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					             HISTORY 3040

  CANADA AND THE WORLD


           The 1920s
                    Part Two
                                    Dr. Curtis Cole
December 27, 2009
                           Trent University in Oshawa
The 1920s: Part Two




  The New Soviet Union
The 1920s: Part Two




 The Russian Revolution
The 1920s: Part Two




    KARL MARX
      1818-1883
         The 1920s: Part Two




KARL MARX              FRIEDRICH ENGELS
  1818-1883                 1820-1895


THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO, 1848
         The 1920s: Part Two

THE COMMUNIST MANIFESTO, 1848
•unified German republic
•democratic suffrage
•universal free education
•arming the people
•progressive income tax
•limitations on inheritance
•state ownership of banks, railroads, canals,
mines, etc.
•collectivized agriculture
The 1920s: Part Two




    KARL MARX
 DAS KAPITAL, 1867
        The 1920s: Part Two

                MARXISM
                    •French Revolution
                    •Industrial Revolution
                    •German philosophy
                    •Social and Economic
                     Equality
                    •Personal Liberty
  KARL MARX
                    •Alienation
DAS KAPITAL, 1867
         The 1920s: Part Two

                  MARXISM
                   •Classes
                  •Feudal
                  •Bourgeois
                  •Class Conflict
                  •Revolution
  KARL MARX         •England, 1642
DAS KAPITAL, 1867   •France, 1789
                    •Germany 1848
        The 1920s: Part Two

                  MARXISM
                   •Classes
                   •Bourgeois
                   •Proletariat
                   •Dialectic Aristotle
   KARL MARX
                   •Social Revolution
DAS KAPITAL, 1867 •Dictatorship of the
                   Proletariat
      The 1920s: Part Two

•Russia, 1917
•Government by “Soviets”
•top down, not bottom up




                           Lenin
       The 1920s: Part Two

•New Constitution: July 19, 1918
•Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic
•local Soviets
   •provincial Congress of Soviets
   •All Russian Congress of Soviets
   •Executive Committee
   •People’s Commissars
•open elections

                                  Lenin
      The 1920s: Part Two

•Communist Party
  •Central Committee
  •Political Bureau
•ruled country




                        Lenin
      The 1920s: Part Two

•New Constitution: July 19, 1918
•Part One:
  Declaration of the Rights of Toiling and
  Exploited Peoples




                                Lenin
      The 1920s: Part Two

•New Constitution: July 19, 1918
•All Russian Congress
  •Central Executive Committee
  •Council of People’s Commissars
  (Sovnarkom)
  •Soviet Democracy
  = Communist Party
    Monopoly

                             Lenin
      The 1920s: Part Two

•New Constitution: July 19, 1918
•disenfranchised:
  •exploiters
  •private business people
  •clergy
  •pre-revolutionary police
  •royalty
  •mentally unfit
  •criminals
  •“enemies of the people”
                              Lenin
      The 1920s: Part Two

•New Constitution: July 19, 1918
•disproportionate urban vote
     1 urban vote = 5 rural votes
•federal constitution
•Communist Party born March 1918
•membership restricted
•First Purge, 1921


                            Lenin
        The 1920s: Part Two



              All-Union Congress of Soviets
              Central Committee
               Politburo

               Orgburo

               Secretariat
Lenin
    The 1920s: Part Two



   Original Politburo Members




Lenin        Stalin      Trotsky
The 1920s: Part Two




        Lenin
   died January, 1924
    The 1920s: Part Two



         Lenin’s Successors?




Stalin                         Trotsky
   The 1920s: Part Two



             Leon Bronstein - born 1879
             Chairman, St. Petersburg
              Soviet, 1905
             joined Bolsheviks 1917
             Commissar for War
Trotsky      Lenin considered him
              “heir-apparent”
   The 1920s: Part Two


            born 1879
            born in Georgia




Stalin
The 1920s: Part Two
   The 1920s: Part Two


            born 1879
            born in Georgia
            Josip Djugashvili




Stalin
The 1920s: Part Two

 “Comrade Stalin, having
 become General Secretary,
 has concentrated enormous
 power in his hands, and I am
 not sure he always knows
 how to use that power with
 sufficient caution....
                    Lenin’s
                  “Testament”
The 1920s: Part Two
 “Stalin is too rude, and this fault,
 acceptable among us Communists, is
 intolerable in the office of General
 Secretary. Therefore I propose to the
 Comrades to find a way to remove
 Stalin from that position and appoint
 to it a man who is... more patient,
 more loyal, more polite, and more
 attentive to comrades, less
 capricious.…”
  Not published for 30 years!
                                 Lenin’s
                                “Testament”
The 1920s: Part Two




       Stalin
The 1920s: Part Two




  Stalin with Molotov
   The 1920s: Part Two




Molotov, Stalin and Voroshilov
The 1920s: Part Two




      Trotsky
     The 1920s: Part Two




Lev Kamenev
                Grigorii Zinoviev
      The 1920s: Part Two




Lev Kamenev   Leon Trotsky
                             Grigorii Zinoviev
The 1920s: Part Two




           Trotsky
Assassinated, Mexico City, 1940
    HISTORY 304

CANADA AND THE WORLD
  NEXT CLASS: January 11, 2010

          The 1930s
          Part One
             Reading:
    Stacey, vol. II, pp. 122-193

				
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