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					            The Nile River
• Located in Northeast Africa
• Flows North 4,145 miles or 6,671kilometers
  from mountains of central Africa to the
  Mediterranean Sea
• Last 600 miles in Egypt
• Shortly before the Niles reaches the
  Mediterranean Sea it branches to form an
  area of fertile land called a delta
• Every July the Nile River flooded the river banks
  leaving behind large amounts of rich soil.
• Water was lifted from the Nile using machines
  called shadoofs to basins- bowl shaped holes- to
  water crops during the dry season
• Protected by the surrounding desert,
  Mediterranean Sea, and cataracts-waterfalls
Why did most Egyptians live in
       the Nile delta?

 The Nile provided rich soils for farming
 and protection
       Egypt’s Two Kingdoms
• Upper Kingdom           • Lower Kingdom
• Southern part of Nile   • North Delta
  River Valley
• Namer also known as
  Menes was king
About 3100 B.C. Narmer led armies to
conquer Lower Egypt. He succeeded and
married one of the princesses, uniting both
kingdoms. He wore a double crown- high
white of the South and shallow red of the
      Old Kingdom 2600 B.C.
• Lasted nearly 500 years
• During this time cities became centers of
  religion and government
• Kings, priests and government officials, and
  artisans-skilled workers- lived in the cities
• However, most Egyptians did not live in the
  cities. They lived along the banks of the
  Nile which was owned by the rich.
       Old Kingdom 2600 B.C.
• The rich lived in wood and brick houses with
  beautiful gardens and pools. Servants and artisans
  lived there also to make boats, weave linen, make
  tools and pottery.
• Poorer, most people, farmed the estate and lived in
  reed and mud houses later mud brick that was
  built on high ground to avoid flooding
• When not farming, they built monuments, dug
  ditches, and repaired roads.
      Old Kingdom 2600 B.C.
• During this time Egyptians kings became
  pharaohs- great house.
• Pharaohs were given great respect
• The Egyptians believed that a strong
  country came from a strong ruler
Old Kingdom 2600 B.C.
          • Rulers, priests, gods
          • Ruled on earth as other
            gods ruled in heaven
          • Owned all land in Egypt-
            gave gifts to rich and
          • Created dams and irrigation
            canals to preserve rich
          • Granaries- buildings for
            storing grain in case of a
            bad harvest
          • Controlled everything-
            taxes, trade, and permits
      Old Kingdom 2600 B.C.
         Religious Beliefs
• Believed in many gods
• Hapi-River god
• Re- Sun god
• Osiris- god of harvest
  and eternal life
• Isis and Osiris- ruled
  over the dead

     Apedemak   Gods and
Old Kingdom 2600 B.C.
   Religious Beliefs
           • Egyptians studied
             “Book of the Dead” to
             learn magic spells in
             order to be granted life
             after death
           • Embalming-preserve
             bodies of the dead
     Old Kingdom 2600 B.C.
   Religious beliefs-Embalming
• Involved placing the   • 1st used because they
  body in a box and        believed pharaohs’
  covering it with the     souls could not live
  chemical natron. The     w/o their body
  body would dry up      • Important so soul
  causing shrinkage.       could take care of
  Body was then
  wrapped in linen-      • Later used for
                           everyone-rich in
  mummy                    coffins in tombs, poor
                           in sand
A hole was made
in the body, and
the embalmers
pulled out all the
internal organs
except for the
Hole stuffed
with linen and
After 40 days,
the body was
wrapped in
Priests said
spells while
the body was
        Old Kingdom 2600 B.C.
• Built on West bank of
  Nile because the sun set in
• To honor and protect
  pharaoh’s body from
  floods, robbers, and
• Pharaohs buried with
  personal belongings to
  make them happy after
Pharaoh Djoser
Step Pyramid at
in Giza
    Middle Kingdom 2300 B.C.
• Government officials take over
• 200 years of confusion follows
• Pharaohs take back control and bring peace this is
  known as the Middle Kingdom
• Pharaohs had less power- buried in tombs after
• Started to trade with countries beyond the Nile
• Ended in 1786 B.C- Hykos, people of Western
  Asia, invaded using weapons of bronze and iron,
  and chariots—Egyptians had weapons of copper
  and stone, and of foot
   Middle Kingdom 2300 B.C.
• The Hykos ruled Egypt for about 150 years.
• Even though many of the customs stayed
  the same, Egyptians hated them.
• Around 1550 B.C. Egyptian Prince
  Ahmose, using Hykos weapons, uprose and
  drove out the Hykos.
             New Kingdom
• Ahmose started a new line of pharaohs
• Hatshepsut-pharaoh who built temples and
  traded with areas along the east coast of
  Africa. Traded for monkeys, ivory, ebony-
  blackwood, leopard skins, incense, and
  hunting dogs
• Egypt grew richer and stronger, larger cities
Temple of
            New Kingdom
• Pharaohs marched armies into lands of the
• Thutmose III, stepson of
  Hathshepsut,spread control into Syria and
  Palestine forming the Egyptian Empire
           New Kingdom
• Egyptians began worshipping a new god,
  combining Amon, god of Thebes which was
  also the new capital, with sun god Re
  creating new god Amon-Re, most powerful
  god of all
• Many temples were built in his honor
               New Kingdom
• Industrial centers providing work for sculptors and
• Treasuries
• Schools for scribes-writers, profession passed
  from father to son. Scribes wrote religious works
  such as spells, charms, and prayers. Also records
  of pharaohs’ laws, list of taxes, stories, and
  medical prescriptions
• Hieroglyphic- kind of writing in which pictures
  stand for words or sounds, appear on monuments
         Decline of the Egypt
• Priests of Amon-Re gained power in government,
  land, and wealth
• Pharaohs lose power
• 1370 BC Amenhotep IV wanted pharaohs to rule
  so he closed temples of Amon-Re and set up new
  religion with only one god, Aton. Only family
  and close advisors accepted
• 1360 B.C. Amenhotep died, son-in-law
  Tutankhamen became pharaoh. Only 9 years old
  and died after ruling 9 years.
Pharaoh Tutankhamun Canopic
Boats found
n’s Tomb
        Decline of the Egypt
        Egypts lose of Power
• War
• Struggle between priests and pharaohs
• Importation of iron ore for weapons- cost to
• 1150 B.C. Egypt’s empire was gone
• Civilization was taken over by the
  Assyrians in 671 B.C.
     Contributions of Egyptians
• Papyrus- paper made from a reed called papyrus,
  also used to make sandals, baskets, rafts, river
• Ink
• Number system based on 10, fractions and whole
  numbers, geometry to survey land after floods
• Used flooding to create a calendar
• First specialist in medicine- dentists, eye doctors,
  animal doctors, surgeons, splints, bandages,
  compresses, settling bones
Using this
map what are
some physical
of Egypt?

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