Evaluation of OAP in Karnataka - Final Report - Phase 100005

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					                       Evaluation of Old Age Pension schemes in Karnataka –Final Report

                                     1. Introduction
India today is caught between a rapidly changing demographic profile, emerging
economic opportunities, an amalgamation of global and local socio-economic
systems, and changing value systems and ideologies, both at the personal level as
well as at the societal level. Thus, in India’s development context, the management
of safety nets for the ageing population of the country is crucial because senior
citizens require social, economic, moral and physical support, which may be rapidly
eroded due to various social changes brought in by rapid economic development.

There are multiple problems of old age including inequality of opportunity for
employment; inadequate income; unsuitable housing; lack of social services and of
provisions for sustaining physical and mental health; stresses and strains produced
by changing family patterns and family relations; and lack of meaningful activities in
retirement. Further, the well being of the elder people is mandated by the
Constitution of India, Article 41. It deals with the State's role in providing social
security to the aged. According to this article, "the State shall, within the limits of its
economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right
to work, to education and to public assistance in case of unemployment, OLD AGE,
sickness and disablement and in other cases of undeserved want". Thus, the State is
directed to make effective provision for securing the right of public assistance in
cases of old age. There are other provisions, too, which direct the State to improve
the quality of life of its citizens. Right to equality has been guaranteed by the
Constitution as a Fundamental Right. These provisions apply equally to older
persons. Thus, Social security has been made the concurrent responsibility of the
Central and State Governments.

The Directorate of Social Security and Pensions (DSSP), Revenue Department,
Government of Karnataka, implements two old age pension schemes, namely Indira
Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (IGNOAPS), a centrally sponsored
scheme and Sandhya Surakshay Yojana (SSY), a fully state funded scheme, aimed to
help eligible elderly citizens by providing them with direct cash pensions.

GRAAM – An SVYM Initiative                                                                    1
                       Evaluation of Old Age Pension schemes in Karnataka –Final Report

                                2. Need for the study
   The study of socio-economic dimensions of old age is gaining popularity in India
   as the size of the aged population is projected to grow at an accelerated pace in
   the next decades. The population of elder persons has increased form nearly 2
   crores in 1951 to 7.2 crores in 2001. In other words about 8% of the total
   population is above 60 years. The figure will cross 18 % mark by 2025. This,
   together with the rapid economic progress that the nation is foreseeing mainly in
   its urban and peri-urban centers, has the mixed effect of generating economic
   surplus, but at the cost of eroded social security systems due to processes like
   rural-urban migration, shift from agrarian economies and vertically linked
   production mechanisms. If proper support systems are not in place, this chain of
   events may leave the vulnerable groups like the elderly population of the country
   in jeopardy. Hence, significant policy initiatives have been taken to create safety
   nets for the elderly in the country.

   The two pension schemes mentioned above are part of the larger structures being
   built to provide safety net mechanisms to the elderly citizens of the country.
   Considerable budgetary allocation is involved in running these schemes. Of the
   several government interventions in creating a welfare state, the Pension schemes
   are thought to be the most successful (Kumar and Anand, 2006). Further, there
   are reasons to believe that the model developed in Karnataka for the delivery of
   social pension schemes is worth replicating (Rajashekar D et al. 2009) in other
   areas. Hence, it is important to identify crucial issues that shape the success and
   the efficacy of the implementation of these schemes.

   This project attempts to evaluate the implementation of these two schemes in
   Karnataka, looking at critical issues including pension disbursement, selection
   patterns of beneficiaries, spatio-temporal patterns in fund utilization across the
   state, the socio-economic conditions of the beneficiaries and the relative
   importance of the pension to the beneficiaries.

   This evaluation is carried out in two phases. In phase 1, the review of literature,
   analysis of secondary data and data of the web based MIS of revenue department
   has been completed. Based on its results, the design, sampling methodology and
   locations of field validation in phase 2 are framed.

GRAAM – An SVYM Initiative                                                                2
                     Evaluation of Old Age Pension schemes in Karnataka –Final Report

   2.1 Objectives of phase 1 of the project
   1. Literature and secondary information review
         a. Compilation of findings of different studies
         b. Recognition of important issues
         c. Budgetary allocation and financial indicators for the scheme

   2. Secondary data collection and analysis
         a. Identification and comparison of taluk/district trends in
               Analysis of beneficiary demographic status
               Allotment of new beneficiaries: taluk / district wise
               Average duration of pensions for beneficiaries
               The trend of accepted and rejected number of applications based on
                available scheme data
         b. Identifying issues of concern
               Identification and comparison of high beneficiary density taluks
                and their population densities.
               Un-natural trends in scheme enrolment and duration of pensions
               Suggesting suitable sampling methodology and sample sites for the
                Phase 2 to conduct field evaluation

GRAAM – An SVYM Initiative                                                              3

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