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					 BUMPER BOOK OF
LANDESKUNDE: FIVE




'SAME PROCEDURE AS
    EVERY YEAR'
          by
  CHRISTOPHER HARVIE
                                                             2



                                                    CONTENTS

0. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 3
   0.1. WHAT IS LANDESKUNDE?....................................................................................... 4
   0.2. A PIECE OF AUTOBIOGRAPHY, SEE ALSO WWW.INTELLIGENT-MR-TOAD.DE ........... 5
1. GOALS AND RESOURCES ..................................................................................... 6
   1.1. STARTING AT THE END, OR GETTING A JOB ............................................................ 6
   1.2. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES .............................................................................. 7
   1.3. THE LANDESKUNDE MENU ..................................................................................... 8
      1.3.1. Lehramt........................................................................................................... 8
      1.3.2. Bachelor ......................................................................................................... 9
      1.3.3. Master............................................................................................................. 9
      1.3.4. Magister........................................................................................................ 10
      1.3.5. Internationale Volkswirtschaftslehre ........................................................... 11
   1.4. RESOURCE INFORMATION ..................................................................................... 12
      1.4.1. Books ............................................................................................................ 12
      1.4.2. Encyclopaedias............................................................................................. 13
      1.4.3. Contemporary Periodicals ........................................................................... 14
      1.4.4. Statistics........................................................................................................ 14
      1.4.5. Mediothek (http://www.medabt.de) .............................................................. 14
2. STUDY....................................................................................................................... 15
   2.1. LECTURES ............................................................................................................. 15
   2.2. SEMINARS, AND THE WELSH STUDIES CENTRE ..................................................... 16
   2.3. PREPARING REFERATS .......................................................................................... 16
      2.3.1. Dos and Don'ts ............................................................................................. 17
      2.3.2. Tackling a Subject ........................................................................................ 18
   2.4. WRITING AN ENGLISH LANDESKUNDE ESSAY (HAUSARBEIT) .............................. 19
      2.4.1. Planning Your Essay .................................................................................... 19
      2.4.2. Note-Taking .................................................................................................. 21
      2.4.3. Books to Consult........................................................................................... 22
      2.4.4. Writing a Draft ............................................................................................. 23
      2.4.5. References and Essay Length ....................................................................... 24
      2.4.7. Not Just Material for a Schein...................................................................... 25
      2.5. Examinations ................................................................................................... 25
      2.5.1. Written Examination (Klausur) .................................................................... 26
      2.5.2. Oral Examination (Mündliche Prüfung) (altered) ....................................... 26
3. PECULIARITIES OF THE BRITISH ................................................................... 27
   3.1. STYLES AND TITLES .............................................................................................. 27
   3.2. COMPOSING LETTERS AND CVS (LEBENSLÄUFE) ................................................. 28
   3.3. POPULAR MISTAKES ............................................................................................. 29
   3.4. RATES OF EXCHANGE ........................................................................................... 31
      3.4.1. Pre-Decimal Coinage ................................................................................... 31
      3.4.2 Inflation since 1900 ....................................................................................... 32
   3.5. DON'T KNOW MUCH ABOUT GEOGRAPHY … ....................................................... 33
                                           3



UNIVERSITÄT TÜBINGEN                                       Wilhelmstr. 50
SEMINAR FÜR ENGLISCHE PHILOLOGIE                           D-72074 Tübingen
Professor Christopher Harvie                               Tel.: 07071/29 73257 or 75450
Landeskunde Großbritanniens und Irlands                    Fax.: 07071/29 5760
christopher.harvie@uni-tuebingen.de                        www.intelligent-mr-toad.de

0. INTRODUCTION

       Important: the Bumper Book and other material relevant to Tübingen
       Landeskunde (for instance information about seminars and regular
       updates) can also be found online at www.intelligent-mr-toad.de.
       Updates for the Bumper Book will also be posted there. I have given
       some information on websites but as these are always growing and
       changing, and systems like www.google.de are very effective, I
       recommend these.

After coming to Tübingen in 1980, I distributed guides to various aspects of Landeskunde
studies, such as preparing Referate (seminar papers) and Hausarbeiten (term papers), or
providing bibliographies, etc. In 1985 I thought it worthwhile to combine as many of these
as possible and add some advice on some themes and problems which, after five years on
the job, seemed frequently to occur. The Bumper Book of British Landeskunde has, since
then, been a steady seller and was reprinted a couple of times. When stocks ran out in 1993,
it was updated and extended by several new sections. This revision dates from 2002, with
further modifications in 2005.

This is not a contribution to the theory of Landeskunde. I find it difficult to reach
conclusions about this which don't presuppose a deeper acquaintance with the subject than
any of you are likely to have at this stage. How wide the possible interpretations can be,
you may see by comparing the theoretical approaches discussed by my former colleagues
Hans-Werner Ludwig and Martyn Thompson in Projekt Landeskunde
(Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Hochschuldidaktik, 1980), with the bluntly empirical approach in
the book On Britain (London: BBC, 1985) by the former Tübingen sociologist Prof. Ralf
Dahrendorf (written before he clambered up the 'layer-cake of fine class distinctions' to
emerge as Lord Dahrendorf).

Other subsequent approaches are surveyed in Franz Kuna and Heinz Tschachler, eds.,
Dialog der Texte: Literatur und Landeskunde. Beiträge zu Problemen einer integrativen
Landes- und Kulturkunde des englischsprachigen Auslands (Tübingen: Narr, 1986) and
Margaret Wright, ed., Dynamic Approaches to Culture Studies (Frankfurt: Peter Lang,
1988). Lately there has been a general shift towards a more experimental approach, in such
volumes, for instance, as the Amerikanistik und Englischunterricht symposium on
Englishness (Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 1992); this reflects an overall debate about the
fundamental qualities of national identity, which has assumed greater salience since the
break-up of the Communist order in East Europe in 1989-90. In German there is the big
(736 pp.) volume Länderbericht Großbritannien edited by Hans Kastendiek, Karl Rohe
and Angelika Volle, published in 1994 by the Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung
www.politische-bildung.net and revised in 1998, which you can get free if you contact
them. As a briefer introduction on which to practice your English, you can get John
Oakland’s British Civilisation, from Routledge (1989, latest edition 2002), a good general
                                            4



introduction.

0.1. What Is Landeskunde?

This ought really to be the title for the entire book, as defining Landeskunde can take up
much of the discussion of the subject. Should Landeskunde, or British and Irish Cultural
Studies, be approached theoretically or empirically, historically or in terms of
contemporary cultural analysis? Is it allied to sociology or to literary criticism? Ought it to
be the master-discipline of English Studies, or is it no more than a primitive service-
industry or ‘Dienstleistung’?

In such questions are bound up a lot of issues of politics, intellectual tradition and academic
organisation. Does Landeskunde reduce culture to something dominated by Marxian
definitions of economic base influencing cultural superstructure relations? Is it aligned
with the racial definitions of the 'Volk' which marked the indoctrination techniques of the
Third Reich? Such debates over a priori definitions are naturally important in a country
like Germany, which has an essentially philosophical approach to history. In Britain, on the
other hand, 'Landeskunde' is usually taken as Cultural Studies, an alarmingly wide
definition.

For the great Anglo-American poet T S Eliot, in a famous sentence, this involved
everything from choral singing to boiled cabbage. Eliot was a conservative, but the
'democratic Socialist' George Orwell (in some ways British Landeskunde's patron saint)
with his essays on seaside postcards, sensational crimes, boys' comics and pubs, was
similarly wide-ranging and a-theoretical in his approach. The problem here is that you can
end up with a ragbag of fascinating curiosities – a superior form of 'feature article'
journalism – in which no pattern is visible, or an 'Anatomy', dissected by a gifted journalist,
such as Anthony Sampson's famous Anatomy of Britain, produced in various editions since
1960, most recently in 2004 as Who runs this Place? (London: John Murray), which is
valid for a specific period, but becomes obsolete when historical circumstances change.

After World War II, a fusion of the 'high culture' and Marxian approaches became
dominant, particularly in the work and influence of Raymond Williams, whose Culture and
Society (1958, many later editions) has probably been the leading interpretation. It is part of
a notable enquiry into British history and the arts which was undertaken by scholars close
to the British ‘new left’, confronted with a deeply class-conscious society which remained
obstinately unradical. This project also coincided with the British reception of the writings
of the Italian Communist theorist Antonio Gramsci, whose concept of 'hegemony' stressed
the total – social and cultural as well as economic –
pattern of ruling-class domination.

Yet a central aspect of Gramsci's approach, the idea of 'civil society', involved a return to a
British intellectual tradition: the concepts of society formulated in the eighteenth century in
Scotland by academic thinkers like Adam Smith, Adam Ferguson and John Millar. By 'civil
society' they meant the legal, educational and religious institutions – formal (i.e. state-
founded) and informal (the result of voluntary organisation) – which defined citizenship,
and the ways in which consent to their disciplines was secured: an ideal of social solidarity
which went deeply into the great artistic output of the time, as it did with the Ossianic epic,
                                           5



the poetry of Robert Burns and the novels of Walter Scott.

