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					Today’s Lecture:

The Progressives

Number:

19

Lecture Organization: • Class Announcements

• Parties and Ideology
• Social Transformation • Rise of Progressivism • Conservative Interlude • Great Depression

• Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Time

Class Announcements

essay & notes -- try to have one back on Wednesday, another on Friday website -- is current 4-digit code

Questions?
Time

Parties & Ideology

role of parties -- political parties are what organize the forces that compete for hegemony -- parties are the vehicles that organize the political marketplace

3/12/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

4

1776-1787
Impulse A Political “goop”

Impulse B

Impulse A

Social deference (somewhat)

Finance Capitalism

strong central government

anti-slavery

Impulse B

populist!

Agrarian Ideology

state’s rights

pro-slavery

Impulse B Impulse A

“Federalists” “National Republicans” (1812-1824) Whigs (1832 – 1856) Republican Party (Lincoln)

“Republicans” (Jefferson) Democrats (1830s – 1860s)

Time

Time
11/5/2009 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007 10

Social Transformation
Hamilton’s America Arrives -- America will go through large scale social transformation in the post civil war years. Hamilton’s America will come to pass; while Jefferson’s begins to die out Banking Becomes a common practice everywhere Manufacturing Becomes a common practice everywhere Corporations Becomes a common practice everywhere Urbanization The cities begin to swell Industrialization Takes off in the 1800s

Social Transformation
Large Scale Production -- From 1863-1899, index of manufacturing production rose by more than 700 percent • Andrew Carnegie Innovations in Steel production (Bessemer technology)

11/5/2009

Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007

12

Social Transformation
New Economic Goliaths -- Mergers, Trusts, Monopolies, Oligopolies
Massive Mergers -Two thirds of the largest 75 industrial companies in the united states had not existed just a few years earlier. The reason why they hadn't existed was that, under the McKinley administration, there were massive mergers going on, so that companies were growing into large trusts and monopolies.

11/5/2009

Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007

13

Social Transformation
New Economic Goliaths -- Mergers, Trusts, Monopolies, Oligopolies -- New “economic Godzillas in an agrarian legal order” Fundamentally-important point (explain)

11/5/2009

Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007

14

Social Transformation
Population -- doubled between 1870 and 1900 Immigration -- vast amounts from eastern and central Europe

11/5/2009

Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007

15

Social Transformation
Labor Movement -- Labor unions form -- 8 hours a day, 48 hour work week -- Terrible strikes in the late 1800s (Eugene debs)

• violence, death
-- anti-strike laws (jail) -- sit down strikes

-- people are demanding labor reform
11/5/2009
Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007 16

Social Transformation
Capitalism gets sick?

-- New phenomenon: the roller coaster ride
-- Left unabated and unchecked, the new industrial capitalism seemed to have fits of boom and bust -- sort of “bipolar” (highs too high, lows too low) -- For example -- depression in 1870s and 1890s (1890’s would have been America’s “great depression” if it would not have been for the Great Depression. Mention how overproduction sent prices down (and farmers Copyright, Sean Wilson. 17 11/5/2009 just kept producing to the max) 2007

Social Transformation
Should there be rules for capitalism? -- Certain kinds of abuses would occur -- worker injuries, child labor, unsafe products -- the Upton Sinclair book

Famous book written by Upton Sinclair, called the “The Jungle,” which chronicled how the manufacturers of beef -specifically, sausages -- had worked on conveyor belts, and rats would jump up on the conveyor belts and be chopped up and put into the sausages. The manufactures of the sausages didn’t care
11/5/2009
Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007 18

Social Transformation
Transformation in the organization of political ideology -- something fascinating results -- how political ideology is organized, changes

11/5/2009

Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007

19

Farmers

Steelworkers
Coal Miners etc

Plantation Hegemony

The forces of Labor capital

11/5/2009

Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007

20

A new rationalization for the power center! No more states rights!
Laissez Plantation Faire Hegemony

11/5/2009

Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007

21

Laissez Faire

Progressivism

Time
11/5/2009 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007 22

The Rise of Progressivism

what progressives want regulate the economy -- government regulation of the new forms of power labor reform -- the right to collective bargaining -- the right to strike

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

23

The Rise of Progressivism

what progressives want social reforms • women voting • direct election of senators • party primaries

• ending Tammany Hall and party corruption;
• civil service reform and the end of the “spoils” system • graduated income tax • social welfare programs
1/18/2007
(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 24

The Rise of Progressivism

what progressives want administrative state • -- FDA, EPA, IRS, FBI. CIA, SEC, Federal Reserve Board, SSA, Veteran's Affairs, etc. •-- Bureaucratic State.

