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Peach and nectarine variety trials - AgBioResearch - Michigan State

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Peach and nectarine variety trials - AgBioResearch - Michigan State Powered By Docstoc
					                  PEACH AND NECTARINE VARIETY TRIALS 2004
                   William Shane, Amy Iezzoni, and Mira Danilovich

OBJECTIVES:

       To observe and evaluate peach and nectarine germplasm for fresh market and
processing and to identify those of potentially desirable and profitable value to the Michigan
industry.

SUMMARY

       The SWMREC peach and nectarine germplasm evaluation trial is the only planting of
its type in Michigan. The trial supports the Michigan State University peach breeding
program and allows growers, processors, packers, commercial nurseries, consultants the
opportunity to see new varieties, potential new varieties, and novel peaches and nectarines
under Michigan growing conditions.

RESULTS:

       Temperatures were relatively mild during the 2003-2004 winter months, staying above
0 F at SWMREC, similar to the previous season. Swelling of vegetative buds was very
obvious by March 26th, 2004. Peach flowers began opening on April 18 at SWMREC pushed
by daytime temperatures in the mid sixties and with bloom nearly done by the end of the
month. Crop loads were average to good for most varieties except those generally not
adapted for Michigan temperatures. Wet conditions following bloom were conducive for
bacterial spot infection, providing good opportunity to rate resistance in the SWMREC peach
germplasm trial.

Table 1. New experimental entries from the New Jersey breeding program added to the
SWMREC peach and nectarine variety trial in 2004. Descriptions provided by Joe Goffreda,
Rutgers University.
_____________________________________________________________________

D81-152       yellow peach                       D88-147     white peach
H12-141       white, stony hard, cs peach        H11-79      white, stony hard, cs, peach
H11-76        white, stony hard, fs, peach
H24-58        white nectarine                    K54-25      white nectarine
K34-205       peento, yellow peach               L10-156     peento, yellow peach
D91-134       peento, yellow peach
_____________________________________________________________________
* peento = flat or so-called saucer shape, stony-hard is a peach type with slow softening
characteristics, fs = freestone, cs = clingstone

      Ten new experimental selections were added new peach and nectarine selections
were added to the peach/nectarine germplasm evaluation trials in 2004 (Table 1), minus
removals, bringing the total to 290 entries/varieties. Several of these new entries are flat-
type peento, similar to Saturn but with yellow flesh instead of white.

        The SWMREC peach/nectarine trial is open for public viewing during normal station
operating hours. Trees are marked by name and planting date, and a plot book is available
for guiding the visitor. Samples from the SWMREC trial were displayed as part of an annual
joint industry-MSU stone fruit and apple showcase September 9, 2004 in southwest
Michigan. This SW Michigan workshop, organized by International Plant Management,
featured samples and guest speakers from Michigan, Canada, New York, and Pennsylvania.
 Bill Shane displayed and discussed new peach varieties at this meeting.

      A multi-year summary of peach evaluations is available at the joint Michigan Peach
Sponsor and MSU web site www.michiganpeach.org. Ratings for a subset of relatively new
peach entries plus reference standards are given in Table 3.
Table 2. Harvest season for older, current, and new yellow melting-flesh.
* Numbers following variety names is estimated harvest - = days before + = days after Red Haven.
Listing does not imply endorsement by Michigan State University.

    Ripening order
                                   Traditional                 Newer                Very New
 (Southern Michigan)*
       Early July          Harbinger -33                                       Queencrest -34
                                                        PF1 -30

        Mid July           Harrow Diamond -20           PF5B -25               PF5D Big -25