My own approach has owed a great deal to this tradition, although I have to admit to
suffering from the British disease of unreconstructed empiricism – or a preference for the
careful observation and comparison of facts, rather than juggling with theory. My view is
that theory is of use when you have established already how processes or social
relationships work, where data can be obtained, how to evaluate the use or lack of it in the
secondary sources you will be confronted with, and how to communicate your findings
lucidly and convincingly. I was trained as an historian and had to teach history in a
systematic way for ten years at the Open University, and by now I still find that the 'nuts-
and-bolts' guide to making sense of this debatable land between the arts and the social
sciences written by my old boss at the Open University, Arthur Marwick, The Nature of
History (London: Macmillan, 1970 and subsequent editions) is as good an introduction as
you are likely to find.

Mine isn’t the only approach: ‘post-modernism’ and its twin ‘cultural studies’ have
accompanied the waning power of the nation-state and take the attitude that what is
important is how the social groupings that matter to people construct their own systems of
communication. ‘Discourse analysis’ I find is a useful supplement to my own ‘neo-
modernism’ but not a substitute for it. It can often obscure issues under a mound of jargon
and substitute the spouting of such for getting to grips with real source material or the
fascination of society as conveyed in poetry, novels and drama.



0.2. A Piece of Autobiography, see also www.intelligent-mr-toad.de

It's worth referring to my own career, as it will give you some idea of my own strengths
and weaknesses. I was born in 1944 in the steel-making town of Motherwell (the
steelworks closed in 1992), with a population of 70,000, near Glasgow in Scotland (see
map at end). At the age of five I went from this Ruhrgebiet-like area to St Boswells, with
1,200 inhabitants, in the Scottish borders, when my father became village schoolmaster. In
1958 I moved to Edinburgh and attended the High School (Gymnasium) in 1958-62, and
University (both fine classical buildings dating from the period of the 'Scottish
Enlightenment') in 1962-66. After 'finals' (twenty-four hours of examinations in five days –
so never complain about German university exams!) I graduated Master of Arts and started
work on a Ph.D. (doctorate) on the attitude of the old English universities to democracy in
the nineteenth century. Before finishing this, I had become lecturer in History in the newly-
founded Open University (Fernuniversität) at Milton Keynes near London, where I stayed
until I came to my Tübingen chair in 1980.

My main academic interests are industrialisation, culture and politics from the eighteenth
century on. I expanded my Ph.D. thesis into a book, The Lights of Liberalism (London:
Allen Lane, 1976), which was followed by Scotland and Nationalism (1977, rev. ed.
London: Routledge, 2004, a cultural and political history of my native country, and No
Gods and Precious Few Heroes: Scotland since 1914 (1981, fourth ed. Edinburgh
University Press, 2000). The Centre of Things, a study of political fiction in Britain since
the Victorian period, was published in London by Unwin Hyman in 1991, and Cultural
                                             6



Weapons, a volume of essays on Scotland and Europe, in Edinburgh by Polygon in 1992.
The Rise of Regional Europe came out from Routledge in 1993, and a history of North Sea
oil, Fool's Gold, from Hamish Hamilton in 1994; further essays Travelling Scot from
Argyll in 1999; The Road to Home Rule from Edinburgh University Press in 2000,
Scotland: a Short History from Oxford University Press in 2002 and Mending Scotland
from Argyll in 2004. Besides these and various 'learned articles', I have made several TV
and radio documentaries, and write and review regularly for newspapers, particularly The
Scotsman in Edinburgh and the Guardian and New Statesman in London. I am also an
honorary professor in the politics department of University of Wales: Aberystwyth, and in
the history department of the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow.

If this short biography conveys anything, it is (a) that I am not English, but from another of
the nationalities that coexist (not altogether contentedly) in the United Kingdom; (b) that I
have an almost hereditary interest in teaching, and have taken part in one of the most far-
reaching educational experiments since 1914; (c) that I have had a lot to do with journalism
and the media, and have some pretty strong opinions of my own. This means that my view
of Britain or (as the Irish prefer to say) of 'these islands' that you will get is not a London-
centred one; that there will always be strong pressure on you to determine aims and
objectives for your study, and pursue them methodically; and that you are never to be shy
of expressing your opinion, even – or rather especially – when it runs counter to my own
views.



1. GOALS AND RESOURCES


1.1. Starting at the End, or Getting a Job

What course you do will be determined by how you see your future. Yes, even German
university students have been known to get jobs after leaving! The Lehramt
(Staatsexamen) has, of course, a wider currency than simply the teaching profession, as
the course of study for it is somewhat broader than that of many Magister courses, whose
strongly research-based element can deter students. The Lehramt has been modified to
incorporate an increased Landeskunde element (two courses), and is the better for that,
though it's now being rivalled by the Bachelor.

Of those students who have concentrated on Landeskunde in the Magisterstudiengang,
some have gone into journalism, others into publishing, theatre, television, or advertising;
some have remained connected with higher education, both at university and at
professional education level. Students pursuing Internationale Volkswirtschaftslehre
(IVWL), who are more specialised in economics, have gone into banking, accountancy and
public relations.

Der Spiegel, in 1993, put (1) flexibility, (2) knowledge of foreign languages, (3) practical
professional experience, (4) length of study and (5) a knowledge of modern
communications, before actual exam results, as what employers were looking for. Twelve
years on, I would certainly add competence in handling computer programmes to 5. I think
                                             7



that the above options offer such possibilities and good exam results. But one of the
problems of generalising about careers is that it is genuinely difficult to find out about
them. A drawback of the German higher education system is the anonymity with which
students are handled, something which persists beyond graduation.

Sometimes this is seen as positive, as is the fact that files are not being built up on students;
but I think it important that the academic should keep in touch with students and therefore
have always asked students in each seminar to fill in a Student Record Sheet giving details
of a student's address, home and email addresses, Studiengang, Landeskunde course taken,
Referat or Hausarbeit delivered, books borrowed from my library, etc. (You will find two
examples at the end of the Bumper Book which you can fill in and leave in my Fach if you
want to apply for a course, but for any course offered as a Proseminar, you must also
register by computer.) For working on topics in groups, this is indispensable; it also enables
me to write references for you at later stages of your career. You may be sure that for
obvious reasons of Datenschutz, these Zettel are stored away safely and never passed out of
my hands. As keeping in touch is mutually useful, this system is not meant to be one of 'Big
Brother Is Watching Your Studies' control, but simply an option provided in order to help
you along.

I can be contacted on e-mail <christopher.harvie@uni-tuebingen.de>. This sounds like a
good idea, but if possible see me in my Sprechstunde (Donnerstag 10-12 in Room 359).
Replying to an e-mail can take a lot longer than a quick conversation. So keep it for very
straightforward business (Anmeldung, enquiries after Hausarbeit or Klausur results) or real
emergencies.



1.2. Strengths and Weaknesses

Long ago I started to use simple multiple-choice general knowledge quizzes as a means of
establishing what the educational technologists call your 'entry behaviour' into
Landeskunde Proseminare, i.e. the knowledge I could assume that you had to hand. My
structure was three ten-part questions followed by four five-part questions, which you are
invited to answer in groups of four. These covered (1) Statistics, (2) Anglo-German
Comparisons, (3) Modern English Literature, (4) UK Institutions, (5) Geography, (6) Dates
and (7) the Arts. If this is done in groups of three or four, you feel more confident, get to
know one another, and it improves your English.

Generally speaking, on a twentieth-century test, the average worked out at about 40 % for
students in their seventh semester. (1) and (2) usually got pass-marks, sharing a reasonable
knowledge of material conditions, the media, etc. (4) and (6) were roughly the same as the
ultimate grades, but (5) and (7) were poorly done (under 20 % correct). Attempts in (3) to
match up well-known contemporary English authors with their books produced only 10 %
correct answers (results almost identical to those of a similar quiz on the eighteenth
century).

This means: (1) You must get hold of basic statistical details, and of geography outside the
London and South-East area (this information deficit contrasts oddly with a greater-than-
                                            8



average interest in 'peripheral' Britain: Scotland, Wales, Ireland). (2) You must also get an
overall view of the major literary figures and their works in the period that you are studying
in Landeskunde. One of the problems of German academic life is that the broad choice
available has to be carefully integrated together; otherwise you may end up very
knowledgeable about a few narrow areas, yet completely lack any sort of overview.
Landeskunde ought to be able to supply much of this.



1.3. The Landeskunde Menu

If you are taking a Landeskunde seminar you will (unless you are a guest or exchange
student) be pursuing one of five Studiengänge. This is a general introduction: for the legal
details consult the various regulations, which periodically change, online.

       1.3.1. Lehramt
       1.3.2. Bachelor
       1.3.3. Master
       1.3.4. Magister
       1.3.5. Internationale Volkswirtschaftslehre (IVWL)

Your course of study is made up of collecting Scheine or certificates. These show the
course you’ve attended (in the case of Landeskunde: Vorlesung, Vorlesung plus Übung
(exam or essay), Proseminar, Hauptseminar or Oberseminar); the work that you did – essay
(Hausarbeit), exam (Klausur); and the mark that you got, usually in ‘thirds’ from 1 or 1,3
(very good) to 4 (only just adequate). It has to be signed by the seminar-leader and stamped
at the Faculty Office (Geschäftszimmer), Room 208.

