role-based-accessibility by zhouwenjuan

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									                 U.S. General Services Administration




Role-Based Accessibility in
            Government:
       Everyone’s Responsibility
                              #RoleBasedA11y




                 Angela M. Hooker

     DigitalGov University, November 2012
Hi! I’m Angela, your
accessibility consultant.



                            2
You don’t need me …




                      3
You don’t need me … as
much as you think.



                         4
We accessibility consultants
are tasked with all the work
to make sure projects are
accessible.
                               5
Often, people think we only
use a checklist, after a
project is fully developed, to
test for accessibility.
                                 6
We’ve treated accessibility as
an issue only relevant to
development.


                                 7
Or, sometimes people think
that if we “test with JAWS” …



                                8
Or, some think if I run a
project through WAVE, or the
Web Accessibility Toolbar, or
FireEyes, or aChecker, or …
                                9
But …




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But … it’s not working.




                          11
One person can’t do it all …




                               12
One person can’t do it all …
you need an accessibility
team …


                               13
One person can’t do it all …
you need an accessibility
team … that you already
have.
                               14
The key is your current staff
can work together to create
accessible projects.


                                15
It doesn’t matter if you’re …
in upper management.



                                16
It doesn’t matter if you’re …
a developer.



                                17
It doesn’t matter if you’re …
a project manager.



                                18
It doesn’t matter if you’re …
a usability specialist.



                                19
It doesn’t matter if you’re …
an accessibility specialist.



                                20
If we’re to produce
accessible projects …



                        21
We must change our
process!



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We must change our
process! But, how?



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… by using “P-O-U-R”
principles from the Web
Content Accessibility
Guidelines (WCAG 2.0)
                          24
What is POUR?

WCAG 2.0         Perceivable
principles       Operable
of               Understandable
accessibility:   Robust


                              25
Accessibility responsibilities

• Accessibility
  Responsibility
  Breakdown
• Based on WCAG 2.0
• Canadian
  Government
• Coopérative
  AccessibilitéWeb


                                 26
Accessibility responsibilities

• Project management
• Analysis
• Information architecture
• Interaction design
• Graphic design, including mockups
• Prototype
• Editing (content development)
                                      27
Accessibility responsibilities

• Development
• Quality assurance—testing
• Upper management




                                 28
Tasks




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Project management

• Integrate and plan accessibility
• Oversee tasks and responsibilities
• Choose technical and functional
  criteria
• Distinguish between accessibility and
  conformance with the law/guidelines
• Know the limitations of the tools
• Assess technology platforms’ impact
                                          30
Project management

• Responsibilities from WCAG 2.0
   –Overseer: all guidelines
   –Successful results
   –Degree of accessibility
   –Documentation



                                   31
Analysis

• Analysis of platforms, interfaces,
  etc.
• Solve problems/consider user
  interaction and behaviors
  –Prevent errors
  –Determine what happens upon error
  –When items receive focus/context
  –Timing, re-authentication
  –Contextual help
                                       32
Information architecture

• Structure of pages and content
  –Relationships among info types
  –Page titles
  –How to navigate to each page
  –Headings and labels (including forms)




                                       33
Interaction design

• Scripting, content changes,
  interactivity:
  –Design conveys content relationships—
   headings, spacing, lists
  –Content is perceivable without regard
   to location, size, shape, color
  –Keyboard navigation
  –Flashing content—3 times per second
  –Minimize errors
                                       34
Graphic design

• The overall look and feel of every
  interface—including navigation,
  content
  –Consistent behavior throughout
  –Logical design/reading order
  –Color contrast
  –Real text instead of graphics of text
  –Font size

                                           35
Prototyping

• Building HTML and CSS templates
  –Separation of style from content
  –Page language
  –Alt text for all non-text items
  –Pages parse properly (compatibility)
  –Keyboard navigation



                                          36
Content/editing

• Authoring the site’s written
  content, alternative text, and other
  content
  –Content structure
  –Plain language
  –Consistent behavior
  –Prevent errors/error text
  –Captions and audio descriptions

                                     37
Development

• Integrating HTML and CSS;
  programming scripts and
  applications
  –Building from the prototype
  –Progressive enhancement/behavior
  –Captioning multimedia
  –Widgets
  –APIs

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Quality assurance

• Verifying that the team followed
  the guidelines properly
  –Test with accessibility tools
  –Manual review/read code
  –Test with assistive technologies
  –Review content for readability




                                      39
Quality assurance

• Checklists versus usability and
  access:
  –Use a checklist when testing, so you
   don’t forget anything
  –You can satisfy every requirements
   and still have accessibility problems
  –Don’t lose sight of your users’ ability
   to access your info and complete
   tasks
                                             40
Upper management: You set
the tone in your
organization.