                                                                           Early Star -12
                                                        Rising Star -8     Bright Star -10
                           Garnet Beauty -6
        Late July                                       Glenglo -7         PF-7A Freestone -9
                           Early Red Haven -6
                                                        PF7 -6             PF-8A -8
                                                        Summer Serenade -6 PF9A-007 -7
                          Red Haven +0
                          Vivid +2
Late July to Early August PF12A +3
                                                                               PF11 +0
                          John Boy +3
                          Bellaire +3
                                                        Starfire +5
                                                        Blazingstar +5
      Early August                                      PF12B +5               PF Lucky 13 (+8)
                                                        PF15A +5
                                                        Redstar +3
                           Glohaven +10
                           Loring +12
       Mid August          Suncrest +12                 Coralstar +12
                           PF17 +12
                           Canadian Harmony +10
                                                        Allstar +18            PF Lucky 21 +15
                           Contender +18
                                                        PF20-007 +20           PF22-007 +17
  Late August to early     PF23 +20
                                                        PF24-007 +20           Beaumont +20
       September           Cresthaven +24
                                                        Glowingstar +24        PF Lucky 24B +24
                           Redskin +25
                                                        PF25 +25               PF-24C +24
                                                                               PF28-007 +33
                           Harcrest +28
 Mid September to mid                                                          PF30-007 +31
                           Fayette +28                  PF27A +30
      September                                                                PF35-007 +33
                           Encore +31
                                                                               Autumnstar +33
* note: Estimated harvest dates for typical year. Cooler year will delay harvest dates. Sites in more
northern areas are generally later as well.
Explanation of terms and abbreviations in Table 3.

harvest                    harvest, 1st commercial harvest date for this year
crop                       crop load before thinning, 1= no crop, 2=few fruit per scaffold,
                           3=25% crop, 4=50% crop, 5=75% crop, 6=95% crop, 7=full
                           crop, frequent cluster need thinning, 8=heavy crop
shape                      Obla = oblate (squat), Ov =oval, r=round, S=raised suture
red skin                   red skin as percentage
flesh color                Y=yellow flesh, W=white flesh
flesh texture              n = non-melting, m = melting, (m) = semi-melting
pubescence                 6=very fuzzy, 7=moderate fuzzy (light rubbing removes some
                           fuzz), 8=slight fuzz, 9=no fuzz (nectarine)
red in flesh               Red in flesh: 3 = >25%, 5 = 10-25%, 7= more than trace but
                           <10%, 8=trace to 5%, 9=none
bacterial spot on fruit:   3=severe, 5=moderate, 7=slight, 9 = none
attractiveness             attractive appearance: 5=poor, 6=ok, 7=good, 8=excellent
freestone                  3=clingstone, 6=semi-freestone, 9=freestone
split pits                 splits: % fruit with split pits
fruit diameter             average fruit diameter in inches with open end sizer


