THE ANKLE AND FOOT by waishengda

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									REVIEW of the ANKLE and
        FOOT
 Name the muscle and its
 actions
• Flexor digitorum longus
• Actions:
   – toe flexion
   – plantar flexion,
   – inversion of the foot
Name the three part of the
stance phase
• Heel-strike
• Mid-stance
• Toe-off
              Calcaneus

              Talus

    Cuboid    Navicular

              1st Cuneiform
Metatarsals



              2nd Prox. Phalange


              Distal Phalanges
• What muscle is most closely
  associated with Anterior Compartment
  Syndrome?
• Tibialis Anterior
Name the muscles and their
actions
       • Extensor hallicus longus
       • Actions:
          – Extension of big toe
          – Dorsiflexion
          – Inversion of the foot


          • Peroneous tertius
          • Action:
             – Dorsiflexion
             – Eversion
Name the muscle and its
actions
• Tibialis anterior
• Actions:
   – Dorsiflexion
   – Inversion.
 Name the muscle and its
 actions
• Peroneus longus muscle
• Actions:
   – Eversion
   – Plantar flexion
Name the arch in the top picture and in the bottom
picture.

                 Lateral longitudinal arch




                Medial longitudinal arch
 Name the muscle and its
 actions
• Flexor hallicus longus
• Actions:
   – Flexion of the big toe
   – Plantar flexion
   – Inversion
 Name the muscle and its
 actions
• Peroneus longus muscle
• Actions:
   – Eversion
   – Plantar flexion
• Name the landmark



               Lateral Malleolus
Name the ligament.




        Deltoid Ligament
Name the muscle and its
actions
• Extensor digitorum longus
• Actions:
   – Toe extension
   – Dorsiflexion
   – Eversion
1. Calcaneus
2. Cuboid
3. 5th metatarsal
4. Phalange
5. Lateral
   malleolus
6. Tiba
 Name the muscle its
 two actions
• Gastrocnemius
• Actions:
  – plantar flexion
  – flexion of the knee
Name the arch
Transverse arch - anterior tarsal bones and the metatarsals.




             5th metatarsal – 1st metatarsal
Name the muscle and
its actions

 • Tibialis posterior
 • Actions:
    – plantar flexion
    – inversion of the foot
Name the actions




           ?           ?



        Eversion   Inversion
 Name the muscle and its
 actions
• Flexor digitorum longus
• Actions:
   – toe flexion
   – plantar flexion,
   – inversion of the foot
Name the action
• Plantar flexion
 Name the muscle and its
 actions
• Peroneus brevis
• Actions:
   – Plantar flexion
   – Eversion
Dorsi Flexion




1. Name the action




2. Name the action




Plantar Flexion
1. Name the muscle and its
actions                      1
 • Plantaris
 • Action:
    – plantar flexion         2



2. Name the muscle and its
actions
• Soleus
• Action:
   – plantar flexion
Name the muscle and its
actions
• Soleus
• Action:
   – plantar flexion
•   1 is the…?        •   6 is the…?
•   Calcaneous        •   Second Cuneiform
•   2 is the…?        •   7 is the…?
•   Talus             •   Third Cuneiform
•   3 is the…?        •   8 is the…?
•   Navicular         •   First metatarsal
•   4 is the…?        •   9 is the…?
•   Cuboid            •   Proximal phalange
•   5 is the…?        •   10 is the…?
•   First Cuneiform   •   Middle phalange
                      •   11 is the…?
                      •   Distal phalange
Name the muscle and its
actions
• Extensor hallicus longus
• Actions:
   – Extension of big toe
   – Dorsiflexion
   – Inversion of the foot
• What muscle is most closely associated
  with Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome?
• Tibalis Posterior.
• Name the arch colored in red.
• Lateral Longitudinal - calcaneous, cuboid,
  and 4th and 5th metatarsals.
• Name the arch colored in green
• Medial Longitudinal - calcaneous, talus,
  navicular, 3 cuneifroms, 3 medial
  metatarsals
Name the muscle and its
actions
 • Peroneus brevis
 • Actions:
    – Plantar flexion
    – Eversion
Name the muscle and its
actions
• Tibialis anterior
• Actions:
   – Dorsiflexion
   – Inversion.
Name the muscle and its
actions
• Tibialis posterior
• Actions:
   – plantar flexion
   – inversion of the foot
1. What is Exertional Compartment Syndrome?
•  Excessive pressure inside one of the lower leg
   compartment.
2. Why is it a serious injury?
• The blood supply can be compromised.
 Name the muscle and its
 actions
• Flexor hallicus longus
• Actions:
   – Flexion of the big toe
   – Plantar flexion
   – Inversion
Name the muscle and its
actions
• Extensor digitorum longus
• Actions:
   – Toe extension
   – Dorsiflexion
   – Eversion
Name the three arches of the
foot.
• Medial longitudinal arch
• Lateral longitudinal arch
• Transverse arch
 Name the muscle its
 two actions