If you’re doing Lehramt, you need two Landeskunde-Proseminar-Scheine so you may
appear in my seminars between your semesters one to four, but for other Lehrgänge, by the
time you turn up at my seminars you will be in your fourth semester or later. (If you want
to come to a Landeskunde seminar in order to get a Schein before your Zwischenprüfung,
remember that all the instruction, discussions, essays, etc. will be in English. You will find
that I usually offer Proseminars (LPS) and one or more Hauptseminars (LHS), or a
combination of both where you can do work for either an LPS or LHS-Schein. One of the
Proseminars tends to be on a twentieth-century theme, the other on a theme which runs
from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to the present. The twentieth-century LPS
tends to be biased towards economic and social studies and is thus particularly suitable for
IVWL students; the 'earlier' one is more oriented towards literature and history.



1.3.1. Lehramt

You will need only two LPS-Scheine in Landeskunde in order to meet the Lehramt
requirements (http://www.leu.bw.schule.de/berat/POrd/GY_2001.html), one of which has
to deal with a topic from British or American Landeskunde specifically. You can get those
Scheine either by attending a LPS, or by attending a Landeskunde Vorlesung and either
                                            9



write a 3-hour Klausur or a Hausarbeit to obtain a Proseminar-Schein.

This is the decision of the Kultusministerium, which I find a bit baffling, as much school
instruction is based on a Landeskunde approach to literature and language. It is possible,
however, to have me supervise your Zulassungsarbeit, and this can be on a topic which is
literature-based but deals with the attitude of a particular writer to a social situation, etc.
Among past examples of this have been Zulassungsarbeiten on topics like Anglo-Irish
Relations in Twentieth-Century Drama: A Comparative Study of Three Plays, or George
Orwell on Politics and the Use of Language: An Investigation of 'Nineteen Eighty-Four',
etc.



1.3.2. Bachelor

Since the winter semester 2003/04 Tübingen has offered a BA programme in English and
American Studies (Anglistik/Amerikanistik, for the Prüfungsordnung see: http://www.uni-
tuebingen.de/uni/nes/Po-BA.pdf).

In your third or fourth semester, you will have the option of either taking a PS II
Literature/Medieval Studies, or a PS II on British or American Landeskunde. It will be part
of your Zwischenprüfung. While the Grundstudium covers all fields of English studies,
during the Hauptstudium you're asked to specialise in either American Studies, English
Medieval Studies, English Linguistics or British Studies, the latter including Literature,
Landeskunde and Postcolonial Studies. Specialisation means that you'll be taking at least
two of your three Hauptseminars (including the one you want to do your BA thesis in) in
your chosen field. One of your three HS will end with a 3 hour written exam, one with a 30
minute oral exam on the seminar topic and an additional topic of your choice, and the third
with your BA thesis (about 25 pages in English, to be handed in six weeks after the end of
the semester). The BA thesis will account for 30% of your final grade, your other HS-
Scheine for 10% each.

If you're taking English/American Studies as your BA Nebenfach in the Grundstudium,
you should be able to choose at least one of your Proseminar II from the Landeskunde
syllabus. You can read up on the details on the Faculty Office's BA introduction page:
http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/uni/nes/ba-intro.htm.



1.3.3. Master

Since the winter semester 2004/05 Tübingen University is offering a Master’s programme
in the fields of English Linguistics, Americanistik and British Studies (Literature and
Culture of Britain). You can decide to apply for a Master’s programme after you have
successfully finished your BA. For the Prüfungsordnung, see http://www.uni-
tuebingen.de/uni/nes/Po-MA.pdf.

You will be required to write a Master’s thesis, sit an oral examination, and present two
                                          10



Haupt- or Oberseminar-Scheine. You can specialise in three areas: literary studies,
cultural studies (i.e. Landeskunde) and postcolonial studies.

In choosing your Haupt- or Oberseminare, you should make sure they correspond to
your areas of specialisation.

The MA thesis should be no longer than 60 pages, and can be written either in German
or in English. If it is written in English, it requires a short summary in German. After
you have registered your thesis topic with the Dekanat, you have four months to write
it.

The oral examination will be one hour, and should be held predominately in English.
You'll be asked to prepare four topics:
a) Schwerpunkt Literary Studies: three topics on English literature, one on either
British/Irish cultural studies, Anglophone literature or media.
b) Schwerpunkt Cultural Studies: two topics on English literature, and two on either
British/Irish cultural studies or media.
c) Schwerpunkt Postcolonial Studies: two topics on English literature and two on
postcolonial studies and/or cultures.

You can read up on the details on the Faculty Office's Masters introduction page:
http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/uni/nes/master.htm.



1.3.4. Magister

At the moment (April 2005), BA/Masters combination is in the process of being
reviewed by the Kultusministerium. As soon as it is officially approved (which might
happen in time for winter semester 2005/06) this Magister-Studiengang will be closed.
Updates about the status of the Magister-Studiengang can be found on the Faculty
Office's Studiengang-page (http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/uni/nes/studiengaenge.html).

It has been possible since 1985 to take a Magister in HF Neuere Englische Literatur mit
Schwerpunkt         Landeskunde         (see:       http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/Neuphil-
Dekanat/MPO02.html), and the regulations this section is based on date from January 2002
when the new 'Prüfungsordnung' took effect.

Attending a Landeskunde LPS in your Grundstudium is recommended, but not necessary to
pass the Zwischenprüfung.

In your Hauptstudium, you will have to take two Hauptseminars and one Oberseminar.
Two of those seminars are to be concluded with a Hausarbeit, one with a Klausur. If you
study for Nebenfach, you'll need to take two Hauptseminars, one to be concluded with a
Klausur, the second with a Hausarbeit. Those seminar grades will make up 40% of your
final Magister grade.

You can register with the Dekanat for the oral examination as soon as you have collected
                                          11



all relevant Scheine. The oral examination will account for 60% of your grade. In the
Hauptfach, you will be examined for an hour, in the Nebenfach for half an hour. The topic
requirements are as follows:
Hauptfach students who study Neuere Englische Literatur mit Schwerpunkt Landeskunde
will prepare four topics, three of which have to be taken from British and Irish
Landeskunde, one from literature. Nebenfach students will have to choose two topics from
British and Irish Landeskunde, and one literary topic.

If you decide to write your Magisterarbeit on a British or Irish Landeskunde topic, you
discuss the topic with me, and after registration with the Dekanat have six months to write
it. The upper limit is around 100 pages.

       (a) Magisterarbeit

       'Cwmardy' (1937) and 'We Live' (1939): Experience and Fiction in the Novels of
       Lewis Jones (Writer and Communist organiser in South Wales in the 1930s)

       (supposed to be written in German, but obtaining permission to write in English is
unproblematic. If you intend to go in for a job where you'll have to work unsupervised in
English – editing or journalism – I would recommend English. If it is written in English, it
requires a short summary in German.)

       (b) Written Examination (Klausur; 3 hours; to be written in English, on a
             fixed date in February, April or July – check with the Seminar
             Office)

               (1) The War Poets of 1914-1918

       (c) Oral Examination (Mündliche Prüfung; 1 hour; half in German,
              half in English, most students opt for English throughout)

               (2) Synge's dramas and the politics of the Irish Literary Movement
               (Landeskunde 1)
               (3) George Orwell's social criticism in the 1940s (Landeskunde 2)
               (4) The poetry of Robert Burns and Scotland in the late eighteenth century
               (Landeskunde 3)
               (5) James Joyce's The Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (Literatur 1)
               (6) Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights (Literatur 2; optional)

               Further information see:
               www.uni-tuebingen.de/Neuphil-Dekanat/pruefungsordnungen.html



1.3.5. Internationale Volkswirtschaftslehre

It is also possible to take Landeskunde as an option in the finals of Internationale VWL
(see: http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/uni/w04/PO_IVWL.pdf). There are two ‘English’
                                              12



varieties of IVWL, Anglo-America and Westeuropa B. One or two themes from
Landeskunde can be offered in combination with either Literatur or Linguistik. For
regulations see:
http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/uni/w04 (in section 'Studiengänge' -> 'IVWL')


An example of this would be:

        (a) Written Examination (three hours; written in English, choice of 3 topics)

                (1) When did Britain's economic decline begin: in 1851 or 1945?

        (b) Oral Examination (half an hour; at least half in English)

                (2) The career and economic thought of J M Keynes

        plus 2 topics from Literature, say:

                (3) Science fiction and industrialisation: H G Wells and George Orwell
                (4) The Poetry of W B Yeats

As quite a number of you will choose this Studiengang, I have with the Fachschaft
published a guide to it, which you'll find here:
http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/uni/wff/Downloads/weitereDownloads/IVWL-Memo%20-
%20Englisch.pdf.



1.4. Resource Information


1.4.1. Books

Thomas Carlyle, who thought my old alma mater of Edinburgh the worst of all possible
universities, forgave it because of its library. A library is crucial to effective study, and one
of the problems of studying British culture and society from 1000 kilometres away is that
you may find not all the books you want are to hand. Inter-library loans can help, but they
take time. Make use, however, of the fact that Tübingen has not just the University Library
(UB) and the Neuphilologikum Library (FB) but useful collections in
Wirtschaftswissenschaft (Nauklerstr. 47), Politikwissenschaft (Melanchthonstr. 36), and
Geschichte and Soziologie (Hegelbau, Wilhelmstr. 36). You can also borrow from my own
library of c. 3500 volumes.