Table 3. Performance of selected peach and nectarine entries – SWMREC 2004
Entry           Harvested    Shape    Crop   Red    Flesh     Pubes-   Red in       Bacterial   Attractive-   Free-   Split      Fruit      Brix
                                             skin   color     cence    flesh        spot on     ness          stone   pits (%)   diameter
                                                    &                               fruit                                        (inch)
                                                    texture
Allstar            11-Aug    r/ov             70    Ym            8             8           8            8        7          5        2.8      10.5
Autumn Star         7-Sep    r                95    Ym            8             7           6            7        8          0          3
Blazing Star       13-Aug    r/obla           80    Ym            7             8           6            7        7          0       2.85       9.2
Blushing Star      13-Aug    r                40    Wm            8             7           6            8        8          0        2.8      11.0
Bounty             18-Aug    r/ov             50    Ym            8             8           7            6        8          5          3       8.0
BY94P5889           16-Jul                    90    Y(m)          8             7           6            7        3          0        2.6      12.4
C. Harmony         18-Aug    r/ov             80    Ym            8             7           7            7        8          5          3      11.0
Contender          18-Aug    r                60    Ym            7             9           9            8        8          5        2.9      10.8
Coral Star         13-Aug    r/ov             50    Ym            6             8           6            6        7         10          3      11.0
ESR Buds           18-Aug    r/ov             40    Ym            8             8           8            7        8          5        3.1      13.5
FA100              13-Aug    r                70    Ym            7             8           6            6        7          5          3       9.0
FA102               16-Jul   r                70    Ym            7             8           6            7        5          5        2.7
FA106               6-Aug    r/ov             80    Ym            8             8           6            7        8          0        2.9      14.5
FA111              18-Aug    r                80    Ym            8             8           8            8        8          5        2.8      12.4
FA115              11-Aug    r/ov             65    Ym            8             7           7            7        8          5       2.75      12.1
FA210              18-Aug    r                80    Ym            8             8           8            7        8          0        2.8       9.5
FA27               11-Aug    r                80    Ym            7             9           8            8        8          0       2.75      11.2
FA49               13-Aug    r/ov             20    Ym            6             8           8            6        7          5        2.9       9.0
FA66               13-Aug    r                60    Ym            6             8           7            7        7          5        2.9      11.0
FA81               19-Aug    r                70    Ym            8             7           7            7        8          2       2.75      11.0
Gale                1-Aug    r                80    Ym            8             8         5.5            6        7         20        2.9      10.6
Glowing Star       19-Aug    r/obla           80    Ym            8             8           7            7        8          0       2.85      10.0
Goldnine            2-Aug    r                30    Yn            8             9           8            7        3          0       2.75      10.9
Goldprince          16-Jul   r                80    Ym            6             9           7            7        5          2        2.7
GS-89               30-Jul   ov/r             40    Ym            7             8           5            5        5         95          3
Harrow Beauty      18-Aug    r                70    Ym            8             7           8            8        8          0       2.95
Jon Boy             30-Jul                    70    Ym            8             8           7            8        7          5       2.75
K54-17              26-Jul   r                95    Ym            9             8           7            7        3          0        2.6      15.7
K546-4              26-Jul   r                95    Wm            9             5           4            7        3          0        2.5
Klondike           11-Aug    r                95    W(m)          8             7         6.5            8        7          0        2.7      10.5
Laurol              7-Sep    r/ov             80    Ym            8             7           5            7        8          5        2.9
Entry          Harvested    Shape    Crop   Red    Flesh     Pubes-   Red in       Bacterial   Attractive-   Free-   Split      Fruit      Brix
                                            skin   color     cence    flesh        spot on     ness          stone   pits (%)   diameter
                                                   &                               fruit                                        (inch)
                                                   texture
MCC898             1-Aug    r/ov             60    Ym             8            8          7             7        7          5        2.8      11.5
MSU26             18-Aug    r                80    Ym             8            8          7           7.5        8          0       2.75      11.0
(Beaumont)
NC-C3-68          11-Aug    r/obla            85   Ym            7             8           8            7        7          0       2.85      13.0
PF Lucky 24B      23-Aug    r/ov              70   Ym            7             8           7            7        8          2          3      11.0
PF1                 7-Jul                     60   Ym            7             7           9            7        3         40
PF-12B             1-Aug    r/obla            80   Ym            8             8         6.5            7        7         10       2.75      10.5
PF14 Jersey        1-Aug    r/ov              60   Ym            7             8           6            7        8          5        2.8
PF15B             13-Aug    r                 70   Ym            8             8           7            7        8          0       2.95       9.0
PF17              11-Aug    r/ov              65   Ym            8             8           7            8        8          5        2.9       9.0
PF20-007          11-Aug    r/obla            70   Ym            7             8           7            7        8          5       2.95      10.5
PF215             18-Aug    r                 95   Ym            7             8           7            8        7          0       2.75      11.0
PF23              18-Aug    r                 80   Ym            8             7           8            8        8          0        2.9      11.2
PF24-007          18-Aug    r/ov              30   Ym            7             8           7            6        8         10        3.2      11.5
PF27A             27-Aug    r                7.0   Ym            8             8           8            7        8          0        2.7      12.0
PF302              1-Aug    r/ov              80   Ym            7             9           6            7        8          5        2.7
PF-CBA             1-Aug    r/obla            80   Ym            8             8           6          6.5        7          5       2.75      11.1
Queencrest          7-Jul                     90   Ym            8             7           6            6        3          5
Red Star           1-Aug    r                 30   Ym            7             8           8            7        5          5       2.75
Redhaven           30-Jul   r                 80   Ym            8             7         5.5            7        7         30        2.9
Ruder Jersey      27-Aug    r/ov              60   Ym            8             8           8            7        7          5       2.75      10.0
Saturn             1-Aug    f                 95   Wm            7             8           7                     7          0        2.5      11.5
Spring Snow        16-Jul   r/ov              90   Wm            7             9           6            8        3          0        2.6
Star Fire          1-Aug    r                 70   Ym            7             8           8            8        8          5        2.8      10.5
Valley Sweet      27-Aug    r                 95   Y(m)          8             8           6            7        8          0        2.7      14.0

				
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