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

25

The Rise of Progressivism

early progressive presidents “Teddy Toosevelt” (TR) Woodrow Wilson Republican Democrat

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

26

We Bought the Son of a Bitch -Business men would later complain about TR that they got less than what they paid for. Because he was unbeatable, business leaders had no choice but to contribute to his campaign. Hence, "we are getting less than what we are paying for,“ they said. Andrew Carnegie's partner, Frick, says "We bought the son of a bitch, but then he did not stay bought."

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

27

An immune system for the capitalistic body -Wilson believed that the Federal Trade Commission was only policing specific bad practices, rather than otherwise being a big brother for industry and business. It was merely helping to guide capitalistic enterprise to the proper end. It was sort of like an immune system for the capitalistic body.

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

28

Jefferson is outdated --He said that "Jefferson's view of limited government belonged to an age which was without railways and telegraph lines." He came to realize that government must change and adapt with the times of this new industrial era, if it was to perform its function.

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

29

The Rise of Progressivism

early progressive presidents ideological legacy? -- a moderate radical (or a radical moderate)? -- progressive for their day, but compared to FDR (and by today’s standard) the laws enacted were a vigorous diet of moderate reforms

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

30

The Rise of Progressivism

early progressive presidents reactionary electorate -- America needed a break from all this progressivism

Time
1/18/2007
(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. 31

The Conservative Interlude

Harding-Coolidge -- the antithesis of progressivism
The Antithesis of Progressivism -Harding was the antithesis of progressive ideology; he was the exact opposite of the high-minded notions of Roosevelt and Wilson. The country needed a break from progressivism. That is why Harding came in. His theme was “if you elect me, I am going to take the country back to normalcy.” When he comes into office, he has a huge landslide. He captured both houses of congress. He serves a little over 2 years and dies of an apparent heart attack. Calvin Coolidge was his successor. Coolidge went down in American history as someone who did pretty much nothing of any significance in the white house.

The Conservative Interlude

Herbert Hoover -- Hoover is the embodiment of business culture

Pro business -Hoover is also the embodiment of the business culture. Hoover’s impulse is to use American government not as Wilson did, but as a hand maiden for American business. If you build wealth in the business community, it will trickle down. Coolidge once said, “the business of America is business.” (Coolidge and Hoover had the same outlook).

The Conservative Interlude

Herbert Hoover -- prosperity in the 1920s (roaring twenties) -- national consumer culture -- toasters, refrigerators, national advertising, (is this really what makes us American?) -- millions of Americans were not putting their savings into the stock market

The Conservative Interlude

Herbert Hoover dip in business cycle -- Germany can’t make good on its war debt -- business cycle was ready for a down-turn anyway Hoover’s prescription -- don’t worry; it will take care of itself

No Chicken Little Hoover tries to rally the public and calm the fears. What he says is: don’t worry; the fundamentals of our economy are sound. Our economic institutions are the greatest in the world; our system of free enterprise capitalism will correct itself. We’ve been through these business cycles before. There was a famous panic in 1873; there was a panic in the 1890s; it will eventually correct itself. Prosperity, he said, is right around the corner. His campaign was based on the idea that there would be a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage.

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

36

The Conservative Interlude

Herbert Hoover dip in business cycle -- Germany can’t make good on its war debt -- business cycle was ready for a down-turn anyway Hoover’s prescription -- don’t worry; it will take care of itself (what Hoover and the others represented)

Laissez faire What these presidents represented was a return to the laissez faire era of the late 19th century. And a return to the notion of, yes, the president is important, but the Congress is at least equally as important, and what is most important is the private sector.

1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

38

Something will come along that will fundamentally change American politics

Time 1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.

39


				
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