Most of the British Landeskunde books you will find in sections OA-OW of the
Fachbereichsbibliothek (FB). Please look them up on-line in the OPAC Catalogue
http://opac.ub.uni-tuebingen.de or the university library homepage http://www.ub.uni-
tuebingen.de/pro/indkata.php. You can find the dates and times for the beginning-of-
semester tours to the FB on its webpage http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/fb-neuphil. Through
                                            13



these, you can find out whether a book is available in any German library as well as in
Tübingen (for purposes of inter-library loan). The main bibliographical source is the daddy
of          them          all,       the         British         Library          Catalogue
http://catalogue.bl.uk/F/?func=file&file_name=login-bl-list.

OA      General Landeskunde
OB      Geography
OC      History
OD      Constitutional and Legal History
OF      Economic History
OG      Social and Educational History
OH      Culture and Art
OJ      Philosophy and Science
OK      Religion

History: Chronological

OM      Prehistory to 1485
ON      Tudors to death of Elizabeth I in 1603
OO      Stuarts to 1714
OP      Hanoverians to accession of Victoria in 1837
OQ      Victorian and Edwardian, 1838-1914
OR      Britain between 1914-1945
OS      Britain since 1945

OT      Scotland: Society and History
OU      Wales: Society and History
OW      Ireland: Society and History

Other important subsections (including bibliographies) can be found under Allg C in the
'Allgemeine' section (ground floor). Here I would like to pay special attention to the
encyclopaedias, biographical collections and contemporary periodicals that are readily
available in Tübingen.



1.4.2. Encyclopaedias

The classic among these is the Encyclopaedia Britannica (Allg C Enc 2), founded in
Edinburgh in 1768 and regularly reprinted, with annual supplements covering the years
1961 to date (Allg C Bri 1). It is often said that its highest point was reached with the 11th
edition of 1910, the last to be edited from Britain. It certainly gives the impression that, by
reading its entries carefully, you could become a competent biologist or field-marshal.
There's perhaps more to be said for Chambers's (Allg C Cha 1) or Everyman's
Encyclopaedias which follow the original EB's plan, than for the
'macropaedia'/'micropaedia' arrangement of the present edition.

In terms of biographical information, you can turn to the new massive Oxford Dictionary of
                                           14



National Biography, successor to the Dictionary of National Biography (DNB), organised
in 1885 by Sir Leslie Stephen (Virginia Woolf's father). The Oxford DNB is online and the
university has subscription, so make sure you use your university e-mail address, click on
'subscriber’ and type in name/Woolf, Virginia, and there you are.

Other biographical sources you will find in the FB are Boase's Modern English Biography
(for those who died in the Victorian period) and Who Was Who? (for those who died
between 1897 and the present). There are also biographical dictionaries of novelists,
dramatists, critics, etc. - mainly twentieth-century (Allg).



1.4.3. Contemporary Periodicals

A time gap exists between published 'secondary studies' and the most up-to-date reportage.
How to bridge it? Every month The Economist (UB) publishes details of the British (and
other) economies, and you can find commentaries on economic and social events and
developments in the left-wing New Statesman (weekly: UB, FB). The dailies taken by the
University are The Times (UB, Politik) (right-wing), and The Financial Times (UB)
(centre-left, amazingly enough). You should be able to purchase copies of The Guardian
(Euro 2,80) and The Financial Times (Euro 2,60) in Tübingen on the date of publication.
You can get most serious British papers on-line, though increasingly Mr. Murdoch (of the
Times) is making you pay for the privilege.



1.4.4. Statistics

The Stationery Office publishes Britain: an Annual Guide for a hefty £ 40: see it in the UB.
You get Tatsachen über Deutschland free, but most important statistics are on-line
http://www.gov.uk/Home/Homepage. The best sources for statistical material are, in
historical terms, B R Mitchell and Phyllis Deane's Abstract of British Historical Statistics
(UB) or B R Mitchell's European Historical Statistics (FB), which cover the period from
the beginnings of regular statistical collection to about 1960, with a supplementary British
volume (UB) dealing with 1960-70. Twentieth-century statistics you will find in A H
Halsey, Social Trends in Britain (FB), which covers the situation roughly up to 2000. Up-
to-date figures are to be obtained from the Annual Abstract of Statistics (UB), and from
Britain (see above). Other useful annual publications are The Statesman's Year Book, The
Annual Register, and Whitaker's Almanack (all UB).The Economist's The World in 2005,
etc. is something you'll find in every airport bookstall, a cheap guide with basic statistics.



1.4.5. Mediothek (http://www.medabt.de)

Over the years we have recorded on VHS Videotape a variety of films and television
programmes with special reference to British politics and history, and you may find that
some of these are valuable in illustrating certain themes. A catalogue of the Mediothek's
                                            15



stock is available in their office, and I have in addition copies of 500 or so videotapes
recorded since 1981: check with Rooms 359 or 468. From now on, most of our recordings
will be on DVD. It is always important, however, to remember that the preparation of a
successful seminar meeting based on video material may require up to three hours of
careful work per hour's 'performance' - selecting the important extracts of a tape, noting
their numbers, and preparing a linking commentary/narrative. Everyone likes watching
telly, but without careful preparation video sessions can become an enjoyable waste of
valuable time!

Apart from this, you can information on the BBC World Service on medium and short-
wave radio - see www.bbc.co.uk. Perhaps the most useful programme for news is the
morning Newsdesk which has a British news bulletin and opinions from the papers, and
Radio 4 can be found on 800 Mhz Longwave. Today, a 6-9am, is required listening for
politicians: the crucial interviews come at 8.10, London time. The Mediothek also has a file
of the Südfunk radio-series Five O' Clock Special, produced in Stuttgart until 1998 by
Anthony Gibbs of Stuttgart University, and a catalogue of it is available in my room.



2. STUDY


2.1. Lectures

'Professor Stewart's lectures were not well-attended because students soon found that they
could read Baron Hume on the Institutes of Conveyancing faster than Professor Stewart
could read it to them'. This complaint of an Edinburgh lawyer comes from the Scottish
system, in which a subject may be covered in three hours of lectures and an hour of
tutorials per week. In the German system, lectures are not so central; in Oxford and
Cambridge they take place, but as they are not essential, attendances are low.

The problem with the compulsory survey lecture is that it tends to end up something like a
book. In which case, why not read the original? If the lecture is over-specialised, why
attend it at all? Scottish students tended to be fiercely critical, either staying away or
barracking lecturers, so there was strong pressure on them to use all their rhetorical skills to
keep the students there and quiet.

I have always used lectures both to give an overview of the subject and to suggest how
interesting and multi-faceted its implications can be. On the whole, the response to this has
been positive, although there have been complaints that students couldn't understand my
Scottish accent (slanderous!), that the actual subject of the lecture or its structure was not
predictable (in some cases I have to plead guilty), and that not enough backup material in
terms of bibliographies, etc., was available (changes were made!). On your side, please ask
questions and don't be afraid to interrupt in order to clarify details! You can also get taped
versions in the Mediothek. Because of pressure of numbers I now usually allow students to
take a Vorlesung und Übung (ending with a 2500 word Hausarbeit or 3 hour Klausur)
which you can get a LPS-equivalent Schein.
                                          16




2.2. Seminars, and the Welsh Studies Centre

Seminars are the main means of teaching Landeskunde and consist of 11-14 sessions,
depending on the length of the Semester. There is also a Hauptseminar (LHS) intended for
students considering finals; and once a year an Oberseminar (LOS) oriented towards
research work. Referats in this are rather different and usually consist of students giving
reports on their own projects.

Within the range of Landeskunde, the Welsh context is now assuming enhanced
significance, as Baden-Württemberg is partnered with the Principality of Wales, which has
had since 1999 a devolved Assembly and is now gearing up to denmand a legislature like
Scotland. The country of David Lloyd George, Dylan Thomas, R S Thomas, the Eisteddfod
(Welsh Culture-Fest), rugby union, and the male voice choir, Wales has a rewarding and
complex two-language culture. So, the English Seminar now offers the option of a
Kompakt-Proseminar (LKS) in Welsh Studies. The first of these, conducted by Prof. Dai
Smith of University College Cardiff and Prof. Hywel Francis of University College
Swansea, was on 'The Transformation of South Wales: 1945 to the Present' in WS 1993/94,
and further seminars have been held every second Semester (details from my office).
Kompaktseminars are demanding, involving about 20 hours' contact with the academic,
usually over two weekends, but most students who have taken them have found them very
valuable.

A Landeskunde seminar usually consists of 12-25 students; a Schein is gained by
presenting/organising a Referat and submitting a Hausarbeit, usually after the end of the
Semester or sitting a Klausur (this can depend on the studiengang regulations). I usually
try to organise the sequence of Referats in the first two meetings, and my principle is that
those students who undertake an early Referat (which no-one wants to do) can count on a
lot of help from me; students presenting a late Referat can shift for themselves rather more
as they have more time. (But always remember Parkinson's Law: Work expands to fill the
time available for its completion.)



2.3. Preparing Referats

The theory behind Referats is that you teach your fellow-students about detailed aspects of
the seminar study-area. You prepare material which not only conveys facts about the
subject you have chosen, but introduces the other students to the most important theories
and generalisations about it. As seminar-leader, all I should have to do is to point out
implications of your work for subjects which other students are studying, supply additional
material and examples, emphasise generalisations and correct grammatical mistakes.

In practice I found that it rarely worked like this. Far too many seminars consisted of
students reading out a very long Referat which they had copied from textbooks. The first to
speak didn't understand what he or she was reading out. The audience didn't know enough
about the background to make sense of it; the seminar-leader had to keep interrupting in
                                            17



order to spell out to the others (and frequently to the student him- or herself) what was
being said. So much time was wasted that the last student to give his or her Referat got
crushed into five minutes and there was next to no discussion.




