DNA Structure, DNA Replication and Cell Division Assigned Reading: Section 12.1 12.2, 10.1,10.2, 11.4 and 14.1, 14.2 THE BIG IDEA: “We have discovered it, the secret of life!” exclaimed Francis Crick, one of the scientists credited with the discovery of DNA. Deoxyribose nucleic acid is the molecule responsible for both the unity and diversity of life on earth. All life on earth shares the same genetic code, yet it is the subtle differences in the code that make each species unique and adapted to its environment. DNA’s structure closely follows its two functions – 1) to faithfully transmit the genetic code from cell to cell and generation to generation and 2) to provide instructions for making proteins. The next unit will introduce you to the structure of DNA and its role in the first function - cell division. 1. Describe the structure of DNA. (12.1) 2. Name the monomer that makes up DNA. (12.1) 3. List how these scientists contributed to the search for the structure of DNA: Chargaff, Watson, Crick, Franklin, Wilkins. (12.1) 4. Describe each part of the DNA nucleotide. (12.1) 5. Name the four nitrogenous bases in DNA and tell the base pairing rules. (12.1) 6. Describe how and why DNA replicates itself. (12.2) 7. List the role of DNA polymerase in DNA replication. (12.1) 8. Explain why there is a limit on cell size. (10.1) 9. Identify the roles of cell division in reproduction, growth and repair. (10.1) 10. Explain the functions of a cell in interphase. (10.2) 11. Identify the structures of a chromosome. (10.2) 12. Distinguish the steps of mitosis and cytokinesis. (10.2) 13. Name the structures that appear in a cell during mitosis, state when they appear and explain their functions. (10.2) 14. Explain the difference between a haploid cell and a diploid cell. (11.4) 15. Relate the reduction of chromosome number to the process of sexual reproduction.11.4 16. Summarize the events that occur during meiosis I and meiosis II. (11.4) 17. Describe the formation of egg and sperm in animals. (11.4) 18. Compare mitosis to meiosis. (11.4) 19. Explain the significance of genetic variation. (11.4) 20. Compare and contrast asexual and sexual reproduction (outcome and advantages). (11.4) 21. Define karyotype and explain why a karyotype would be made. (14.1) 22. State the number of autosomes and sex chromosomes in a human genome. (14.1) 23. Describe how nondisjunction in meiosis can lead to monosomy or trisomy. (14.2) 24. Give an example of monosomy and trisomy. (14.2) 25. Describe the goals of the Human Genome Project. (14.2) Words: adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine, chromatin, sister chromatids, centromere, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, homologous pair Each cell contains approximately six feet of DNA. If you were to take all of the DNA in each of your 100 trillion cells, and lay it end to end, it would stretch 93 million miles – that is from here to the sun 60 times!
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