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					WRIT 91/98: Summary of Connectives –p. 418, 421, 429
(coordinating conjunctions, conjunctive adverbs, subordinating conjunctions)


Showing Contrast (Surprise or Unexpected Result)

Event #1                       Surprise (Unexpected) Event

Although it is harmful,                young people still smoke.
Even though it is harmful,             young people still smoke.
It is harmful,                         yet young people still smoke.
It is harmful,                         but young people still smoke.
It is harmful;                         however, young people still smoke.



Showing Cause and Effect

Cause                                          Effect

Because smoking is harmful,            most people don’t do it
Since smoking is harmful,              most people don’t do it.
Smoking is harmful,                    so most people don’t do it.
Smoking is harmful;                    as a result, most people don’t do it.
Smoking is harmful;                    therefore, most people don’t do it.




Showing Purpose (“so that” + subject + can, could, will, would, won’t, don’t)

Event #1                       Reason/Purpose

I am quitting smoking          so that I can improve my physical health.




Showing Two Different, Unrelated (or Distantly Related) Events

Event #1                       Event #2 (unrelated)

I am quitting smoking;         also, I am not going to drink any more alcohol.
I am quitting smoking;         in addition, I am not going to drink any more alcohol.
I am quitting smoking,         and I am not going to drink any more alcohol.
Showing Two Related Events – One Event Gives a More Important Detail

Event #1                        Event #2 (gives a more important detail)
I am quitting smoking;          in fact, today I threw all of my cigarettes into the garbage.



Showing Time Relationships

Event #1                        Event #2

While I was smoking,            the telephone rang.
Whenever I smoke,               the telephone rings.
I finished my cigarette;        then, the telephone rang.




Practice 1

Look at each pair of ideas, and label each one as contrast (C), cause/effect (CE), purpose (P), unrelated
events (U), or related with one idea showing a more important detail (R). There may be more than one
possible answer, but choose the one that is the most logical.

the weather was frigid / she wore a wool coat
she went to the store / she could buy a warmer coat
the weather was frigid / she wore shorts and a tank top
she is a talented soccer player / she likes studying foreign languages
she likes studying foreign languages / she is fluent in Portuguese, Arabic, and Uzbek
I put the milk in the refrigerator / it wouldn’t spoil
I put the milk in the refrigerator / it spoiled
The milk spoiled / I didn’t put it in the refrigerator
I broke my arm / I cut my leg

Now, with a partner, take turns reading each pair of ideas out loud as a complete sentence. Take turns
repeating those same ideas until you have used all possible connectors). Insert appropriate connectors and
say which punctuations marks you add.

Example:

I broke my arm / I cut my leg

Student A: “I broke my arm (comma) and I cut my leg.”
Student B: “I broke my arm (semi-colon) in addition (comma) I cut my leg.”
Practice 2

Combine the ideas in the two sentences, using the given words. Use correct punctuation. You may have to
change an idea to make it negative, if necessary.

His grades were low. He was admitted to the university.

although

because

therefore

but

however

since

				
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