Paleolithic Man

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					Paleolithic Man

Lived in caves or shelters made from animal hides, etc NO
ORGANIZED CITIES
Gov’t: probably chief (strongest man wins the leadership role)
Religion: Mother Earth Cult, natural forces were controlled by
some god
FIRE!!!!!!!!!!! CHECK YOUR GRAPHIC ORGANIZER
Hunters and gatherers ------NOMADIC
Cave drawings: use of pigments, minerals and berries to make
different colors
TOOLS : made from wood, stone, bone, sinew i.e. Flint for
weapons and making fire, or needles made from bone
Geography: be close to food and water
Legacy: Fire, tools, etc
Ranged from 2million – 8,000 BC
LAST BIG ICE AGE



Neolithic Man

8000BC- apr. 3500-4000 BC
Lived at first in villages, then later towards 3500 BC the first city states
were formed

Houses made of mud brick (mud, water, straw)

FARMING REVOLUTION (stable and steady food supply)

Irrigation, farm, trade: THE BEGINNINGS OF AN ECONOMY!!!!!!!!!

1st civ. Started around 3500BC

Domestication + Cultivation + Specialization = Civilization

Polytheistic religion (many gods) also places of worship were built

Gov’t: kings and local leaders helped the people make laws live by,
create armies, provide for the common good and welfare of the people

Use of copper and tin for tools and weapons ( this will later be made
into the alloy BRONZE)

Social classes: start to emerge

Geography: settle alongside good water source for fertile soil and clean
water for the people



SUMERIANS ( MESOPOTAMIA) southern part of Mesopotamia near
Persian Gulf

WRITING!!!!!!!! Cuneiform ( mud tablets with wedge like markings)

City- states : THINK CELL STRUCTURE- SEE NOTES!!!!!

Gov’t: rulled by kings and queens with the scribes to assist ( scribes
could read and write!)
Religion: POLYTHEISTIC : many gods representative of the natural forces

The Ziggurat was the temple in the center of the city-state



Social Classes: Kings and queens, priests =1st scribes, artisans, farmers,
soldiers, etc =2nd slaves and peasants = 3rd

Arts and architecture: EPIC OF GILGAMESH, pottery metal-working,
weavers/ built palaces and walled cities

Technology: wheel, irrigation, number system, calendar, plow and
sailboat

SARGON--- created the first Empire



Babylonians/ Chaldeans

“N” was the king ( built the hanging gardens for his wife)

Hammurabi : Babylonian King that created the first law code (282)

BABYLON: capital city, great wall surrounding it, ISHTAR GATE

Major trade on the rivers Tigris and Euphrates – helped to build their
economy

Religion: Same as the other Mesopotamian city-states

Assyrians:

Cities- Nineveh (capital) similar to Sumer

Government- king, ministers, scribes, Divided empire into provinces
Religion- similar to Sumer

Job Specialization- similar to Sumer

Social Classes- same

Arts and Architecture- built first library in Ninevah

Public works same

Writing- cuneiform

Geography- northern Mesopotamia (empire stretched from Persian
Gulf, to Asia Minor, to Egypt).

Legacy- iron weapons and tools, well organized army (infantry, cavalry,
artillery).

Hittites-

Introduced iron weapons and tools

All other characteristics were similar to Sumerians

Egyptians-

Cities- houses made of stone and mud brick, palaces, temples, markets,
roads (Thebes, Memphis, Giza, etc…)

Government- Monarchy (Pharaoh), ministers, priests

Religion- Polytheistic, then monotheistic (Aton), then polytheistic again
(king Tut). Afterlife, Re, Anubis, Osiris, Isis, Hapi. Ritualistic burial,
mummification, temples, Book of the Dead, Pyramids, etc….

Job specialization- embalmer, papyrus, et al
Social Classes- Upper Class= Pharaoh, Nobility, priests; Middle- scribe,
soldier, farmer, merchant; Lower- Peasants and slaves.

Arts and Architecture- pyramids, Valley of the Kings, Sphinx, temples,
etc…

Public Works- pyramids, temples, roads, fortifications, etc…

Writing- Heiroglyphics, Book of the Dead

Geography- protected by four natural barriers

     1.   North- Mediterranean/ Nile Delta
     2.   South- Cataracts
     3.   East- Arabian Desert and Red Sea
     4.   West- Sahara and Libyan Desert

Legacy- embalming, pyramids, medicine, engineering, math,
astronomy, religion

				
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posted:3/22/2013
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