20 62
ORF                              18 20 62 22 22 56
           Sample Beginning-of-Year
             DIBELS Distribution

Test        K            1           2           3
       A    S   L   A    S   L   A   S   L   A   S   L

ISF    7    23 70
LNF    3 10 87      5 15 80
PSF                 20 26 54
NWF                 18   20 62
ORF                              18 20 62 22 22 56
           Sample Beginning-of-Year
             DIBELS Distribution

Test        K            1           2           3
       A    S   L   A    S   L   A   S   L   A   S   L

ISF    7    23 70
LNF    3 10 87      5 15 80
PSF                 20 26 54
NWF                 18   20 62
ORF                              18 20 62 22 22 56
           Sample Beginning-of-Year
             DIBELS Distribution

Test        K            1           2           3
       A    S   L   A    S   L   A   S   L   A   S   L

ISF    7    23 70
LNF    3 10 87      5 15 80
PSF                 20 26 54
NWF                 18   20 62
ORF                              18 20 62 22 22 56
           Sample Beginning-of-Year
             DIBELS Distribution

Test        K            1           2           3
       A    S   L   A    S   L   A   S   L   A   S   L

ISF    7    23 70
LNF    3 10 87      5 15 80
PSF                 20 26 54
NWF                 18   20 62
ORF                              18 20 62 22 22 56
           Sample Beginning-of-Year
             DIBELS Distribution

Test        K            1           2           3
       A    S   L   A    S   L   A   S   L   A   S   L

ISF    7    23 70
LNF    3 10 87      5 15 80
PSF                 20 26 54
NWF                 18   20 62
ORF                              18 20 62 22 22 56
      An Action Plan for DIBELS
1. Make a table for fall, including results at the three levels of risk,
     for each grade and test.
2. Identify points where large numbers of children are at high and
     moderate risk.
3. Discuss the “big picture” with teachers in grade groups.
4. Make clear to everyone that a central goal is to move all children
     into the low risk category.
5. Meet with individual teachers to plan for intervention and
     progress monitoring.
Beware of comparing
  groups from two
   different years!
    Hamilton Elementary

   PreK-5, 622 students
   96.9% African American
   89.2% Free or Reduced-Price Lunch
   27th Percentile Rank in Reading, Grade 3
   30th Percentile Rank in Reading, Grade 4
   24th Percentile Rank in Reading, Grade 5
   16% Annual Teacher Turnover
   Serves 3 Housing Projects
   Serves 2 Homeless Shelters
Table 1. End-of-Year Kindergarten DIBELS Results over Two Years
_______________________________________________________
Subtest              Year 1                      Year 2
              ___________________         __________________
              At     Some       Low      At      Some     Low
_______________________________________________________

LNF          6        11       83        6        17       77

PSF          11       45       45        8        48       44

NWF         7      12      82       5       12      84
_______________________________________________________
  Table 2. End-of-Year Grade 1 DIBELS Results over Two Years
_______________________________________________________
Subtest              Year 1                     Year 2
              ___________________        __________________
              At     Some       Low     At      Some     Low
_______________________________________________________

PSF          1       12      87        0       15       85

NWF          1       35      63        0       29       71

ORF         9      30      61       4       28      68
_______________________________________________________
  Table 3. End-of-Year Grade 2 DIBELS Results over Two Years
_______________________________________________________
Subtest              Year 1                     Year 2
              ___________________        __________________
              At     Some       Low     At      Some     Low
_______________________________________________________

ORF         19     24      57       24     34      41
_______________________________________________________
  Table 4. End-of-Year Grade 3 DIBELS Results over Two Years
_______________________________________________________
Subtest              Year 1                     Year 2
              ___________________        __________________
              At     Some       Low     At      Some     Low
_______________________________________________________

ORF         11     31      58       34     42      24
_______________________________________________________
Table 5. Changes in Percentage of Children at High or Moderate Risk
________________________________________________________
Grade         Subtest                 Year 1        Year 2
                                  ___________ __________
                                    B       E      B      E
_______________________________________________________