• Gastrocnemius
• Actions:
  – plantar flexion of the foot
  – flexion of the knee
• Where is the plantar fascia found?
• On the plantar surface of the foot running from
  the calcaneus to the metatarsals.
• What is plantar fasciitis?
• Plantar fasciitis is inflammation of the plantar
  fascia.
Name the muscle and its
actions
• Tibialis posterior
• Actions:
   – plantar flexion
   – inversion of the foot
Name the landmark




                    Medial Malleolus
Name the muscle and its
actions
• Peroneous tertius
• Action:
  – Dorsiflexion
  – Eversion
Name the landmark




                    Medial Malleolus
Lateral Collateral Ligament

  1             2




      3             1.   Anterior
                         Talofibular
                    2.   Posterior
                         Talofibular
                    3.   Calcanofibular
• Name the landmark




       Lateral Malleolus
• What is turf toe
• A sprain that occurs at the metatarsal
  phalangeal joint of the great toe.
• What action is associated with truf toe?
• Extension or hyperextion of the great toe.
 Name the muscle and its
 actions
• Peroneus longus muscle
• Actions:
   – Eversion
   – Plantar flexion
Name the muscle and its
actions
• Peroneous tertius
• Action:
  – Dorsiflexion
  – Eversion
Name the muscle and its
actions
• Flexor hallicus longus
• Actions:
   – Flexion of the big toe
   – Plantar flexion
   – Inversion
Name the action
• Inversion
                        1. Calcaneous
• Name them all            2. Talus
                         3. Navicular
                          4. Cuboid
                     5. First Cuneiform
                    6.Second Cuneiform
                     7.Third Cuneiform
                  8. Third Metatarsal (and
                      Fifth Metatarsal)
Name the landmark



                Medial malleolus
Name the muscle and its
actions
• Plantaris
• Action: plantar flexion
1.   Talus


2.   Navicular
3.   Cuboid
4.   Intermediate (2nd)
     cuneiform


5.   3rd metatarsal



6.   4th proximal
     phalange


7.   2nd middle phalange
8.   1st distal phalange
Name the muscle and its
actions
• Extensor digitorum longus
• Actions:
   – Toe extension
   – Dorsiflexion
   – Eversion
Lateral Collateral Ligament

 Posterior
 Talofibular
                    Anterior
         1          Talofibular
                           2



                     3
               Calcanofibular
• What do ankle sprains occur more to the lateral
  ligaments?
• The medial malleolus is shorter than the lateral
  mallelous so greater inversion than eversion can
  occur
• Of the lateral ligments, which ligament is
  sprained the most often?
• The anterior talofibular
• How are 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree different from
  each other?
• 1st – stretched, 2nd – partial tear, and 3rd –
  complete tear
 Name the muscle and its
 actions
• Flexor digitorum longus
• Actions:
   – toe flexion
   – plantar flexion,
   – inversion of the foot
 Name the muscle its
 two actions
• Gastrocnemius
• Actions:
  – plantar flexion
  – flexion of the knee
Name the ligament.




        Deltoid Ligament
• Middle phalange of the 3rd toe
• Proximal phalange of the 1st toe
• Distal phalange of the 5th toe



• 2nd Metatarsal
•   1st Cuniform
•   2nd Cuniform
•   3rd Cuniform
•   Navicular
•   Cubiod

• Talus


• Calcanious
Name the muscle and its
actions
• Extensor hallicus longus
• Actions:
   – Extension of big toe
   – Dorsiflexion
   – Inversion of the foot
Name the muscle and its
actions
• Tibialis anterior
• Actions:
   – Dorsiflexion
   – Inversion.

								
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