2.3.1. Dos and Don'ts

So there had to be a new approach. What follows are some simple dos and don'ts which I
worked out as a means of making your Referats simpler to prepare and more effective as a
means of teaching.

(a)     Don't ever think that you can prepare a Referat on the evening before the
        seminar!

It is worth spending a lot of time on your Referat, reading widely round your subject and
selecting the most important points or principles about it, and then structuring your Referat
methodically around these. The great historian Macaulay once wrote to a friend, 'I wanted
to write you a short letter, but I hadn't the time, so I wrote you a long letter'. The more care
and preparation you take the more manageable your Referat will prove, the more I am
likely to be impressed as seminar-leader - and the more time you will save when you come
to write your Hausarbeit. Performance in the seminar counts as part of your overall
assessment, and it happens very seldom that a mediocre and unoriginal Referat is
succeeded by a first-class Hausarbeit. On the other hand, the Referat stage can be a useful
point at which to structure a Hausarbeit - to get rid of untenable arguments, etc., and to get
the benefit of your fellow students' comments.

This involves understanding as soon as possible how the library works and wasting no time
in getting the books you want (see 1.4.). During the first week of your studies, find out (1)
where Landeskunde books are stored in the Faculty Library (FB) - on the second floor near
the copying room - , (2) where reference and Allgemeine books are stored - first floor,
opposite the catalogue cases -, and (3) how to consult the computer catalogue (which
involves looking in the on-line and the microfiche systems!).

(b)     Don't try to present 'the complete and utter' history of the subject that you are
        asked to talk about!

This is linked to taking time over preparation, deciding what is possible and manageable in
the time that you have, and what information the other students should produce for
themselves. In other words, you have to decide in advance what you want your fellow-
students to do, both in terms of gaining information and of using particular teaching
techniques.

If I ask a group of you to prepare a Referat, let us say on 'Socialism in Britain between the
Wars', I will advise each of you to tackle a detailed question, for example:

        (1) Was the British Labour Party in the 1990s a socialist party?
                                            18



        (2) Why did the Labour Party collapse in 1981? Because of ideological failure or
        betrayal by its leaders?
        (3) Why did Labour recover to win the election of 1997?

I think it is important to tackle these questions as questions, and not as 'hooks' on which to
hang a description of the evolution of the British economy, or history of socialism since
Marx. This is irrelevant to your task. If you take time over preparing your presentation, you
can (if you are exceptionally well organised)

        (1) refer the other students to some pages in the set books which give background
        information a week before your presentation.
        (2) circulate, again a week before your presentation, a brief handout of background
        information.

Then you can use the questions that I have set you as case studies which develop the most
important generalisations about the subject that you are dealing with.

(c)     Do get other students to work themselves during your Referat session!

If you can hold the attention of another 15 or 20 students for a monologue twenty minutes
long, then you are a natural communicator - and very, very rare. It is more probable that
after five minutes you will notice that only three are taking notes, while the rest have lapsed
into a sort of coma. It is much better to prepare your Referat in such a way that all your
colleagues have something to do. This will not only give them direct contact with the
material you have been studying; it will also make them concentrate on the subject.



2.3.2. Tackling a Subject

The best way of doing this seems to be after a brief introduction (of 10-20 minutes at
maximum) to divide the seminar into groups of three or four, with each group studying
three short extracts from contemporary documents or historical analyses. Let's assume that
one group is dealing with the question I referred to previously: (1) Was the British Labour
Party in the 1990s a socialist party? Here you might use three extracts of no more than a
half-page each:

        (1)     an extract from the party manifesto for the 1945 election, which resulted in
                the first (majority) Labour government.
        (2)     a contemporary (i.e. 1990 to the present) description of Labour Members of
                Parliament (MPs).
        (3)     a description of the Party by a contemporary observer from an European
                socialist party.

The members of each group should study and discuss the extracts for about 20-30 minutes,
usually in the seminar room or on the Liegewiese, while you (and I) move from group to
group, helping them with translation difficulties and detailed information. All questions and
discussions within the groups must be in English!
                                             19




The plenary (full seminar) discussion should take up the last 30-45 minutes of the seminar.
You should get each group to talk about what it has found out, and question them yourself.
Then the seminar-leader can round-off the discussion and answer questions. You will find
that there will be far more questions and discussion in this type of seminar, so that instead
of you having to continue to try and impress the seminar-leader with a boring and
unconvincing monologue, your colleagues will be doing much of your work for you.

This is of course not the only way of structuring a seminar. You can organise it as a debate,
with two sides planning their speeches and questions around several documents, or as a
'simulation game' in which students take on historical roles. We did this very successfully
in studying the settlement after World War II, with groups of students playing the French,
Russians, British, etc. Another group, in a seminar on Transport and Society, made four
lots of us 'race' from one end of Tübingen to the other, by bike, by car, by bus and on foot,
comparing direct costs, time taken, safety, environmental aspects, etc. (The cyclists won!)

Finally ...

(d)     Don't try to present your Hausarbeit as a Referat!

In that case you'd be writing it in a hurry while getting no help from your fellow students or
myself, nor any idea of the overall direction of the seminar. But if you have ideas you want
to try out in a Referat, please do!



2.4. Writing an English Landeskunde Essay (Hausarbeit)


2.4.1. Planning Your Essay

Essay-writing (at leisure, with a computer, or hand-written under time pressure in an exam)
is like painting a room; three-quarters of your effort should go into planning and
preparation. After that, you will find that the actual writing of the essay is the simplest part.

Start planning the essay when you are familiar with the general background of the topic in
which you are interested (usually - but not necessarily - the one which you have presented
in a Referat), and before you select an exact title or topic. Why? - Because your topic must
be manageable. Let's say you want to write about the Women's Suffrage Movement, 1900-
1918. This is a subject on which many books have been written, so you may soon find
yourself deluged by the sheer weight of information. At this stage it is necessary to ask
yourself:

        'What aspect of the women's suffrage movement am I going to concentrate on?'

It is important - again - to phrase your chosen topic as a question, and then divide it into a
series of 'sub-questions', as this makes it easier to organise your essay systematically. It also
helps you to see, as you write, whether your plan is working out or not. For example, an
                                            20



essay on the Women's Suffrage Movement could be phrased as the following question:

       Did militant 'Suffragette' activity help British women to gain the vote?

This naturally involves a set of sub-questions:

       (1)     What (in the most general terms) were the 'Suffragettes' and how did they
               fit into the campaign to get British women the vote?

       (2)     What problems had the women's suffrage campaign to overcome? For
               example: what was the situation of

               (a) the government;
               (b) the other political parties;
               (c) public opinion in general;
               (d) women in general?

       (3)     What were the activities of the 'Suffragettes'?, etc.

(1) will form an introductory paragraph, and (2) really sets out the background. In (3) you
can go on to detail the activities of the militant 'Suffragettes' and the reasons why they
differed from the 'constitutionalists'. Think of each sub-question as being roughly a
paragraph in length, and that you will have to organise your essay on the basis of about 8
paragraphs (each paragraph a third to half a page) plus an Introduction and a Conclusion.

You ought to settle on your particular question about a third of the way through your
reading, after you have become familiar with the overall area. At this stage, devote some
time to planning the whole essay as a series of headings and sub-questions. This is an
example of planning one paragraph:

       Paragraph I: Who were the Suffragettes?

       (a)     Founding and career of Women's Social and Political Union:

               (i)     Organisation of the body
               (ii)    Leading personalities (the Pankhursts, Annie Kenney, Flora
                       Drummond, etc.)
               (iii)   Activities (demonstrations, sabotage)
               (iv)    Changes over time (shift to the political right) ...

       (b) The background into which they fitted:

               (i)     Who had the parliamentary vote?
               (ii)    Where could women vote?
               (iii)   What was the status of women in society?
               (iv)    How were women placed in the different social classes? ...

       (c) What did 'getting the vote' involve?
                                           21



               (i)     'Peaceful' pressure on MPs
               (ii)    Capturing publicity ...

Up to this point your research should have helped in drafting your plan; now concentrate on
answering the questions. Don't be afraid to pose yourself what seem to you important
questions, even if you are not sure whether you can answer them with the information at
your disposal. It is better to fail honestly trying to do this, than to conceal a lack of
knowledge.



2.4.2. Note-Taking

All the time you are planning your essay, you should be taking notes. You ought to be
systematic about this from the start, as this can save you a lot of trouble. Frankly, I don't
approve of photocopying masses of pages from books and then marking them. This tends
to be a substitute for reading. It is much better to consult a book closely, using its index,
and note down what you regard as important on a separate sheet (or direct to your laptop).
This makes you read more closely, and gives you practice in making a 'précis' - an accurate
reduced version - of a lot of information.

My own system is to use A4 loose leaf sheets, which I then file alphabetically by subject or
author in a ringbinder. At the top of each page I put the author's name, the book or article,
the publisher or place of publication, and the date (both of first publication and of the
edition used). Page numbers go on the left, and quotations are indented. You can do exactly
the same with computer records, using them both on-screen and as printouts. Here is an
example of the technique:

Woolf, Virginia

               Diary, Vol. 1, 1915-19, ed. Ann Olivier Bell
               London: Hogarth Press, 1977; Penguin ed., 1979

                       Entry for Saturday, 9 March, 1918

124                    Goes to 'Suffrage Rally', Kingsway, audience 'almost wholly
                       women', as well as speakers.
125                    Disappointed about this fact, and apparent irrelevance of meeting:

                               In truth this meeting seemed to beat the waves in vain. The
                               vote being won, only great eloquence could celebrate the
                               triumph. None were eloquent; and yet they had to beat up a
                               froth. The one who impressed us most was a Russian
                               speaker, who had imagination and seemed to feel what she
                               said.

