fdrxstu by Wittgenstein


									Today’s Lecture:




Lecture Organization: • Class Announcements • Review • Great Depression • Franklin Delano Roosevelt • New American Hegemony


Class Announcements

essay & notes -- shooting for Friday


Parties & Ideology

role of parties -- political parties are what organize the forces that compete for hegemony -- parties are the vehicles that organize the political marketplace


(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.


Impulse A Political “goop”

Impulse B

Impulse A

Social deference (somewhat)

Finance Capitalism

strong central government


Impulse B


Agrarian Ideology

state’s rights


Impulse B Impulse A

“Federalists” “National Republicans” (1812-1824) Whigs (1832 – 1856) Republican Party (Lincoln)

“Republicans” (Jefferson) Democrats (1830s – 1860s)


11/5/2009 Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007 9

Social Transformation
Transformation in the organization of political ideology -- something fascinating results -- how political ideology is organized, changes


Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007



Coal Miners etc

Plantation Hegemony

The forces of Labor capital


Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007


A new rationalization for the power center! No more states rights!
Laissez Plantation Faire Hegemony


Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007


Laissez Faire



Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007


The Conservative Interlude

Herbert Hoover -- Hoover is the embodiment of business culture -- Roaring 20s -- “conservative interlude” – return to laissez faire

Something will come along that will fundamentally change American politics

Time 1/18/2007

(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.


The Great Depression

statistics -- massive collapse of the economic system
The great depression -- From 1929 to 1932, stock prices in America fell 75%. 25% of the labor force was unemployed. Farm income was slashed. Corporate profits were in the red. The banking system collapsed and real per capita gross national product dropped by 1/3. (Today we consider it a great crises if GNP drops 1 percent). When Hoover is running for re-election, more than 25% of the country remains unemployed

Statistics -- Great depression and new deal: the stock market lost almost 90% of its value (between 1929-1933), and industrial production fell by more than 50%. 15 million workers -- almost a third of the workforce -- lost their jobs. In 1919, farm income was 17 billion. By 1932 it was 5 billion.

The Great Depression
capitalism “broke” -- this was not simply a “recession” -- the banking-system collapsed (imagine what the American economy would be like if the system of finance collapsed today)
Hooverville -- "Shack cities" developed -- when that happened, people termed it "Hooverville."

Reporter’s quote: “the hungry, falling upon heaps of refuse and digging it with sticks and hands.”

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

his philosophy
Political philosophy – A reporter asked him, "are you a communist," FDR said "no." The reporter asked, "are you a capitalist," FDR said "no." The reporter asked, "are you a socialist," and FDR said "no." And the frustrated reporter said, "then what is your philosophy?" And FDR said, "philosophy? philosophy? I'm a Christian and I’m a Democrat.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

1932 election -- Interesting strategy: • the country needs experimentation (note how odd that is) • analogy to the war powers

Roosevelt on the campaign trail:-- “the country needs bold and persistent experimentation to restore the shattered economy.”

Roosevelt on the campaign trail:-- FDR had an interesting way of campaigning against the depression. He would use military language: it is an all-out war against the depression. He would help the common person, end prohibition, bring relief to farmers and workers, increase benefits to business, to offer immediate relief/public works to the unemployed, and he promised to get this all done with a balanced budget.


(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.


Franklin Delano Roosevelt

First 100 days -- All sorts of new government programs -- The most productive first 100 days in history (The FDIC law passed in something like 24 hours)

1.The federal deposit insurance corporation (FDIC) 2. Emergency Farm Mortgage Act 3. Emergency Homeowners Loan Corporation 4. Federal Emergency Relief Association (assistance to needy Americans) 5. Civil Works Administration, Civilian Conservation Core and the Public Works Administration (programs for the unemployed). 6. Federal Surplus Relief Corporation, distributed food to the poor 7. Tennessee Valley Authority (provided electricity and economic development for quite a number of states in the Tennessee river area) 8. The Security Act, followed by the Security and Exchange Commission (began the regulation of the securities market. The stock and bond markets had been notoriously unregulated. irregularities in those markets had contributed, many thought, to the great depression. Joseph Kennedy was the first chairman of this commission). 9. The agricultural adjustment administration (AAA) and the national recovery administration (NRA) were designed to break the depression in agriculture and industry. The AAA reduced agricultural production in order to boost prices 10. the NRA suspended the anti trust laws to authorize the negotiation of compensation, production, Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007. the 1/18/2007 (C) and pricing agreements enforced by 22 authority of the federal govt.

The First Term
second “New Deal” -- Social Security Act
the Social Security Act, which created the modern social security system, provided old age pensions, unemployment compensation, and financial assistance to the disabled and for mothers with dependent children (it established the principle that Americans had certain entitlements from government. The idea was that this act was providing assistance to those who could not fend for themselves in the dog eat dog free market world. The social security act was financed by payroll taxes, and may have impeded economic recovery a bit;

The First Term
second “New Deal” -- More serious regulation of utilities -- significant progressive taxation policy (“tax the rich”) -- National Labor Relations Act • the right to strike (considered illegal prior to this) • a perpetual federal forum for resolving labor disputes
The National Labor Relations Act -- [the Wagner Act] created a National Labor Relations Board, which gave collective bargaining and organization of workers the sanction and protection of the federal government (this would forever submit the loyalty of the labor movement to the democratic party).

The First Term
second “New Deal” -- work programs for the employable -- entitlement programs for people who could not work
The Works Progress Administration -- providing remunerative work for more than 3 million Americans. These workers would be the most loyal of the fdr voters, leaving republicans to charge that he was buying his votes;

New Deal
Did it Work?
Economic impact -- Although recovery was far from complete, from 1933 to 1936, unemployment dropped 1/3, manufacturing production and farm parity prices increased 50 percent, wholesale and retail trade nearly doubled, and real per capita economic growth soared by nearly 30 percent.

The New American Hegemony
how FDR changed American politics -- No other election victory in American history every experienced two realignments successively in the same direction -- “The gift that kept giving” …

The Gift That Kept Giving

House Dems House Rep: 163 267

216 218

313 117

332 103

333 89

Senate Dems
Senate Rep







Copyright, Sean Wilson. 2007


The New American Hegemony
“tax and spend politicians” -- new phrase invented by FDR insiders
Tax and spend politicians -- This began a new era of criticism of democrats for being tax and spend politicians. It is a little different though: what they do is "tax and tax and spend and spend and get elected and get elected." The idea: the benefits go to people who turn around and vote for them as a functional exchange. It is sort of a larger scale kind of Tammany Hall in some respects (without the corruption). By the way, that tax and spend quote came from a democrat inside FDR administration.


(C) Copyright Sean Wilson. 2007.


The New American Hegemony

The Constitutional Philosophy of the New Deal -- The New Deal really was a NEW DEAL -- The idea: • let’s have a new constitutional bargain

• let’s let the Federal government lead in policy matters
• let’s have the President captain the government

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