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Anatomy of upper respiratory tract-OK-final

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					Anatomy of upper respiratory
           tract
            Dr. NEHAL MOHAMMED
                   MD, Ph.D
  Assistant professor of Anatomy &Embryology
                  KFMC-FOM
Contents:-
•   Anatomy of the nose.
•   Anatomy of the paranasal sinuses.
•   Anatomy of the pharynx.
•   Anatomy of the Larynx.




2
     Fig. 23.01a


Organs of respiration:-
                         Fig. 23.02a



Skeleton of the nose:-




  4
Lateral nasal wall:-




5
Blood supply of the nasal cavity:-




6
7
 Para nasal sinuses:-
• Sinuses are air filled spaces.

• They are named for the bones that
  they are in: Frontal, Ethmoidal,
  Maxillary, Sphenoid.

• They serve to:
 Expand the surface area of the
  epithelium;
 To increase heat exchange;
 Aid in humidifying air.

• Because they are continuous with
  the nasal cavity infections in the
  nasal cavity often spread to the
  sinuses.
 8
Drainage of the paranasal sinuses:-

•  Sphenoethmoidal recess:
    Sphenoidal air sinus
• Superior meatus:
   Posterior ethmoidal air sinus
• Middle meatus :
Bulla ethmoidalis:
   Middle ethmoidal air sinus
Hiatus semilunaris:
   Frontal air sinus
   Maxillary air sinus
   Middle ethmoidal
• Inferior meatus:
   Nasolacrimal duct



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                 Fig. 23.02b
     Pharynx:-




10
                             Fig. 23.04

Divisions of the pharynx:-




  11
          Fig. 23.05a,b


     Anatomy of Larynx:-




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                              Fig. 23.05c


     Cartilages of Larynx:-




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Cartilages of Larynx (cont.):-




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          Walls of the laryngeal cavity:-
                                            Vestibular ligament :
                                            (inferior free margin of
                                            quadrangular
   Vestibular fold                          membrane)




True vocal fold (Vocal cord)                Vocal ligament:
                                            (superior free margin
                                            of conus elasticus)




       Mucous                                    Mucous
      membrane                                  membrane
    intact on this                            removed on this
         side                                      side
     15
Intrinsic muscles of the larynx:-

Perform 4 basic actions:

•    Abduct the vocal cords.
•    Adduct the vocal cords.
•    Tense/relax the vocal cords.
•    Close the laryngeal inlet.




16
 Muscles that abduct the vocal cords :

 Posterior crico-arytenoid muscles




Posterior view     Superior view

 17
Muscles that adduct the vocal cords:
Lateral crico-arytenoid muscles & transverse arytenoid muscles.




        Posterior view                     Side view
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     Fig. 23.06




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  Muscles that tense& relax the vocal cords:


        Cricothyroid muscles       Thyro-arytenoid muscles
                                         (Relax the cords)
          (Tense the cords)




Relaxed muscle Contracted muscle
  20
Muscles that close the laryngeal inlet:



Transverse arytenoid &
  ary-epiglottic muscles




          Transverse arytenoid




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Nerve supply of the Larynx:-


Motor:-
All intrinsic laryngeal muscles are
    supplied by Recurrent laryngeal
    nerve EXCEPT the cricothyroid 
    Supplied by external laryngeal
    nerve.
Sensory:-
Above the level of the vocal cords:
  Internal laryngeal nerve
Below the level of the vocal cords:
   Recurrent laryngeal nerve.


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posted:3/21/2013
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