The advantage of looseleaf sheets, rather than notebooks, is that you can transfer notes
from one project to another. (For instance, you could perhaps use the above notes for an
                                            22



essay on Virginia Woolf herself.) And you have a precise reference to the publication for
your bibliography. By indenting the quotations, you can easily recognise them when you
come to write your draft.

Using a computer, you could decide to take all, or as many as possible, of your notes on
disc. I did this for my book on North Sea Oil, Fool's Gold, 1994. Same procedure as above,
but it has the great advantage that you can transfer quotes from your information files
directly to your Hausarbeit text, and can also easily form chronologies and bibliographies.

The disadvantage is that you have to bring the books to the computer, while much of most
stimulating research comes from browsing along the open shelves. The same also applies to
searching the web. Since it attracts fact-freaks and anoraks there is actually a risk of hitting
your target too well and being overwhelmed by detail (while often not getting what you
really want). There's also the problem of encountering, on-line, essays by other students
(see 'plagiarism'). Even if you don't copy these, but remain content with the level of
knowledge shown, are you actually learning in the way of skills? Luckily, being non-native
speakers, you will leave certain traces which show that your work is genuine. If it suddenly
becomes stylish or colloquial, my suspicions will be aroused.



2.4.3. Books to Consult

When you have decided on a subject, I usually recommend about 3-4 books relevant to it,
and you will find more in the libraries. Some of those are quite specialised, so it is often
best to start by looking for a simple 'overview' only a page or so long. You will get this by
looking up the index in a standard textbook like R K Webb's Modern England (where the
women's suffrage movement is covered on pp. 473-5), or the entry on 'Women's Suffrage'
in the Encyclopaedia Britannica (Vol. 19, pp. 906-16).

Having obtained a general idea of the subject, you can then go on to the more specialised
books, for example Constance Rover's Woman Suffrage and Party Politics, or David
Rosen's Rise Up, Women. It is always interesting, but also time-consuming, to read such
books through, so if you are in a hurry, first turn to the author's conclusions (which can
appear at the beginning as well as at the end of the book) and then use the index to work
back from there to see how he or she has constructed their case.

You will also find in the FB some books written by participants (Ray Strachey's The
Cause), and others compiled from recordings of participants (Antonia Raeburn's The
Militant Suffragettes or the BBC's Yesterday's Witness). These are valuable, but they have
to be treated with care. Participants will be able to give an 'inside' view, but such books as
Ray Strachey's were written before historians were allowed to read the government's own
papers on the subject, and will also tend to be partisan. Recent recordings of participants in
something that happened over seventy years ago are of course fascinating, but memories
are not always reliable. Still, you can use quotations from such books to 'bring to life'
particular attitudes and personalities.

Finally, don't forget two areas: biography and chronology. The Oxford Dictionary of
                                            23



National Biography (see 1.4.2.) has got long articles on all the main participants in recent
British history, provided they are dead, such as Mrs Emmeline Pankhurst, who died in
1928. Chronology is important because you've got to get events in the right order; you
should never say that event x influenced event y, when x happened after y. Looking up
dates in books like The Penguin Chronology of the Modern World also tells you what was
going on at the time of the subject you are interested in. You will see, for instance, that in
1911 not only women were taking drastic measures against the government, but strikers in
the docks and on the railways as well. Such events might have led to a 'climate of tension',
in which the tempers and reactions of everyone concerned got out of hand. In any case,
when a lot of events follow closely on one another, it is always useful to compile a 'month-
by-month' chronology for your own use.



2.4.4. Writing a Draft

After having drawn up your plan, you will generally find that further note-taking will make
you alter it. You may also observe that as you take notes, ideas start to 'jell', to become
positive. It is always useful to have a little notebook handy, which enables you to take these
down when away from your desk, but you may also want to start writing the essay proper.

If so, go ahead, starting by developing on the computer-screen the notes you have set
down. One of the 'pluses' of computing is the ability to transfer quotes or statistics directly
into your text. But you may not always want to start at the beginning; neither do you have
to. Perhaps Paragraph 3 of your plan, the paragraph concerned with Suffragette activities, is
'almost ready to write itself'. Do it double-spaced, with a good margin of about 2,5 to 3 cm
on your formatting. Choice of font is important; something like Times New Roman 12 used
here, double-spaced is pretty adequate. Once you reach the end of the paragraph, stop.

In this way you can shuffle the paragraphs, if you feel that the order could be improved.
You can also pick out one paragraph, alter it, and put it back. A problem that a lot of people
are facing at this stage is simply that of getting bored with, or worried stiff about, the whole
business. This scheme gives you the chance to go straight ahead with the bits that seem to
you the most interesting or straightforward, and in this way, to build up your confidence.
Word-processing simplifies matters a lot because you can re-jig your drafts on screen (use
small type to give an overview of sections or an entire essay) without having to produce
any 'definite' print-outs at this early stage.

Keep your style plain and straightforward. Avoid complex syntax, the passive tense and the
historic present: ‘Hitler bombs London in 1940’. Write English as you'd speak it, in short
sentences, with subordinate clauses kept to a minimum unless, of course, you feel confident
to experiment with them. (George Orwell's style is a good model, and the veteran journalist
Keith Waterhouse is worth reading on the subject.) Remember that, while sentence
structure is a matter of grammar, paragraphs are a matter of content and style. So use the
same rules for constructing the latter that you would apply in German. Where you have an
opinion, backed up by evidence, don't hesitate to write 'I think x ... because of y and z'. You
may also find it best to write 'blindly', without any notes. This forces you to remember the
most important facts and relationships, and also keeps you away from the prose style of the
                                             24



authors you have been reading, and after all, you'll have to end one of your Hauptseminars
with a traditional written examination (which ought to ensure that you keep your writing as
legible as possible).

This is one way of ensuring that you don't plagiarise (or copy). Tom Lehrer once said that
to copy from one book was plagiarism, whereas to copy from two books was research. As
far as I am concerned – and I have read the writers I recommend – copying work from any
number of authors, and presenting it as your own, gets an automatic fail grade. Quoting
(and attributing) an author's opinion or generalisation is all right, and frequently essential,
but (a) establish whether the author is worth quoting, and (b) avoid quotes which simply
state facts. Such information is better given in your own words, with appropriate
references.



2.4.5. References and Essay Length

References can be given in two main ways. (1) 'Arts style': You put a number in the text,
and the author, publisher, date and page number either at the foot of your page,1 or at the
back of the essay. (2) 'Social Sciences style': You put (Harvie, 1985, 1993, p. 18) in the
text, and put the same details as below (omitting the page number) in an alphabetical
Bibliography at the end of the essay. If, say, you quote another book of mine, it becomes
(Harvie, 1981, ...). The second system was much the simpler, as it avoids the need for
consecutive numbers in the text, footnote references and a Bibliography, but with a
computer 'Arts style' footnoting is easy. Too easy in fact, because there's a tendency to
reproduce the title again and again, instead of mastering 'ibid.' and 'op. cit.' The style
handbook of the Modern Language Association is generally taken as definitive.

How long should an essay be?

        For a LPS III or a Vorlesung + Übung, about 2,000-2,500 words, or 10-15 A4
        sheets, double-spaced, seems average.

        For a LH/OS, 2,500-3,500 words, or 15-20 pages, appears adequate. IVWL usually
        wants something a bit longer, about 4500 words.

I don't mind essays being shorter or longer, as long as their quality justifies this. But, please
print them double-spaced, with a broad margin.

One last word: be prepared to check and re-check your draft, preferably before you make a
final printout. This is the time that spelling and word-order mistakes should be corrected
against a textbook or dictionary. But if you spot mistakes in your final draft, no matter how
perfect the typescript looks, correct them. It is better to produce an ugly but correct script
than something handsome that only shows up sloppy work. After the tenth or eleventh
spelling-mistake, my sympathy is usually starting to dry up, and repeated mis-spelling of

1       Christopher Harvie, The Bumper Book of British Landeskunde (Tübingen:
        Englisches Seminar der Universität Tübingen, 1985; 4th rev. ed., 2004), p. 20.
                                           25



important names, institutions or concepts does put you at risk, as it gives the impression
that you haven't really read about them. It can be very useful to read your completed draft
out loud, either to a friend or into a cassette recorder. This often shows up sentences which
are ill-balanced and meanings that go astray. Grading: First 1,0; Borderline First 1,3; Good
Upper Second 1,7 – 2; Second 2,3 – 3; Third 3,3 – 4,0.



2.4.7. Not Just Material for a Schein...

Finally, please pay close attention to the comments that I make in the text of your essays,
and please present these essays in such a way that comments can be legibly and helpfully
inserted. In the British Open University, where students and teachers rarely met, the essay
was used as an important form of teaching, and I have tried to stick to this principle. This
tends to take two forms:

       (1) presenting, where necessary, suggestions for restructuring the content of the
       essay, and detailed points about the subject; and

       (2) rewriting, also where necessary, the text to provide accurate grammar, syntax
       and a flowing and attractive style. Sometimes, if your style shows real problems, I
       may return it 'quarter-corrected' and ask you to revise and resubmit. Don't be upset
       by this: it means I think the content is good, but without improvements to grammar
       and style, it would scrape through with 3,7 or 4. Revised, it will get a much better
       mark.