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Upper management’s role

• Support accessibility
• Require accessibility
• Encourage teamwork
• Make your environment conducive
  to teamwork
• Trust your team—let them do their
  jobs and empower them

                                  42
What about vendors?




                      43
Projects by vendors

• Make sure your contract requires
  accessible products built to your
  specifications and subject to your
  interpretation of accessibility
• Ask to see their process for building in
  accessibility, and require documentation
  for your project
• Schedule checkpoints where you verify
  their work

                                         44
Pitfalls to avoid and
lessons to learn




                        45
It doesn’t work

• Not training team members in
  accessibility
• Having the accessibility champ do all
  the testing at every interval
• Putting the work before relationships
• Forgetting that guidelines overlap
• Not involving upper management
• Thinking the process won’t evolve

                                          46
It doesn’t work

• Focusing only on “checklist
  accessibility” rather than “functional
  accessibility”
• Allowing the accessibility program to be
  personality driven—it must outlive you
  and me




                                             47
Cooperating with your
colleagues




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You and your colleagues

• What can you do to bridge the gap
  between people, departments, and
  philosophies?
  –Sometimes an accessibility consultant
   has to be a counselor, evangelist,
   educator, and/or a maverick (among
   other roles)
  –Make sure you’re not being a nag

                                       49
You and your colleagues

 –Stand against any existing “us versus
  them” vibe
 –Create a “no shame; no blame”
  atmosphere
 –Take every opportunity to educate
  your colleagues




                                      50
You and your colleagues

• Negotiate with your team and
  management
  –Come armed with research, statistics,
   analytics—whatever they’ll respond to
  –Think of it as finding the best outcome
   for users—it’s not about winning
  –Be forthright, but be careful
  –See Carol Smith’s “Empower Yourself:
   Negotiate for the User”

                                             51
You and your colleagues

• You know these principles, but we
  assume management does, too—
  they might not
  –Save time: It takes time to
   implement accessibility, but it’s faster
   than remediating
  –Save money: It takes money to
   implement accessibility, but it’s
   cheaper than remediating
                                          52
You and your colleagues

 –It’s the law
 –It’s the right thing
 –You might need it




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Final words




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In a nutshell …

• Start small
• One person may have many roles
• Adapt this process to your organization
  and its culture—keep it evolving
• Build rapport within and among teams—
  talk
• Negotiate—don’t be afraid
• It’s about what’s best for users

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Resources




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P-O-U-R

• WCAG 2.0 Principles of
  Accessibility, World Wide Web
  Consortium
• Constructing a POUR Website,
  WebAIM




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Project management

• Integrating Accessibility in the
  Organization’s Web Development Life
  Cycle, Denis Boudreau
• Accessibility for Project Managers,
  Henny Swan
• Managing Accessibility Compliance in
  the Enterprise, Karl Groves
• Plan for Accessibility, Option Keys


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Project management

• Planning Accessibility, Government of
  Canada
• Just Ask: Integrating Accessibility
  Throughout Design, Shawn Lawton
  Henry
• Disability types/issues
  –Visually, cognitively, motor, and hearing
   impaired; neurological/seizure disorders;
   elderly and aging

                                               59
Writing content

• Accessibility for Web Writers, 4
  Syllables
• Content and Usability: Web
  Writing, WebCredible
• Clear Helper – resources to
  produce accessible content for
  people with cognitive disabilities
• Readability Test, Juicy Studio
                                       60
Design

• Web Accessibility for Designers,
  WebAIM
• Just Ask: Integrating Accessibility
  Throughout Design, Shawn Lawton
  Henry
• Design Considerations, WebAIM



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Design

• Color Contrast Checker, WebAIM
• Accessibility Color Wheel
• Vischeck Color Contrast Photoshop
  Plug-in
• Trace Photosensitive Epilepsy
  Analysis Tool (PEAT) – tests
  flashing content

                                      62
Prototyping/development

• Build a library of accessible code!
• Use code generators (see the tools
  at Accessify)
• W3C Mobile Web Best Practices
• Web Accessibility Gone Wild,
  WebAIM


                                    63
Prototyping/development

• Accessibility testing tools
  –Juicy Studio Accessibility Toolbar
   (Firefox)—reviews ARIA, data tables,
   and color contrast
  –FireEyes, Deque
  –WAVE, WebAIM
  –Web Accessibility Toolbar (WAT; IE
   and Opera), The Paciello Group

                                          64
Quality assurance

• Accessibility Evaluation Resources,
  W3C-Web Accessibility Initiative
• Evaluation, Testing, and Tools,
  WebAIM
• WCAG 2.0 Checklist, WebAIM
• Wickline Color Blind Web Page
  Filter

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Quality assurance

• Favelets for Checking Web
  Accessibility, Jim Thatcher
• Trace Photosensitive Epilepsy
  Analysis Tool (PEAT) – tests
  flashing content
• Evaluating Websites for
  Accessibility, Web Accessibility
  Initiative (WAI)
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Quality assurance

• Central Office of Information,
  Delivering Inclusive Websites
• Establishing a Screen Reader Test
  Plan, Henny Swan
• Web Accessibility Gone Wild,
  WebAIM
• Template for Accessibility
  Evaluation Reports, W3C-WAI
                                      67
Thank you!

Angela Hooker
angela.hooker@gsa.gov
@AccessForAll




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