 K             LNF                  7      17     27     23
               PSF                 71      56     64     56
               NWF                 10      19     20     17
 1             PSF                 54      13     61     15
               NWF                 18      36     15     29
               ORF                 21      39     18     32
  2            ORF                 33      43     62     58
  3          ORF              21    42    67    76
_______________________________________________________
It’s better to track cohorts.
It’s better to track cohorts.
3
2
1
K
    B    M       E   B     M      E
        Year 1           Year 2
It’s better to track cohorts.
3
2
1
K
    B    M       E   B     M      E
        Year 1           Year 2
It’s better to track cohorts.
3
2
1
K
    B    M       E   B     M      E
        Year 1           Year 2
It’s better to track cohorts.
3
2
1
K
    B    M       E   B     M      E
        Year 1           Year 2
It’s better to track cohorts.
3
2
1
K
    B    M       E   B     M      E
        Year 1           Year 2
It’s better to track cohorts.
3
2
1
K
    B    M       E   B     M      E
        Year 1           Year 2
It’s better to track cohorts.
3
2
1
K
    B    M       E   B     M      E
        Year 1           Year 2
K   1   2   3
B   M   E   B   M   E   B   M   E   B   M   E


    K           1           2           3
 Table 6. Long-Term NWF DIBELS Cohort Results for Grades K-1
________________________________________________________
                                 Middle of      End of
                                  Year 1        Year 2
________________________________________________________
Mean Number of Letter Sounds          29.1           66.8
Goal                                  13             50
Percentage at High or Moderate Risk   10             29
________________________________________________________
B   M   E   B   M   E   B   M   E   B   M   E


    K           1           2           3
 Table 7. Long-Term ORF DIBELS Cohort Results for Grades 2-3
________________________________________________________
                                 Middle of      End of
                                  Year 1        Year 2
________________________________________________________
Mean WPM Correctly Read               61.7           90.0
Goal                                   44            110
Percentage at High or Moderate Risk    33            76
________________________________________________________
How do we use DIBELS
to drive instruction in a
      classroom?
Start with the
Class Profile!
Class Summary

1st Grade: Beginning Benchmark

 Name                      LNF                PSF                 NWF
                    SCORE STATUS PCTILE SCORE STATUS PCTILE SCORE STATUS PCTILE
INTENSIVE
 Poe, Edgar Allan    19    HIGH    5        40 ESTAB    65        8        HIGH    13


STRATEGIC
 Blass, Bill          31    SOME 27          44 ESTAB    83       22        SOME    4
 Borden, Liz         32    SOME 28          42 ESTAB     72       22       SOME    40
 Tell, Wm.            40    LOW        48    27 EMERG 28              6    HIGH
 Trump, Don          31    SOME     27       28 ESTAB    29       12 SOME          20


BENCHMARK
 Doe, Jane            37     LOW    39       29 EMERG        30       36    LOW    72
DIBELS Box-and-Whisker Plot

         95th Percentile Rank

         80th Percentile Rank


         50th Percentile Rank



         20th Percentile Rank (May need support)

         5th Percentile Rank (May need intensive support)
70

60

50

40

30

20

10




      Mon 1   Mon 2   Mon 3   Mon 4   Mon 5   Mon 6   Mon 7   Mon 8   Mon 9   Mon 10



     Sample Plot for Phoneme Segmentation Fluency
         Benchmark range for end of K

Benchmark range for middle of K


70

60

50

40

30

20

10




      Mon 1   Mon 2   Mon 3   Mon 4   Mon 5   Mon 6   Mon 7   Mon 8   Mon 9   Mon 10



     Sample Plot for Phoneme Segmentation Fluency
         Benchmark range for end of K

Benchmark range for middle of K


70

60

50

40

30

20

10




      Mon 1   Mon 2   Mon 3   Mon 4   Mon 5   Mon 6   Mon 7   Mon 8   Mon 9   Mon 10



     Sample Plot for Phoneme Segmentation Fluency
A Data-Driven Model

            Key Assumptions
1. An SBRR core is in place.

2. The core offers additional materials for
   children who are slightly behind.

3. SBRR Intensive Intervention Programs
   (outside the core) are available for each of the
   5 component areas.
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention
                DIBELS Benchmark Test


 Low Risk              Some Risk             At Risk


   Core                  Core +           Core +
                    Small-Group Intensive
                  Core Intervention Intervention

   Core           Core Intervention    Intervention
Assessments          Assessments           Assessments


            DIBELS Progress Monitoring

 Discontinue     Yes                  No     Continue
 Intervention          Low Risk?           Intervention

				
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