So please read these comments thoroughly, and I will certainly be prepared to discuss them
in detail with you.



2.5. Examinations

A major problem that confronts you, as German students, is coping with your final
examinations. In a British university, examinations occur regularly – between one and three
times per subject in the academic year. So by the time your finals come round (in only four
years maximum!), you will have had quite a lot of practice in memorising details, 'thinking
on your feet', and organising your writing so as to get down a lot of information in a very
restricted time.

The situation in Germany is quite different. Here all but one of your Scheine are awarded
on the basis of Referats and a Hausarbeit on which you can spend as much time as you
need, and which most of you will prefer to word-process. So a written exam, let alone an
oral one, in your finals will come as quite a new experience.
                                            26



2.5.1. Written Examination (Klausur)

In one respect, German written exams are less formidable than English ones. In the latter
you are completely in the hands of the examiners, who may – or may not – decide to set
questions on the topics you have revised. Here, you can choose the general area in which
you want to answer questions, and out of which it is up to me to pose three or four specific
ones. In the ‘old Prüfungsordnung’ you have five hours at your disposal in which to write
your answer, and in the ‘new’ (in which the Klausur terminates the seminar) three. It
should be possible in this time to write an essay of 1-2,000 words. Follow the same sort of
approach that I have outlined for writing a Hausarbeit, and don't be afraid to spend quite a
lot of time in jotting down an overall structure for the essay. Along with all other notes, this
plan has to be handed in together with your essay, but put a stroke through it, in order to
ensure that it is not going to be assessed.

The structuring of the essay is very important: if you start writing without a general plan
your treatment of details may tend to get unmanageably long; and then you 'balance' it by
making the next section equally long, etc. The whole essay can get completely unbalanced.
Finally, practise your handwriting. I notice that I get hardly any hand-written essays, and a
lot of illegible exam papers. A script which is murder to read alienates the examiner.



2.5.2. Oral Examination (Mündliche Prüfung) (altered)

Depending on your Studiengang, oral exams can last from half an hour (NF) to an hour
(HF), and can involve the discussion of from 2-3 to 5-6 Schwerpunkte. They are supposed
to be conducted in English, though native speakers may face 50 % in German and 50 % in
English, though in practice are nearly all in English. The new Masters requirements, for
example, recommend English only, except for native speakers. Maybe half an hour doesn't
sound too long, but in theory you could read aloud two essays of 1,800 words each in this
period. So you have to plan in advance, and very carefully, what you want to say. Although
examiners are, in my judgement, very generous and tolerant, I think that students often
don't do themselves justice in orals. This is largely because they don't know exactly what is
expected of them, and have little experience of what in Britain is called 'public speaking' –
something often picked up not in official classes but in debating societies and political
organisations. In these bodies – as, I hope, in our Culture Club – you learn to cope with the
'opposition' case against your own argument, and how to anticipate the various points that
can be directed against it. On literary topics, master your texts as well as theories and
critiques of them, and be prepared to dissect them. Enthusiasm and affection for what
you're studying can make for the right sort of atmosphere.

One way of doing this is to plan your oral presentation as you would plan an essay. Do this
down one side of a sheet of paper – but then (on the other side) note down the various
objections and counter-arguments. Even better, sit down with one of your friends and get
him or her to play the part of examiner or 'devil's advocate'. Above all, project your answers
as coherent sentences and paragraphs, as if you were giving a broadcast on the subject.
Don't be afraid to challenge your examiners when you think your information is better, but
choose your ground well, i.e. don't launch into elaborate explanations of details; don't
                                               27



waffle on about something you're ignorant of – it's better to say straightforwardly that you
don't know and save time for something on which you are better informed.



3. PECULIARITIES OF THE BRITISH

  ( ... or technical points which will, sooner or later, turn up)


3.1. Styles and Titles

British society is incredibly status-conscious, yet, in contrast to German academic writing,
its English equivalent tends to informality, rather as a London club might be difficult to get
into, but has a relaxed atmosphere inside. Hence, certain stylistic conventions ought to be
observed; particularly in referring to proper names.

Unless he or she has a household name, always introduce a writer (the procedure is rather
like physically introducing him to your friends) with his/her accepted name, which usually
involves the Christian (Vor-) name but rarely (unlike in America) the middle name or
initial (but see below). So while you could get away with this:

        Marx's thesis of the primacy of productive relationships in determining social class
        was challenged by Dahrendorf in the 1950s.

as a first mention of two names, as both Marx and Dahrendorf are well-known, you
couldn't introduce me like that. Nor is it good English style to call me C. Harvie, as in
German style (although C.T. Harvie is fine; many writers and academics prefer to be
known by multiple initials - F.R. Leavis, T.S. Eliot, W.B. Yeats, F.S.L. Lyons, but few use
only one initial).

Once you have introduced the writer, use the surname alone in subsequent mentions unless
family references make it confusing. Feminist literary critics frequently use the first names
of their subjects, and this is permissible where it can be done without confusion (no-one
would call George Eliot 'George'). So, too, do some Welsh critics, as to use surnames
where there are only half a dozen around - Evans, Thomas, Jones, Williams - can be
monumentally baffling.

Academic titles (Professor or Doctor, never both) are rarely used on first introducing a
writer, although they can be used to accompany the surname on a subsequent mention, as
can the plain title of 'Mr', 'Mrs' or 'Ms' ,but in the latter cases only if the writer is still alive.
Non-medical, academic or honorary academic titles have not got the public and political
clout that they have in Germany. A professor who goes into politics will be plain Mr, but a
medical man can use his title. At one time it was common to use military ranks above the
rank of major in public life (even if they were gained through wartime commissions or the
territorial forces) but this has largely died out, even in the Conservative Party.

At the same time the 'honours system' means that you may have problems of court etiquette
                                             28



on your hands. I'm not going into this in detail, as Appendix 2 of R K Webb's Modern
England (London: Allen and Unwin, 1969) says all there is to say about what distinguishes
dukes from earls and what you do when you meet one. One point, however, is frequently
fumbled. The titles 'Sir' (knight) and 'Lord' are often given to writers and academics. The
first is purely honorific; the second allows the recipient to sit in the House of Lords and
thus to take part in legislation. If such people as (Sir) Angus Wilson or (Lord) Asa Briggs
come up in a Hausarbeit, you have two options: either ignore the title, which is acceptable
(and far easier), or observe the rules, which are

        (1) with knights: First give the full name and title ('Sir Angus Wilson'), and in
        subsequent references use either 'Sir Angus' or 'Wilson' but never 'Angus' or 'Sir
        Wilson' (a form I notice favoured by Bild - enough said);

        (2) with Lords (peers): give title ('Lord Briggs') and subsequently use 'Briggs'.
        Never use 'Lord Asa Briggs' (this form, with the christian name, means the son of a
        senior peer, like a duke).



3.2. Composing Letters and CVs (Lebensläufe)

One practical piece of Landeskunde you are likely to be faced with is writing letters to
officials and representatives in connexion with research, exchanges, jobs, access to libraries
and museums, etc., and compiling information – German Lebenslauf, British: Curriculum
Vitae (CV) – on which I or another academic will have to base a reference or Gutachten.

The rules of letter-writing are fairly simple: (1) Try to find out who you are writing to
(name of headmaster or -mistress, secretary or registrar, etc.). To start a letter with 'Dear Sir
or Madam', though correct, can be off-putting, although in a case like getting access to a
library you can be impersonal, as long as you get the title and address of the institution
right! But if you use a name, you must get its title right, Prof or Dr, or Mrs, or Miss (Ms is
acceptable up to the age of about 60!). (2) Keep the letter brief, and type it. Preferably it
should extend over no more than three paragraphs (about half a page of text on an A4
sheet). If you have to explain about a project, or yourself, at greater length, put this on a
separate sheet, which can be duplicated and photocopied. Recipients don't object to
photocopied enclosures, but they rarely look twice at photocopied letters. (3) Check your
English carefully, and make sure that any reference to German qualifications are made
roughly comparable with British equivalents, i.e.:

        Between 1996 and 2002 I attended the Classical Gymnasium (Humanistisches
        Gymnasium) in Heidenheim, having taken a course with the emphasis on classics
        and modern languages (Leistungskurse), and achieved an average result of 2. This
        is roughly equivalent to A levels in Latin, Greek, French and English.

The impression that you can make such comparisons will stand to your credit if you are,
say, applying for a job! As to content, while it's interesting to know about your occupations,
sisters and brothers, what counts with a possible employer is you: not just your formal
academic qualifications, but what you read, your grasp of foreign languages, and your
                                            29



spare time activities. Always think, when composing your CV, how would I put this across
in an interview?



3.3. Popular Mistakes

This is not a guide to grammar, but at this stage it is worth pointing out some very common
mistakes (apart from spelling and word-order) that I've encountered after correcting five
hundred-odd Hausarbeits.

[a] also, especially

Don't start sentences with these words:

        'Also a lot of children came';

should be:

        'A lot of children also came'

        'Especially she liked to work with Alfred Hitchcock'

should be:

        'She liked in particular to work with Alfred Hitchcock'


[b] colons/Doppelpunkte:

After these, in English, use lower case:

        The War Cabinet was unspecialised: its members could move from ministry to
        ministry.


[c] economics

Since a good few of you are doing IVWL you have to get this straight:

        'The towns of Britain were affected by economical change in the textile industry.'

is wrong. 'Economical' means 'günstig' or 'billig'. Use 'economic' for 'wirtschaftlich'.


[d] example

Again the intention/description problem:
                                            30




        The Albert Memorial was a good example of Gothic Revival architecture

But

        As a teacher, your conduct must be a good example to the others.

Or

        As a teacher, your conduct must set a good example for the others.


[e] experienced

'Dickens experienced poverty as a young man (not: 'Dickens made experience(s) of
poverty…'


[f] footnote references:

Computerised footnotes have one troublesome consequence: they can clog up your text.
Footnote 1 is correct

      1. Christopher Harvie, Scotland: a Short History, Oxford: Oxford U.P, 2002,
         p. 88.
      2. Christopher Harvie, Scotland: a Short History, Oxford: Oxford U.P, 2002,.
         p. 93.

But footnote 2 wastes space. What you should have is:

      1. Christopher Harvie, Scotland: a Short History, Oxford: Oxford U.P. p. 88.
      2. Ibid, p. 93

or if footnote 3 refers to another work, and then you return to the first book:

      5. Harvie, op. cit. p. 93.

If you have a lot of references to a book (suppose you're writing an essay on Charles
Dickens's Hard Times) then use page numbers in your text in brackets (p. 247). Important:
always give the date of first publication of the work you cite, for example:

      6. Charles Dickens, Hard Times, 1854, Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1969, p. 247.


[g] The first stems from confusion over the use of the infinitive and the present
participle. For instance, many students write sentences like this:

        Victorian engineers were busy to build hundreds of miles of railway line.
                                               31



The correct usage is:

          Victorian engineers were busy building hundreds of miles of railway line.

The rule, which has exceptions, is that, where continuing action is implied, you use the
present participle ('building'); where intention, you use the infinitive ('to build'):

          Victorian engineers were trained to build hundreds of miles of railway line.

Roughly, if you can slot the words 'in order to' between the first section of your phrase and
the verb, use the infinitive (you need not, of course, retain 'in order to').


[h] information

is always thus. The word 'Informations' does exist, but this is a highly technical legal use,
meaning evidence in criminal courts.


[i] Schulbesuch

In Britain you 'attend' school, you don't 'visit' it.


[j] There is no straightforward English equivalent to German constructions involving the
verb sollen, usually translated as 'should'. For instance, the German sentence

          Die geplante Eisenbahn sollte London und Birmingham verbinden.

doesn't translate as:

          The proposed railway should connect London and Birmingham.

but as:

          The proposed railway would (or, was to) connect London and Birmingham.




3.4. Rates of Exchange


3.4.1. Pre-Decimal Coinage
                                             32



Even after attempts at 'metrication', certain basic British measurements remain distinct from
the continent (one mile = 1.61 km; an acre of land = 0.4047 of a hectare; a foot = 0.3048 of
a metre; a pound (lb) = 0.45 of a kilogramme, a pint = 0.56 of a litre). These are likely to
remain in usage for the foreseeable future, although a 'creeping metrication', particularly in
the schools and through multinationally-marketed products, means that they will gradually
die out. They are, however, in such common use that it is relatively easy to adapt to them.

It is quite different with the coinage, which was 'decimalised' in 1970, with, at values under
£1, only two coins, the 10p 'florin' and the 5p 'shilling' surviving physically until c. 1990.
This means that to understand the wages and prices we find in the majority of British
novels, etc. - and the vast mass of such sums were, until after World War II, under £ 1 - we
have to understand how the old 'duodecimal' system worked, and what a sum like 7/3½d
(seven and threepence ha'penny) meant. Table 1 on p. 27 shows how the old system
worked.

These are some typical pre-1914 sums: Seven and six a week (7/6d) was a young labourer's
wage; thirty bob a week (30/-) that of a clerk; nothing in Woolworth's Stores was priced
over sixpence (6d); a penny was the standard charge for a letter, or a mile's travel by train,
second class.



3.4.2 Inflation since 1900

There is a general British conviction that before World War I, not only was the weather
better but everything cost less: 'You could have a couple of pints and go to the music hall
and still have change out of a shilling'. But against this assumption, it is important to realise
what a shilling, or a pound, was actually worth at a given time. The following table shows
the decline in the real value of the £ since 1900:


TABLE 2: VALUE OF £

up to   1900    1924    1935    1951     1960     1976   1984    1992    2005

        100p* 50p       61p     25p      20p      6.5p   2.8p    1.6p    1.2
*
 real prices in the nineteenth century were stable or fell
Note: Ireland has the Euro, Britain so far doesn’t.

To calculate the value in present-day terms of something that cost, say, 1d in 1900, first we
would have to reduce 1d to decimal terms (100p : 240d = 0.42) and then, multiply this sum
by the number of times the present value of the £ goes into its 1900 value (100p : 1.6p =
62.5). So:

        A standard stamp at 1d in 1900 would cost 26.25p in today's money (roughly the
        same as it does today).
                                            33



        A small family car at £95 in 1935 would cost (£95 x 61/1.6) £3,622 today, or perhaps
        be 50 % cheaper than the normal type today, but

        A two-bedroom semi-detached house at £400 would be (£400 x 61/1.6) £15,250, as
        against real present costs of £100,000-130,000.

In other words the cost of motoring has become 50 % cheaper, while that of housing has
become maybe 8 times more expensive. 'It's a funny old world', as Mrs Thatcher said...



3.5. Don't Know Much About Geography …

Some years back I tested students to see if they could locate several important British cities.
Out of ten, only one was placed correctly. It is very important that you know roughly where
these places are (on what coast, whether North or South, East or West), because you are
likely to come across frequent references such as 'twenty miles north of Leeds', and if you
think Leeds is in South Wales, you're in trouble. So here I would like to offer a very simple
map, which I want you to commit to memory. Not much to ask ...!?
                                            34



TABLE 1: PRE-DECIMAL COINAGE

 Value in           Duodecimal                   Name (Nickname)           Notes
 New Pence          Coinage
                    2 x ¼d          = ½d         halfpenny                 all copper coins; penny
 no decimal         (farthing)                   (ha'penny, pl.ha'pence)   about the size and
 equivalent         2 x ½d          = 1d         penny, pl. pence          weight of a 5 DM coin.
                    3 x 1d          = 3d         threepenny bit            c. 1930-70; originally
                                                                           silver, then a sixteen-
                                                                           sided nickel coin.
 2½                 6 x 1d          = 6d         sixpence (tanner)         abolished by 1980
 5                  12 x 1d         = 1/-        shilling (bob)            abolished by 1990
 10                 2 x 1/-         = 2/-        florin                    the first 'decimal' coin (10
                                                                           x 2/- = £ 1);
                                                                           introduced in the 1860s;
                                                                           abolished in 1992.
 12½                2/- and 6d      =2/6d        half-a-crown              abolished by 1970
                                                 (half-a-dollar)
 25                 5/-                          crown (dollar)            only issued on ceremonial
                                                                           occasions
 50                 10/-                         half sovereign (gold)     originally a gold coin,
                                                 ten-shilling-note         then a sepia-and white;
                                                 (ten-bob-note,            note only issued by the
                                                 half-a-nicker)            Bank of England from
                                                                           1914 until c. 1970.
 £ 1 coin                                        sovereign (gold)          until 1914 a gold coin
                                                 pound note                about the size of a
                                                 (nicker, smacker, quid,   present-day copper new
                                                 etc., etc.)               penny; the note lasted
                                                                           until 1985 but is still
                                                                           issued by private banks in
                                                                           Scotland, Northern
                                                                           Ireland and Isle of Man.
 £ 1 1-                                          guinea                    never found in our time
                                                                           as coin, but often used for
                                                                           lawyers' fees, wagers on
                                                                           horses, etc.

<Coins from 6d (sixpence) to 5/- were originally silver but after 1914 nickel-silver.>
                                                                 35



WS/SS .............                                                   Prof. C.T. Harvie


STUDENT RECORD SHEET


Name ...........................................................


Addresses (semester, home, e-mail):
......................................................
.......................................................
.......................................................


Telephone No ................................................


Seminar Title .................................................


Attendance Record 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17


Project undertaken ..........................................


Referat Session ...............                 Final Result .........


Studiengang: Magister O
Staatsexamen O
Internationale Volkswirtschaftslehre O


Hauptfach/-fächer ................... / .....................
Nebenfach/-fächer ................... / .....................


Semester No ........


Books borrowed .............................................
..................................................................
                                                                 36



..................................................................
WS/SS .............                                                   Prof. C.T. Harvie


STUDENT RECORD SHEET


Name ...........................................................


Addresses (semester, home, e-mail):
......................................................
.......................................................
.......................................................


Telephone No ................................................


Seminar Title .................................................


Attendance Record 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17


Project undertaken ..........................................


Referat Session ...............                 Final Result .........


Studiengang: Magister O
Staatsexamen O
Internationale Volkswirtschaftslehre O


Hauptfach/-fächer ................... / .....................
Nebenfach/-fächer ................... / .....................


Semester No ........


Books borrowed .............................................
                                                                 37



..................................................................
..................................................................

				
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